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Pompeii Part 4: The Evidence


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Pompeii Part 4: The Evidence

  1. 1. CORE STUDY Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii & Herculaneum HSC ANCIENT HISTORY
  2. 2. PART 4: THE EVIDENCE <ul><li>The Eruption of Vesuvius </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Public Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Private Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Greeks and Egyptians </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Eruption of Vesuvius
  4. 4. <ul><li>By the evening of the 24 th of August, the column height had increased to about 33 kilometres and pumice was being ejected at about 1.5 million tonnes per second. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>There comes a point where so much magma is being erupted that the column collapses, creating pyroclastic flows and surges which are far more lethal than tephra fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The human body cannot survive in temperatures of over 200 degrees centigrade for more than a few seconds…trying to breathe in the dense cloud of a surge would lead to unconsciousness in a few breaths, as well as causing severe burns to the respiratory tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopaedia of Volcanoes </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Eruption of Vesuvius <ul><li>The 5 phases of the Eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Vulcanologists have studied the stratigraphy and have established 5 phases of the eruption in 79AD </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion. Great cloud of ash, gas & pumice 20km into the air </li></ul><ul><li>Pumice fallout. One centimetre pebbles (lapilli) increased to 20cm in size </li></ul><ul><li>Ground surge. Cloud of ash and hot gas at 100km an hour towards Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Pyroclastic flow. Hot, dry avalanche of pumice, ash and gases at high speed buries Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>5 more pyroclastic flows </li></ul>
  6. 8. The Eruption of Vesuvius <ul><li>WARNING SIGNS: </li></ul><ul><li>62AD major earthquake damages Pompeii and Herculaneum (Seneca Natural Questions Book VI) </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply (Aqueducts) disrupted by seismic activity. Repair work being done. (Wallace – Hadrill) </li></ul><ul><li>Did they known it was going to erupt? </li></ul><ul><li>BIG QUESTIONS? </li></ul><ul><li>Were the people aware that Vesuvius was a disaster waiting to happen? </li></ul><ul><li>P. Allison > study of 30 houses. “Neglect and mistreatment of houses” Poorer members of population moved into abandoned houses / villas. </li></ul><ul><li>Had the wealthier members of society abandoned the towns before the eruption? </li></ul>
  7. 9. The Eruption of Vesuvius THE ANCIENT SOURCES: Who When What Pliny the Younger Nephew of Admiral and writer Pliny the Elder The Poet Statius Dio Cassius historian of Rome Suetonius biographer of the Caesars Approx 105 AD Less than 20 years after eruption Sometime in late 2 nd Century 10 – 50 years after eruption? <ul><li>2 Letters to Tacitus: </li></ul><ul><li>- Description of eruption </li></ul><ul><li>How his uncle died </li></ul><ul><li>Recalls cities buried by Vesuvius (no names) </li></ul><ul><li>Brief description of events of 79AD </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the action taken by Emperor Titus after the eruption </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>An eyewitness account: </li></ul><ul><li>Pliny the Younger was seventeen years old at when the eruption of Vesuvius occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>He was staying with his uncle (Pliny the Elder) at Misenum (30kms from Pompeii). </li></ul><ul><li>When the eruption occurred, Pliny the Elder sailed to Stabiae to offer assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Pliny the Younger stayed behind to study and was able therefore to provide us with an eyewitness account of the eruption. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote two letters describing the event to his friend Tacitus, 25 years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Pliny ’s letters to Tacitus in the booklet and answer the questions. </li></ul>The Eruption of Vesuvius
  9. 12. The Eruption of Vesuvius <ul><li>Pliny ’s account is the only written source we have for the eruption of Mt Vesuvius. </li></ul><ul><li>ISSUES WITH PLINY ’S ACCOUNT: </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote 25 years after the event </li></ul><ul><li>He failed to mention the date of the eruption </li></ul><ul><li>He appears to exaggerate his uncles actions, making them seem more heroic than probably took place. </li></ul>
  10. 13. The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum <ul><li>Pompeii was a bustling commercial centre in the years before its destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Herculaneum was a quiet resort / fishing town </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for Pompeii includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 600 excavated privately owned shops, workshops bars and inns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City controlled markets around the forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epigraphic evidence of a number of tradesmen and retailers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 or so maritime warehouses & objects characteristic of a port area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paintings of cargo boats products being loaded onto vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade signs depicting various manufacturing processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscriptions paying tribute to the pursuit of profit eg: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profit is Joy' found in the mosaic entrance way of two wealthy men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>'Welcome Gain' inscribed in the house of a carpenter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images of Mercury, the god of commerce, displayed everywhere to gain blessings eg: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on a sign outside a shop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on a sales counter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on the wall of a workshop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>The economies of Vesuvian town largely based on agricultural production and fishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials were provided by farmsteads and villas that dotted the Sarno plain and the market gardens (horti) within the walls of Pompeii (wine, olive oil, cereals, fruit, vegetables, meat and wool). </li></ul><ul><li>The fishing fleets provided crustaceans, molluscs and fish. A large volume of nets, hooks and other gear found­ along the coastline of the Bay of Naples </li></ul><ul><li>Garum (fish sauce) was made for which Pompeii was renowned. </li></ul><ul><li>These industries spawned a host of others such as pottery – because terracotta and ceramic containers (dolia and amphorae) were needed for storage, and trade in wine, oil and garum. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  12. 15. <ul><li>Wine and Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Were the principal sources of income for the people in the Vesuvian area. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation undertaken by the rich because of the long cost between planting and first yield. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich Pompeian banker Lucius Jucundus is believed to have owned the Villa of Pisanella – an important wine and oil producing estate. </li></ul><ul><li>Grapes were pressed on some premises, eg. the Inn of the Gladiator . </li></ul><ul><li>Wine doesn ’t appear to have been stored in large quantities in taverns and bars but brought in from the farms and villas in the countryside when needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Wine was transported into town in a large wineskin (cullei) then placed in amphorae or dolia for storage and serving. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of wines were produced – Herculaneum advertising sign 6 types of wines. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of wine varied in Pompeii – scrawl on a bar “You sell inferior stuff but keep for yourself, you swine, the good bottles” </li></ul><ul><li>According to Pliny – same estates that produced wine also produced oil. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  13. 16. A dolium Amphorae
  14. 17. A wine press (torcular)
  15. 19. <ul><li>Garum </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii was renowned for its garum – a fish sauce. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Pliny – “no other liquid except unguents has come to be more highly valued ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Red mullet is seen to have made the best garum. </li></ul><ul><li>The fisherman from Pompeii and Herculaneum sold their catches in the Macellum (market) in the Forum. </li></ul><ul><li>Garum was a potent mix – made from the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, intestines and blood, and the smell would have been bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthier families would have obtained it more directly – had a monopoly on the garum market. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  16. 20. Entrance to a garum shop Mosaic of ocean resources
  17. 21. <ul><li>Cloth manufacture and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Wool was the basis of one of the most popular industries in Pompeii – washing and dying of clothes. These activities were carried out in workshops and laundries ( fullonicae). </li></ul><ul><li>Laundries ( fullonicae) were scattered all over Pompeii – 18 in number. 4 of which were particularly large. Identified by a number of interconnected basins or tanks with build in steps for washing and rinsing. </li></ul><ul><li>Fullers used urine to clean cloth – camel urine was most prized but often had to do with human urine - so bowls were left outside establishments and on the street. </li></ul><ul><li>The fullers rinsed, dried and brushed the cloth. </li></ul><ul><li>In the House of the Wooden Partition – a painted sign over a Pompeian workshop showed the various processes involved in cloth manufacture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Guild of Fullers was a powerful organization within the city – it headquarters were located within the Eumachia building on the eastern side of the forum. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  18. 22. The Fullery of Stephanus
  19. 23. Sketches made of paintings showing cleaning process.
  20. 24. Relief of fullers
  21. 25. <ul><li>Bakeries (Pistrina) </li></ul><ul><li>30 or so bakeries have been identified in Pompeii. </li></ul><ul><li>Saved householders from buying the grain, milling it into flour and baking their own bread, which was a basic foodstuff. </li></ul><ul><li>Bakeries did their own refining of the grain in lava stone mills, usually three or four, set in a paved courtyard with a table for kneading the dough and a brick oven. </li></ul><ul><li>Bakery of Modestus – 81 loaves of bread were recovered, still on the oven where they had been placed 79 AD. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  22. 26. A Bakery
  23. 27. <ul><li>Markets </li></ul><ul><li>On both sides of the Forum were markets which were the property of the city, administered by the aediles whose job it was to make sure that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The markets ran smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods were measured and priced accurately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality was maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Marcellum in the Forum was a busy market specializing in meats, fishes, fruit and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other side of the Forum there was a market where dried cereals and pulses were sold to individuals and bakeries. </li></ul><ul><li>The building of Eumachia on the east of the Forum is believed to have housed a wool and cloth market. Documentary evidence indicates that on Saturdays, peddlers sell an array of manufactured goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of market gardens (horti) within the city, set up stalls for markets for goods. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  24. 28. Macellum (markets) entrance in the Forum, Pompeii
  25. 29. Macellum (markets)
  26. 30. <ul><li>Shops (Tabernae) </li></ul><ul><li>Main commercial thoroughfare in Pompeii was the road from the Forum past the amphitheatre to the Sarno Gate. Remains of shops along this road can be recognised by the wide opening onto the street. Many had back stores where the clerk lived. </li></ul><ul><li>It is quite possible they were heavily integrated – a perfume vendor could be next to a greengrocer and a garum seller etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Shop and workshops owners advertised their business with painted signs. </li></ul><ul><li>About 200 public eating and drinking places identified in Pompeii. </li></ul><ul><li>Wine bars and taverns (cauponae) were scattered throughout both towns but in Pompeii they were more densely clustered near the entrance gates and around the amphitheatre. Some had benches for clients </li></ul><ul><li>It seems Pompeian ’s were heavy drinkers; graffiti declares “Cheers! We drink like wineskins!” </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  27. 31. Shops along a street, Pompeii
  28. 32. A snack bar (thermopolium)
  29. 33. <ul><li>Hotels </li></ul><ul><li>A building named the Hotel of Muses was discovered on the bank of the ancient course of the Sarno. Due to its size, extravagant location overlooking the sea, eight rooms and brilliant frescoes – it is believed it was a hotel for wealthy traders. </li></ul><ul><li>It appears that the owners also provided for their guests entertainment with upstairs rooms accessed by a side door for the entry of a local woman </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  30. 34. <ul><li>Overseas trade </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii traded with other cities within Campania and the Italian peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Imported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties of wine from Spain, Sicily and Crete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pottery from Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>furniture from nearby Naples lamps from Alexandria. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is not known how extensive their exports were to other parts of the Roman Empire. Some scholars believe their export trade was minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>A port was found less then 1km from the centre of the city with 20 warehouses: a point in which trade could be loaded and unloaded from ships. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  31. 35. Reconstruction of the port of Pompeii
  32. 36. <ul><li>Other Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence provided by epigraphy and popular paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>It is known that in Pompeii there were workshops of carpenters, plumbers, wheelwrights, tanners, ironmongers, goldsmiths, stone makers and glassmakers. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of chisels, a compass, a plumb-bob, and a mason ’s/carpenters’ square indicates architects/carpenters practiced their trades </li></ul><ul><li>From graffiti/election notices/trade signs/archaeological material we can deduce an extensive range of occupations: auctioneers, barbers, bath attendants, prostitutes, gem-cutters, grape-pickers, gold-smiths, landlords, scribes , surgeons, tanners, teachers etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of their guilds played an influential part in politics. </li></ul>The Economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  33. 38. Roman Social Structure <ul><li>Roman society very class conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Based on strict hierachy with no real middle class </li></ul><ul><li>People born into a class, limited movement between these classes </li></ul><ul><li>Main factors that determined your place were: </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship status </li></ul><ul><li>Place of birth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>City or country dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous divisions in social structure, these were often reinforced by legal and political privileges. </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii was a typical Roman town, with some people clearly enjoying power and pivilege – eg. Senators, equestrians, and the provincial elite. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Roman Social Structure Emperor Imperial family Senators Equestrian order Rich freedmen Poor free citizens Freedmen Slaves Upper strata These people enjoyed power and privilege Lower strata Great diversity among this group of people. Life was hard.
  35. 40. Roman Social Structure <ul><li>Using the course booklet answer the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise the information on each of the major social classes in the upper strata of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the lower strata of Roman society. </li></ul><ul><li>a. What functions did slaves perform? </li></ul><ul><li>b. How were slaves viewed in Roman society? </li></ul><ul><li>c. Where did slaves come from? </li></ul>
  36. 41. <ul><li>The Patron - Client relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Common to all social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Patron assisted client from a lower social class (eg. Help with legal matters, give food) </li></ul><ul><li>In return got favours such as support in local elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor was the ‘super patron’ over the Roman world, where individuals, families and towns paid homage and gave their allegiance. </li></ul><ul><li>Every morning clients would flock to their patron ’s house to pay their respects. </li></ul>Roman Social Structure
  37. 42. <ul><li>The Women of Pompeii and Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>Women much more freedom than in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engaged in public life, moved freely throughout the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>running a household </li></ul><ul><li>bringing up children </li></ul><ul><li>controlling finances </li></ul><ul><li>Could not vote </li></ul><ul><li>Made public declarations supporting candidates for office </li></ul><ul><li>Business owners </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pompeii was a place where women could own property, do business, pay for constructions, hold office and go about in public” </li></ul>Roman Social Structure
  38. 43. Roman Social Structure <ul><li>The Women of Pompeii and Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>Public Life </li></ul><ul><li>Several important “public” women eg: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poppaea Sabina – wealthy, married emperor Nero, owned nearby villa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eumachia – Business woman, built large public building in the forum, used her building program as political leverage for son, priesthood of Venus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julia Felix – Wealthy land owner, estate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Women </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of work for less wealthy women </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Statia owned a Bakery, Asellina tavern owner, Specula cloth trade </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class poor women & slaves were servants, cooks, cleaners, prostitutes </li></ul>
  39. 44. Statue of Eumachia
  40. 45. Eumachia building
  41. 46. The estate of Julia Felix
  42. 47. Local Political Life <ul><li>Pompeii + Herculaneum were municipia - self governing local community of Roman citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to imperial decree from Rome, but emperor rarely intervened </li></ul><ul><li>large amount of epigraphic evidence (esp. graffiti) suggests intense political activity leading to elections in March </li></ul><ul><li>people were politically aware </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero > “harder to get seat in city council of Pompeii than in the Roman senate” </li></ul><ul><li>Political life at Pompeii + Herculaneum was dominated by patronage of poor citizens/particular business – social groups by members of powerful, wealthy, influential elite. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons assisted clients who sought political advancement/connections etc in return the patron expected support in elections and public recognition of exalted status. </li></ul>
  43. 48. <ul><li>MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curia chamber – City council meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comitium – Peoples assembly meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabularium – govt. business recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basillica – judiciary / law courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices of Magistrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(all at / around the Forum) </li></ul></ul>Local Political Life
  44. 49. Chief magistrates (Duoviri) office Council chamber (curia) Basillica Junior magistrates (Aediles) office Comitium MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS In the Forum at Pompeii
  45. 50. Organisation of Pompeian Government <ul><li>Using the information in the course booklet, outline the roles and resposibilities of: </li></ul><ul><li>City Council (ordo decurionum) </li></ul><ul><li>People ’s Assembly (Comitium) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive > Duoviri & Aediles </li></ul><ul><li>Quinquennales </li></ul>
  46. 51. QUATTORVIRI (THE EXECUTIVE) 4 <ul><li>DUOVIRI </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>Administered election rolls </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal and civil cases </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out census </li></ul><ul><li>AEDILES </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of roads, sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored theatre, public spectacles </li></ul>QUINQUENNALES (MAGISTRATES) 4 Elected every 5 years instead of Duoviri to take census, update roll and control public moraltiy <ul><li>CITY COUNCIL </li></ul><ul><li>(LEGISLATURE) </li></ul><ul><li>100 </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrates for life </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished and influential citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Freeborn citizens only </li></ul><ul><li>Seats available by death or disgrace of member </li></ul><ul><li>Debated and voted on issues affecting </li></ul><ul><li>administration of city </li></ul><ul><li>Instructed the executive </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE ’ S ASSEMBLY </li></ul><ul><li>(VOTING) </li></ul><ul><li>Elected magistrates only function </li></ul><ul><li>City divided into precincts for voting </li></ul><ul><li>Voted by ballot </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate had to receive an absolute majority of precincts </li></ul>Presided over Instructed Presided over Voted for
  47. 52. Election Time <ul><li>½ of manifestos and propaganda relate to election of March 79AD </li></ul><ul><li>2000 pieces on inscriptions/graffiti is classified as electoral notices </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate wore white toga </li></ul><ul><li>Employed slave to whisper his name to others </li></ul><ul><li>Voters interested in prestige and integrity of candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate did not boast or make election promises – all related to character of candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers, students, family members and women all involved in campaigning </li></ul><ul><li>Trade groups involved in joint promotion of candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti and cartoons of politicians on the walls – showed corruption and gave advice how to run the city </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heres my advice, share out the common chest. For in our coffer piles the money rests” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To hell with the Aediles! They’re in with the Bakers…” </li></ul>
  48. 53. Pompeian electoral graffiti to vote for two candidates for aedile, M. Cerrinius Vatia and A. Trebius Valente.
  49. 54. Electoral graffiti at Pompeii
  50. 55. Electoral Graffiti <ul><li>Read the examples of electoral graffiti in the course booklet </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions on the sources </li></ul>
  51. 56. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans enjoyed their leisure time </li></ul><ul><li>There are many indications of pastimes and recreations at Pompeii and Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure activities included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainments of the theatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows at the amphitheatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public baths and exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling, dining and parties at home </li></ul></ul>
  52. 57. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical performances of all kinds (traditional Greek and Roman tragedy and comedy, Oscan farces, mime and pantomime) were extremely popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of this can be seen in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the 2 theatres at Pompeii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the magnificent theatre at Herculaneum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theatrical motifs used in the decoration of rich houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the graffiti written by fans about local and visiting actors </li></ul></ul>Everyday Life
  53. 58. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Stone seating which was hierarchal based with the better people at the front </li></ul><ul><li>Large awning over the top to stop heat and there was often a backstage where the actors would get ready </li></ul><ul><li>Around 5000 could be seated in larger theatre </li></ul><ul><li>The wealthy acted as a “patron”, paid for the play </li></ul><ul><li>The Oden – could hold up to about 1,300 people </li></ul><ul><li>Music was used – drums, flutes, cymbals with aligned with the play </li></ul><ul><li>Masks and props commonly used in plays </li></ul>
  54. 59. Odeon – Small theatre
  55. 60. Large theatre Pompeii
  56. 61. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Amphitheatre </li></ul><ul><li>Probably most prominent pass time / leisure activity </li></ul><ul><li>Could accommodate between 11 000 and 20 000 people at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Awnings provided cool shade in what could have been hot days </li></ul><ul><li>The popularity of individual gladiators seen in inscriptions which praise them as athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Duumviri and aediles spent money on public entertainment – i.e. gladiatorial contests. </li></ul><ul><li>These contests took place in honour of Gods or part of Emperor ’s birthday or to celebrate something significant – closely associated with Saturn who delighted in sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators were organized into groups ( famila ) which were privately owned by rich Pompeians. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of gladiators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thrax , who fought with Thracian equipment which was a curved sword and small shield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retiarius who fought with a trident and a dagger and sought to enclose enemy in a net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myromillo who fought with a gladius, a helmet and a large shield. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 65. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Palaestra (exercise yard) </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise popular at Pompeii & Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Greek athletic tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Great palaestra at Pompeii (near Amphitheatre) has large open space, central swimming pool, latrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for running, training, swimming etc </li></ul><ul><li>Palaestra at Herculaneum 120m long x 80m wide, had a large cross shaped pool. </li></ul>
  58. 66. Palaestra at Pompeii
  59. 68. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Visits to the baths were a regular social event </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarno </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphitheatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baths of Julia Felix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herculaneum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban </li></ul></ul>Everyday Life
  60. 69. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Visits took several hours </li></ul><ul><li>People met friends, did business deals, political discussions / deals etc </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women separate. (separate suites or separate times of bathing) </li></ul><ul><li>Baths were a picture of luxury – beautiful decorations, marble and mosaic floors, statues, paintings etc </li></ul><ul><li>Wide cross section of people used the baths – they were cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Food and prostitution brought in for pleasure – strong link between baths and sex. </li></ul>Everyday Life
  61. 70. Stabian Baths Pompeii
  62. 72. Baths at Herculaneum
  63. 73. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>A Visit to the baths… </li></ul><ul><li>Change room (apodyterium) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot room (caldarium) </li></ul><ul><li>Warm room (tepidarium) </li></ul><ul><li>Cold room (frigidarium) </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise yard (palaestra) </li></ul>Everyday Life
  64. 74. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Read the ‘cartoon page’ of the Public Baths in your course booklet and describe a typical trip to the baths at Pompeii. </li></ul>Everyday Life
  65. 75. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Dining </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the Vesuvian towns ate well! </li></ul><ul><li>3 meals a day… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breakfast – simple meal of bread, fruit, cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lunch – meats, eggs, bread, vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dinner –begins with eggs, olives, then vegetables, meats and ending in fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman meals based on fresh ingredients </li></ul>
  66. 76. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Dining </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC FOOD REMAINS: </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological evidence from two houses suggest a balanced and highly nutritious diet. </li></ul><ul><li>British excavations looked at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste from food prep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains from burnt offerings in gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barley, millet, cereal bran... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figs, peach, grapes… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep, pig, cattle, small birds… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish, shellfish… </li></ul></ul>Everyday Life
  67. 77. Carbonised figs from Pompeii Food remains from a latrine pit at Pompeii, clockwise from top right: grape pips, fig pips, fish bones, sea urchin shell.
  68. 78. <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Dining </li></ul><ul><li>Read the section on home entertainments dinner parties in the course booklet and describe a typical dinner party for a wealthy family in Pompeii. </li></ul><ul><li>What other entertainments did the Pompeian's enjoy at home? </li></ul>Everyday Life
  69. 79. Everyday Life <ul><li>Leisure Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Was a passion in Pompeii and Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>Games of chance with dice, bones of sheep feet, type of chess played </li></ul><ul><li>Games played for money at bars, taverns, even shops </li></ul><ul><li>“ Set out the wine and dice, to hell with </li></ul><ul><li>him who cares about the morrow! ” </li></ul>
  70. 80. Everyday life <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Not much has survived, only fragmented remains </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of fabric, shoe leather, metal fasteners </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence from paintings and statues of people and what they wore. This is problematic because most artistic representations do not show everyday clothing worn </li></ul><ul><li>Men wore tunics loosely hanging over a belt and reaching to the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Women wore ankle length stola (dress) and woollen head bands a veil to cover her head in public </li></ul><ul><li>Best evidence come from frescoes in the estate of Julia Felix > scenes of everyday life (eg. market scene) </li></ul>
  71. 82. <ul><li>Sanitation & Water Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Both Pompeii and Herculaneum were generally healthy places to live </li></ul><ul><li>Originally both towns had private wells and cisterns for water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Later connected to the Aqua Augusta (aqueduct) built by Augustus. Water came from springs 26 kilometres away. </li></ul><ul><li>Water moved along pipes to the towns and stored in a water towers (eg. castellum acquae at Pompeii) .Gravity fed the water to other places in the towns via lead pipes. </li></ul><ul><li>Public fountains in the streets (42 in Pompeii have been located, 3 at Herculaneum), mostly on street corners. </li></ul><ul><li>Public baths were provided with adequate water from the aqueduct </li></ul><ul><li>Public toilets located at the forum, baths and palaestra at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting a private residence to the aqueduct would have been costly + usage charges. </li></ul><ul><li>Private toilets in houses were often located near the kitchen…No toilet paper!!! Sponge and a stick were used for cleaning. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a sewerage system, but some houses had cesspit toilets </li></ul>Everyday life
  72. 84. Lead pipes in the streets of Pompeii
  73. 85. The castellum acquae at the Vesuvian gate which distributed the water to three main pipes which ran under the footpaths at Pompeii
  74. 86. Public Buildings <ul><li>Public buildings built at behest of rich benefactors </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings gave civic pride and image of the towns importance (Pompeii was a second rate Roman town!). </li></ul><ul><li>Greek influence in architecture – Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Orders (column style) </li></ul><ul><li>3rd to 2nd centuries BC > great building activity </li></ul>
  75. 88. Triangular Forum Pompeii – Doric style columns Macellum Pompeii – Corinthian style columns
  76. 89. Public Buildings <ul><li>Use the plans of the towns to locate: </li></ul><ul><li>Basilicas </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Theatres </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheatres </li></ul><ul><li>Palaestra </li></ul>
  77. 92. <ul><li>The Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Located in South-West, large rectangular open space </li></ul><ul><li>Was the economic, religious, social and political centre of Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>40 metres wide 150 metres long </li></ul><ul><li>Colonnades held up forum on three sides- South, East and West, for shelter, shade. </li></ul><ul><li>Was focused on the Capitolium (Temple of Jupiter) at the north end which dominated the space </li></ul><ul><li>No vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Games and ceremonies held at the forum </li></ul><ul><li>Temples dedicated to various Roman gods and the Emperor - included temples of Jupiter, Apollo, Juno, Minerva & Isis. Also sanctuary of the lares </li></ul><ul><li>Also had Basilica (law courts), Macellum (Market), Eumachia Building, Municipal Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Typical day at forum consisted of crowds of people visiting temples, listening to political speeches, hearing news from Rome, conducting business, making legal transactions and governing the town. </li></ul>Public Buildings
  78. 93. <ul><li>Locate: </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Macellum </li></ul><ul><li>Eumachia building </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal buildings </li></ul>
  79. 94. <ul><li>The Basilica at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Dates to 1st Century B.C </li></ul><ul><li>Law courts, but also used for large gatherings eg. Auctions </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to impress the visitor </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of the interior was the raised tribunal where the chief magistrates (duumviri) sat. </li></ul><ul><li>Other rooms/spaces probably used office and storage area for archives. </li></ul><ul><li>Side walls decorated with stucco reliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Innumerable phrases were scratched onto the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown whether it had a roof </li></ul><ul><li>Was built 190 – 120 BC but destroyed by AD 62 earthquake and not rebuilt </li></ul>Public Buildings
  80. 95. Basilica at Pompeii
  81. 96. Public Buildings <ul><li>The Macellum </li></ul><ul><li>Market where meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, cereals and other produce was sold from shops and stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Money changers </li></ul><ul><li>Open air market </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing tank in the middle. </li></ul>
  82. 97. Entrance to the Macellum at Pompeii
  83. 98. <ul><li>Building of Eumachia </li></ul><ul><li>Multi purpose space donated by public priestess Eumachia </li></ul><ul><li>Used for business? Cloth display and sale? Was the headquarters for the fullers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely civic use as well </li></ul><ul><li>Badly damaged 62AD earthquake (being rebuilt at time of the eruption) </li></ul>Public Buildings
  84. 99. Building of Eumachia
  85. 100. <ul><li>Temples in the Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Lares </li></ul><ul><li>Lares – patron god of P., guardian spirit of the house and fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably begun and completed in the period immediately after AD62, alternatively could have been reconstructed after earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of three large architectural “wings” – two rectangular niches and a circular niche in the middle. </li></ul><ul><li>Was a sanctuary which the Pompeians consecrated with solemn ceremonies. </li></ul>Public Buildings
  86. 101. Public Buildings <ul><li>Temples in the Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Vespasian / Temple of the Genius of Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of Emperor Vespasian at one end. </li></ul><ul><li>Marble sacrificial altar in temple. Carving on this altar shows a priest sacrificing a bull outside the temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to worship of the emperor. </li></ul>
  87. 102. Temple of Vespasian / Temple of the Genius of Augustus
  88. 103. Public Buildings <ul><li>Temples in the Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Dominates northern side of forum and was a political temple </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed on a high base. </li></ul><ul><li>Three typical niches inside, at the end, occupied by the triad Juno, Jupiter and Minerva. </li></ul><ul><li>The temple has underground rooms containing the public treasury and precious objects belonging to the temple itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 150 BC it became main temple when Rome took over. </li></ul><ul><li>Renovated under Claudius but seriously damaged by the earthquake, was being rebuilt at time of eruption. </li></ul>
  89. 104. Temple of Jupiter - Pompeii
  90. 105. Public Buildings <ul><li>Temples in the Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>Functioned quite independently of forum (main entrance from a street) – Forum entrance bricked up when Sulla ’s colonists came, giving prominence to Temple of Jupiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of shrine on site, dating from end of 7th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Temple erected by Samnites as early as 5th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>28 Corinthian columns supported it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sacellum (An unroofed space consecrated to a divinity) was dominated by a statue of the great god. </li></ul>
  91. 106. Temple of Apollo Pompeii
  92. 107. Temple of Jupiter Sanctuary of the Lares Temple of Vespasian / Genius of Augustus Temple of Apollo
  93. 108. <ul><li>Amphitheatre </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern edge of city </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 80BC </li></ul><ul><li>hold up to 20000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Large canopy erected to protect spectators from the sun </li></ul>Public Buildings
  94. 109. <ul><li>Large Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Could fit about 5000 spectators </li></ul><ul><li>One of oldest buildings still standing in Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Actors performed Greek and Roman plays here (but only in daylight). </li></ul><ul><li>By 1st century AD classic comic + tragic plays not as popular as farces, mimes and pantomimes. </li></ul>Public Buildings
  95. 110. Public Buildings <ul><li>Small Theatre (Odeon) </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed 80 -75 BC, built by the same people who built amphitheatre. </li></ul><ul><li>Seated approximately 1000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for musical, mimes and poetry concerts. </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustics would have been good because of a permanent wooden roof. </li></ul>
  96. 111. Public Buildings <ul><li>Palaestra </li></ul><ul><li>A form of public gymnasium and exercise ground – part of Greek athletic tradition, valued by Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>Men + youths practiced sorts such as running, wrestling, discus, swimming here. </li></ul><ul><li>Palaestrae (plural) – both towns had large, purpose built ones. </li></ul>
  97. 112. Private Architecture <ul><ul><li>2/3 of the buildings in Pompeii were private dwellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pompeii was a busy commercial city – shops and other business often attached to houses on the street front. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were 4 main types of housing </li></ul></ul>
  98. 113. Private Architecture <ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main types of buildings: </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium house (domus) - free standing house </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium peristyle house </li></ul><ul><li>Villas </li></ul><ul><li>Insulae or apartments </li></ul><ul><li>All houses were designed differently so no two houses were exactly the same. Some houses had a second story with an upper porch overhanging the road. A house was entered in from the street via a corridor. </li></ul>
  99. 114. <ul><li>Atrium style house </li></ul>Private Architecture
  100. 115. <ul><li>House of the tragic poet </li></ul>
  101. 116. Private Architecture Atrium – peristyle house
  102. 117. House of the Faun
  103. 118. Private Architecture A Villa
  104. 119. Reconstruction of the Villa of Papyri
  105. 120. Shops with apartments above at Pompeii
  106. 121. 1. Fauces (entrance corridor)  2. Impluvium (rain basin)  3. Atrium (main entry room)  4. Tablinum (study)  5. Ala (side room)  6. Lararium (household shrine)  7. Culina (kitchen)  8. Triclinium (dining room)  9. Oecus (reception room) 10. Peristylium (peristyle colonnade) 11. Viridarium (pleasure-garden) 12. Cubiculum (bedroom) Floor Plan - House of the Vetti House Features
  107. 122. GREEK Influence on Pompeii & Herculaneum ARCHITECTURE Features such as the theatre, palaestra Columns / designs RELIGIOUS Gods: Dionysus, Apollo, Demeter Temples Cults (eg. Dionysus) STRONG INFLUENCE OF HELLENISTIC CULTURE ACROSS THE ROMAN WORLD ART Statues (copies of original Greek) Frescoes Mosaics (eg. Alexander mosaic from House of Faun) NAMES OF THE TOWNS Herculaneum . from “Heracles” Images of Heracles throughout town LITERATURE / DRAMA Papyrus scrolls from Herculaneum written in ancient Greek Greek literature studied eg. Homer, Virgil
  108. 123. Hercules with Neptune and Salacia, from the College of the Augustales, Herculaneum
  109. 124. Egyptian Influence in Pompeii & Herculaneum RELIGIOUS Temple of Isis at Pompeii Cult of Isis > evidence in household shrines ART Scenes of the Nile and the Egyptian landscape. Eg. Mosaic from the House of the Faun DECORATIONS Egyptian style / motifs. Eg. Decorative use of the Sphinx in households Asia TRADE & CULTURAL LINKS - Led to Egyptian Influence over time
  110. 125. Nile river scene from Pompeii
  111. 126. Temple of Isis
  112. 127. Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum <ul><li>PUBLIC RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Roman towns such as Pompeii and Herculaneum were very religious – they were involved in many forms of worship and rituals that were all about pleasing the gods for the favour of the individual and the community. </li></ul>CITIZENS Religious Duties such as performing rituals, worship of gods = favour of the gods = fertility, peace, prosperity and avert misfortune
  113. 128. <ul><li>PUBLIC RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>Communal public religious ceremonies and festivals were important events. </li></ul><ul><li>Important aristocratic families played major roles in the public face of religious worship at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The positions held were an advertisement of self / family. </li></ul><ul><li>Males held political useful priesthood positions </li></ul><ul><li>Females could be priestesses of cults </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  114. 129. Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum <ul><li>PUBLIC RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>Early Greek Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Gods worshiped in pre-Roman times. Continued up until the eruption </li></ul><ul><li>79AD. Eg. Apollo, Herakles, Dionysus, Demeter </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysus Cult – Associated with Roman God Bacchus. “cult of natural passions” </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of Apollo – “God of light and good order” </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of Demeter – associated with earth fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Heracles as hero – Doric style temple </li></ul>
  115. 130. <ul><li>PUBLIC RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>Roman State Cult </li></ul><ul><li>Capitoline triad of Jupiter (protector of state), Juno (care for women) and Minerva (Patroness of craftworkers) </li></ul><ul><li>Priesthoods of the Roman state cult were prestigious. Often held by politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter temple dominated the forum </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  116. 131. <ul><li>PUBLIC RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial Ruler Cult </li></ul><ul><li>From the time of Augustus (31BC – 14AD) an Imperial Cult developed in the Roman world. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar had been declared divine by the Roman senate – his nephew Octavian (first Augustus) declared the “son of the divine one” </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of the emperor developed as part of the state cult – worshipped at both Pompeii and Herculaneum. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Priest of Augustus” Augustales at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Temple to Fortuna Augusta one block from the Forum at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Shrine of Augustales at Herculaneum (sacrifices to current emperor) </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Genius Augusti (Temple of Vespasian) at Pompeii </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  117. 132. Altar at the temple of Vespasian, Pompeii
  118. 133. <ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Temples had 2 main functions: to house images of gods + objects associated with their worship and other to be place where correct rituals were carried out by priests to honour gods. </li></ul><ul><li>People did not go to a temple to congregate with other worshippers – they went to a temple to ask a particular god or goddess for favour. </li></ul><ul><li>Temples were simply built – there was a statue of the deity which stood before an altar, where an offering may be made to the god. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the section on temples in the course booklet and summarise information on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple of Jupiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple of Apollo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple of Isis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple of Vespasian (Temple of the Genius of Augustus) </li></ul></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  119. 134. Temple of Jupiter, Pompeii
  120. 135. Temple of Apollo, Pompeii
  121. 136. Temple of Isis, Pompeii
  122. 137. <ul><li>Private Religion </li></ul><ul><li>People of Pompeii and Herculaneum were very religious </li></ul><ul><li>Daily prayers / offerings (of food) in the Lararium to household gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers led by head of the household </li></ul><ul><li>Were for safety and prosperity of the household </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of household gods – Lares, penates, genius </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  123. 138. <ul><li>Private Religion </li></ul><ul><li>LARES </li></ul><ul><li>spirit guardians / protectors of the house </li></ul><ul><li>Young men dancing with drinking horn in one hand, plate in other </li></ul><ul><li>People very attached to the LARES > some blamed the 62AD earthquake on improper worship of them, </li></ul><ul><li>Public temple to LARES in forum of Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Some victims of Vesuvius found with LARES statues </li></ul><ul><li>PENATES </li></ul><ul><li>Protected food supply of family </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to LARES </li></ul><ul><li>GENIUS </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility > guaranteed many children for family </li></ul><ul><li>Shown as priest with covered head and drinking horn </li></ul><ul><li>Any God could be worshipped in the lararium (eg Venus, Mercury) </li></ul><ul><li>Shop owners / tradesmen had particular gods to worship > eg. Mercury for merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>These gods were depicted on wall paintings and other places. </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  124. 140. Lararium in the house of the Vetti, showing the Genius between two Lares.
  125. 141. <ul><li>Death and Burial </li></ul><ul><li>After death family performed proper burial rights or forgotten in afterlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people cremated by 1 st century AD, some burials still carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>No burial or cremation allowed inside Pompeii ’s city walls, supposed to be at least 30 metres from the city walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Funeral procession included musicians & professional mourners. </li></ul><ul><li>members of the family wore wax masks of their ancestors as link from living to the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>After cremation, ashes placed in an urn and incorporated into family tomb </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum
  126. 142. <ul><li>Tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs varied from plain brick structure to elaborate monument with sculptures. </li></ul><ul><li>Showed social status of the family. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Large tomb for Eumachia and her family most impressive at Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs often had inscriptions or reliefs recalling the achievements of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Tomb of Umbricius Scaurus decorations of games in amphitheatre which he probably sponsored. </li></ul>Religion at Pompeii & Herculaneum