U5. High & Late Middle Ages.


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High and Late Middle Ages in Europe.

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U5. High & Late Middle Ages.

  2. 2. Chronology of the Middle Ages Start: 476 (fall of the WRE) Finish: 1453 (fall of Constantinople) or 1492 (discovery of America) • 5 – 10th Century Early Middle Ages • 11 – 13th Century High Middle Ages • 14 – 15th Century Late Middle Ages
  3. 3. Chronology of the Middle Ages Alta Edad Media (5 – 10th Century) Baja Edad Media (11-15th Century) • Plena Edad Media (11 – 13th Century) • Crisis de la Edad Media (14 – 15th Century) Subperiods in Spanish
  4. 4. Activity 1 a) When did the Middle Ages start & end? b) Link each period of the Middle Ages with its chronology.  Late Middle Ages  11 - 13th centuries.  5 - 10th centuries.  High Middle Ages  14 - 15th centuries.  Early Middle Ages
  5. 5. HIGH MIDDLE AGES 11-13th Centuries UNIT 5 (p.90 – 105)
  6. 6. General characteristics High Middle Ages A new social group appeared: the bourgeoisie Cultural & religious changes: · Universities appeared · Crusades & Inquisition · Gothic art Cities were revived (VS villages) Agriculture progressed so economy improved Kings gained more power (VS nobles) It was a period of prosperity & change in Europe.
  7. 7. 1.1.The territorial framework (geography) Europe was still a mosaic of small kingdoms.
  8. 8. Most important states  France & the Holy Roman Empire.  Emerged as a consequence of the division of the Carolingian Empire.  Divided into feudal territories (counties, duchies, marches…)
  9. 9. Normans (Vikings) settled in several areas: • North of France (Duchy of Normandy) • England • Sicily • South of Italy Stop attacks (11th century)  PEACE & STABILITY FOR EUROPE!!!
  10. 10. Muslims fought for territories in the south (Iberian Peninsula) & east (Byzantine Empire).
  11. 11. 1.3. Political organisation THE PARLIAMENT REPLACED THE CURIA REGIS  In the 12th Century the Curia Regis (nobles & clergy) was replaced by a new assembly, the Parliament, that included nobility, clergy & bourgeoisie. Finally “normal” people were politically represented!!!  Function: advise the king & approve taxes.  Different names for this assembly: • Parliament  England • Cortes  Spain • États Généraux  France • Diet  Holy Roman Empire
  12. 12. Parliaments with representatives of the: -Nobility -Clergy -Cities (bourgeoisie)
  13. 13. 1.3. Political organisation KINGS REGAINED POWER OVER FEUDAL LORDS  Kings’ power increased (VS nobles) thanks to the economical support of the new social group (bourgeoisie) that emerged in the cities.  In exchange kings gave CHARTERS to cities: a document that granted them liberty & the right to govern themselves.
  14. 14. A CHARTER is a legal document that gives to a city and its inhabitants (the bourgeoisie) the right to govern themselves independently. Charters made cities "free“  they were directly protected by the king, and were not part of a feudal fief.
  15. 15. CITY CHARTER OF BILBAO. In Spanish we call them “Carta Puebla”, “Fuero” or “Carta de Privilegios”.
  16. 16. 1.3. Political organisation KINGS REGAINED POWER OVER FEUDAL LORDS  Kings’ power increased (VS nobles) thanks to the economical support of the new social group (bourgeoisie) that emerged in the cities.  In exchange kings gave CHARTERS to cities to grant them liberty & the right to govern themselves. THE PARLIAMENT REPLACED THE CURIA REGIS  In the 12th Century the Curia Regis (nobles & clergy) was replaced by a new assembly, the Parliament, that included nobility, clergy & bourgeoisie. Finally “normal” people were politically represented!!!  Function: advise the king & approve taxes.  Different names for this assembly: • Parliament  England • Cortes  Spain • États Généraux  France • Diet  Holy Roman Empire
  17. 17. Activity 2  Page 90 - 91: exercises 2, 3 & 4.  What happened to kings’ power during the High Middle Ages and why?  The assembly formed by the nobility, the clergy & the bourgeoisie was known as “Parliament” in England. How was it known in France, in Spain and in the Holy Roman Empire?
  18. 18. 2.AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS 11–13th centuries  economy grew thanks to agricultural innovations & improvements. CAUSES OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS Triennial crop rotation (instead of biennial crop rotation) Horse collar (instead of yoke) Metal horseshoes to protect horses’ hooves. Mouldboard plough (instead of the Roman plough) Watermills (instead of windmills)
  19. 19.  Made of iron, heavier, made deeper holes.  It turned over the soil & allowed more air into the soil, so it was more productive.  Supported by wheels.  Pulled by horses, that moved faster than oxen. Mouldboard plough (instead of the Roman plough)
  20. 20.  Land divided in 3 parts, where each year they rotated: i. Fallow land ii. Cereals iii. Legumes or oats (avena)  It reduced the amount of uncultivated land.  only ⅓ was uncultivated. Triennial crop rotation (instead of biennial crop rotation)
  21. 21.  Distributes the load better, and its made with leather & filled with straw  avoid injuries.  Enables the horse to use its full strength when pulling. Horse collar (collera) Yoke (yugo) Horse collar (instead of yoke) VS
  22. 22. Used to grind grain into cereals. It was more productive since it didn’t depend on the weather. Watermills (instead of windmills)
  23. 23. However, watermills weren’t invented in the High Middle Ages… They were already used in the Ancient Period!! Example: Roman “Albolafia” watermill (Córdoba). What’s true is that during the High Middle Ages the use of water mills spread a lot! For example in England...: • 11th century  6,000 water mills • 14th century  10,000 - 15,000 water mills
  24. 24.  Protected horses’ hooves.  It’s not clear if it was invented in the High Middle Ages, but in this period its use spread a lot too. Metal horseshoes to protect horses’ hooves.
  25. 25. 2.2. CONSEQUENCES OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS: IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TOOLS &TECHNIQUES Agricultural production increased Improvement in nutrition Population grew a lot: - 11th Cent.  36 millions - 14th Cent.  80 millions Cultivated surface was extended Agricultural surpluses (agricultural production that exceeds the needs of the people who produces it) Trade was reactivated
  26. 26. Dutch polders.  Land was won from the sea using dams.
  27. 27. Activity 3  Devise a diagram about the causes and the consequences of the agricultural progress.  Page 92  exercise 1.
  28. 28. 3. MEDIEVAL CITIES In the 11th century urban life was restored: old Roman cities were revived & new cities were founded. • WHY? Because of the increase in agricultural production  each fief produced more food than what it needed, so they could sell the extra food (agricultural surplus) in the markets. This favoured the development of trade & crafts, main economic activities developed in the cities.
  29. 29. • WHERE DID NEW CITIES EMERGED? They emerged around the markets that were established:  Near castles & monasteries (wealthy people!)  Along busy roads & crossroads  Sea ports
  30. 30. Next to those markets, neighbourhoods of craftsmen & traders (known as boroughs) were created, which were eventually surrounded by walls and became cities. Over time, the word “BOROUGH” (Burgh / Burg / Burgo…) was used to designate a medieval walled city. Its inhabitants were called “BOURGEOIS”, and constituted a new social group (the Bourgeoisie).
  31. 31. A good example of a medieval city is Prague!!!
  32. 32. Edinburg (Scotland)
  33. 33. Nottingham (England) Carcassonne (France)
  34. 34. • Cities were usually small (<50,000). • Usually walled & organized around a main square (where the market was held once a week), where the cathedral & town hall were generally located. • They were important economic centres. Its main professions were crafts & trade. • They were also important religious & cultural centres: there were churches, monasteries, schools & universities… • Cities were organized in neighbourhoods. Each one was inhabited by people belonging to the same craft. There were special quarters for minorities (jews, muslims).
  35. 35. Medieval cities were usually walled. When the city grew too much, they often built a new wall further away.
  36. 36. Jewish & Muslim quarters (“Juderías” y Morerías”) Alcalá de Henares Cordoba Toledo Mulhouse (France) Madrid
  37. 37. • Medieval cities were crowded, busy, noisy & dirty places: Narrow, dirty & unpaved streets. There were no sewerage systems. Rubbish was thrown out of the window, and rats & parasites proliferated so infectious diseases were common. Fires were common because most houses were built with wood & mud. In the streets you could find all kinds of people & things happening…  Artisans working & traders selling their products  Puppeteers, jesters, minstrels & troubadours performing  Beggars begging  Animals running about
  38. 38. NARROW MEDIEVAL STREETS “Barrio gótico” (Barcelona) Medieval street in York (England) Medieval street in Mont- Saint Michel (France)
  39. 39. JESTERS (“bufones”): were in charge of making people laugh. They had a wide variety of skills which could include acrobatics, juggling, magic, songs, music...
  40. 40. MINSTRELS (or JONGLEUR) & TROBADOURS were in charge of entertaining people. They were story-tellers. TROUBADOUR (“trobadores”): they were poet-musicians. They composed poems (romances) about love, heroes & chivalry that were recited as poems set to music. They came from upper classes. MINSTRELS (“Juglares”): they memorized & recited poems, but didn’t composed them. They came from lower social classes and their role wasn’t as refined as the Troubadours’.
  41. 41. Beggars, people drinking in the taverns…
  42. 42. Festivals - People of all social classes stopped working for a day and celebrated. They also cleaned on festival days because....
  43. 43. Medieval cities were quite disgusting!! Mud, animals & human excrements were all around the place!! VIDEO: Filthy Medieval London
  44. 44. Activity 4  Page 95  exercises 1.  Page 99  exercise 5.  Write a composition (10-15 lines) describing how do you imagine a Medieval City smelled & looked like.
  45. 45. 4.1. HOWWERE CITIES GOVERNED? • At the beginning  cities were controlled by the feudal lord of the area where the city was located.
  46. 46. • Later on  when the king gave a “charter” to a city, it began to be governed by itself.  “Charter”: document that the king gave to a city that granted them liberty & the right to govern themselves.  Having gained their freedom, cities were governed by a Communal Council (Concejo Municipal): ‐ Its members were elected by the citizens. ‐ It was presided by a mayor. ‐ They met in the town hall. ‐ Over time the government of the cities was in the hands of the richest families in the city: the urban patriciate.
  47. 47. Medieval town halls in Brussels & Leuven (Belgium)
  48. 48. “Salón de Ciento”  room of the Town Hall of Barcelona where the Communal Council met in the High Middle Ages
  49. 49. 4.2. GUILDS & CRAFTSMEN Function of the guilds:  Control the production: guilds controlled the quality & quantity of their products (decided raw materials used, manufacturing processes…), regulated prices of the products & the salaries of its workers.  they avoided competition so that everything cost the same in every shop!!!  Protect their members (helped guild’s members in case of illness, death…) 3 categories:  Master craftesman  owner of the workshop. Expert in his craft.  Journeymen (or officers)  received a salary for their works. Could become a master if he produced a “masterpiece”.  Apprentices  Learning the craft. Not paid. Lived in the master’s house. Artisans were organized in GUILDS: associations of artisans who practiced the same craft. Each craft had its own guild.
  50. 50. MEDIEVAL GUILDS: - Kept the “mysteries” (know-how) of their craft. - Were established by a charter given by the city. - Held the monopoly on trade in its craft within the city: it was forbidden by law for an artisan to run a business if he wasn’t a member of its corresponding guild. - Aimed to reduce free competition.
  51. 51. HOME WORKSHOPS: craftmen worked & lived in the same place. Their houses usually had two floors: GROUND FLOOR: • Workshop • Shop front (open to the street) • Kitchen • Pantry • Courtyard FIRST FLOOR: • Bedrooms
  52. 52. Since the 11th Century trade was also revived. • Cities were the major trading centres.  Markets were held once a week.  Trade fairs were held once a year. These were gatherings of merchants in certain cities where products from distant places were sold. Some port cities became prosperous international commercial centres (Venice, Genoa, Marseille, Barcelona, Hamburg, Brugge...) 4.3. RISE OF TRADE
  53. 53. 4.THE NEW URBAN SOCIETY  A new social class appeared in the cities: the BOURGEOISIE:  Inhabitants of the “boroughs” (cities).  Formed by craftsmen & traders.  In feudal society they were included in the same group as the peasants (third class or commoners). They were non-privileged.  2 distinct groups: • High bourgeoisie  rich merchants, bankers, guilds’ masters… They controlled the government of the cities. • Petite bourgeoisie  small traders, guilds’ journeymen & apprentices, servants… They were the non-ruling class.  In the cities there were also:  Minority groups (Jews, Muslims) that lived separated in special quarters.  Marginalized people (beggars, disabled, unemployed…)
  54. 54. High bourgeoisie VS Petite bourgeoisie
  55. 55.  Jewish quarters (judería /aljama)  Muslim quarters (Morerías) Alcalá de Henares Cordoba Toledo Mulhouse (France) Madrid
  56. 56. Activity 5  Define the following words: ◦ Charter ◦ Communal Council ◦ Town hall ◦ Mayor  Devise a diagram to explain Medieval Guilds (definition / Functions / Types of members).  P.96  exercise 3.  What’s the bourgeoisie? Explain its composition.  P. 98  exercise 1.
  57. 57. 6.1. URBAN CULTURE  Early Middle Ages  education only interested the clergy and took place in monasteries.  High Middle Ages  the development of cities & trade increased the interest in education of the nobility & bourgeoisie to be able to do business & govern cities. Schools & universities were founded.
  58. 58. Cathedral Schools  Controlled by the Church.  They taught the future clergy.  Focused on religious studies Urban schools Municipal Schools  Controlled by the government.  Opened to common people  Focused on reading, writing, mathematics, law, and medicine
  59. 59.  Appeared in the 12th Century.  Universities were similar to guilds of teachers & students. Each one had its own classes and rules that teachers and students had to follow.  All classes were taught in Latin. Universities Advanced schools promoted by the Church. 3 oldest Universities in Europe:  University of Bologna (Italy, 1088)  University of Paris (France, 1150)  University of Oxford (UK, 1167)
  60. 60. Universities were divided into four specialties: LIBERAL ARTS (MUSIC, MATHS, ASTRONOMY, PHILOSOPHY, LANGUAGE) MEDICINE LAW THEOLOGY
  61. 61. Oxford University Medieval manuscript showing a meeting of doctors at the University of Paris.
  62. 62. Evidence of this is the fact that the quarter where the University of Paris (Sorbonne) was located is known as the “Latin Quarter” The international language of learning during the Middle Ages was LATIN.
  63. 63. Activity 6 a) Why did the nobility & bourgeoisie began to be interested in education in the High Middle Ages? b) What were the differences between Cathedral Schools & Municipal Schools? c) Name 2 examples of medieval universities. d) What was the international language of learning used in all medieval universities?
  64. 64. MEDIEVAL RELIGION: Crusades & Inquisition
  65. 65. ACTIVITY 7: Copy these questions into your notebooks. Answer them as we go. CRUSADES a) Why did the Pope want to organise the Crusades? b) What is a crusader? What benefits did they receive? c) Were crusades finally successful? INQUISITION a) Define: • Inquisition • Heretics a) When was the Inquisition? c) Give two examples of torture/punishment techniques.
  66. 66. Military expeditions organized by the Pope & the Christian Kings to expel the Muslims from the Holy Land & stop their expansion. Crusades •There were 8 crusades between 1095 and 1270. – Each crusade only lasted a few years. – They were organized by the Pope and led by Christian Kings •Crusaders were knights from different Christian kingdoms: – They fought to gain land and were forgiven for all their sins by the Pope. – They wore crosses on their clothes. – Protected pilgrims.
  67. 67. CAUSES (Factors that enabled the Crusades to happen) • Turks had conquered the Holy Land (Jerusalem). • People were very naive (they believed everything that the church said). • The Pope didn’t like the division of Christianity since the East-West Schism of 1054 (orthodox VS catholic) and he wanted to reunify them. • Many unemployed knights (only the 1st son inherited land; Vikings had stopped their invasions...) who were bored and needed something to do and a way of achieving land. After capturing territories from the Muslims, the lands were controlled by military orders and religious organizations formed by Knights, such as the Knights Templar
  68. 68. Crusades’ Role Play Characters: Pope Christian Lord The Lord’s 2 sons Basileus Turk 2 Pilgrims
  69. 69. The Inquisition was the tribunal of the Church that judged crimes against the faith. Its aim was to combat heresy. The Church persecuted & judged heretics, and the State punished them. The Inquisition
  70. 70. Who did the Inquisition put on trial? • The inquisition tried heretics, who were those that had committed an act of heresy. Heresy is any action that goes against the Church or church beliefs.
  71. 71. What the Bible says... • If a prophet […] appears among you and he says, “Let us follow other gods”, that prophet must be put to death. You must purge evil from among you. • If your very own brother entices you, saying, “Let us go and worship other gods”... Do not listen to him. Show him no pity... You must certainly put him to death. Your hand must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. Stone him to death. • If anyone does not remain in me, he is like a branch that is thrown away and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and burned.
  72. 72. When was the inquisition? • The Inquisition began in the 13th Century (1230). It lasted over 600 years, until the early 19th century.
  73. 73. The Inquisitions’ justice system Torture: The Inquisitors used torture to extract an “in full” confession. Investigation: When the Inquisition arrived in a new town their job was to identify the heretics. Trial: The trial favored the Church. An accused heretic’s best option was to confess “in full”, which meant confessing what they had done and what all the members of their family had done. Punishment: According to the Church, punishments were necessary to save the souls of heretics. But, if punishments were to result in death, they were carried out by the State.
  74. 74. Inquisition trial
  75. 75. Torture and Punishment techniques Death by burning
  76. 76. Torture and Punishment techniques Strappado It’s a form of torture that began with the Medieval Inquisition. The hands of the accused were tied behind his back and the rope looped over a brace in the ceiling of the chamber or attached to a pulley. Then the subject was raised until he was hanging from his arms. This might cause the shoulders to pull out of their sockets. Sometimes, the torturers added a series of drops, jerking the subject up and down. Weights could be added to the ankles and feet to make the hanging even more painful.
  77. 77. Torture and Punishment techniques The Rack The subject had his hands and feet tied or chained to rollers at one or both ends of a wooden or metal frame. The torturer turned the rollers with a handle, which pulled the chains or ropes in increments and stretched the subject's joints, often until they dislocated. If the torturer continued turning the rollers, the accused's arms and legs could be torn off. Often, simply seeing someone else being tortured on the rack was enough to make another person confess.
  78. 78. Torture and Punishment techniques The heretics fork This instrument consisted of two little forks one set against the other, with the four prongs rammed into the flesh, under the chin and above the chest. A small collar supported the instrument in such a manner that the victims were forced to hold their head erect, thus preventing any movement. The forks did not penetrate any vital points, and thus suffering was prolonged and death avoided. Obviously the victims' hands were tied behind their back.
  79. 79. Torture and Punishment techniques The Head Crusher Compresses the skull, shatters teeth, squeezes out the eyes
  80. 80. Torture and Punishment techniques The brazen bull is an executionary device first invented in Ancient Greece. The subject was locked inside the brazen bull and set a fire underneath it. He was slowly burned alive to death. Even though this torture was not used as frequently during the Middle Ages as it was used earlier by the Greek and Romans, it was still used in Central Europe. The brazen bull
  81. 81. Torture and Punishment techniques Hanging cages This method was used to punish and kill criminals found guilty of any offense requiring everybody to see what could happen if they commited same crime. It was also used to punish criminals whose offenses created commotion between citizens. Prisoners were enclosed there nude or barely dressed. No food, no compassion… just hanging there to die starving and thirsty, frozen during winter and with severe sunburns during summer.
  82. 82. Torture and Punishment techniques The saw The wheel
  83. 83. Torture and Punishment techniques Judas Cradle Spanish Donkey
  84. 84. Torture and Punishment techniques Waterboarding consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had the impression of drowning"
  85. 85. Torture and Punishment techniques Waterboarding consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had the impression of drowning" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEX8WeZU2wA
  86. 86. LATE MIDDLE AGES 14-15th Centuries UNIT 7 (p.132 – 133)
  87. 87. CRISIS OF THE 14th CENTURY During the 14th Century (Late Middle Ages) Europe suffered a deep crisis. It marked a clear end to the earlier period of growth and prosperity between the 11th and the 13th centuries (High Middle Ages).
  89. 89. CAUSES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS WARS FAMINE BLACK DEATH • Hundred Years War:  England VS France  1337 - 1453 • Between feudal lords & kings.
  90. 90. Hundred Years’ War (1337–1475) FRANCE (Valois dynasty) ENGLAND (Plantagenet dynasty) VS It broke out due to dynastic problems in France as Charles IV died leaving no male descendants.
  91. 91. CAUSES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS WARS FAMINE BLACK DEATH • Hundred Years War:  England VS France  1337 - 1453 • Between feudal lords & kings. • Climatic calamities (heavy rainfalls) led to less harvests, malnutrition and famine among the European population.
  92. 92. Great Famine of 1315–1317 Illuminated manuscript about the Apocalypse in a Bible of the 14th Century. The “Death” sits on lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (hell) where we can see a representation of famine (“fames") pointing at her hungry mouth.
  93. 93. CAUSES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS WARS FAMINE BLACK DEATH • Hundred Years War:  England VS France  1337 - 1453 • Between feudal lords & kings. • Climatic calamities (heavy rainfalls) led to less harvests, malnutrition and famine among the European population. • Plague epidemic between 1348 – 1352 that killed about 1/3 of the European population.
  94. 94. VIDEO
  95. 95. - 1348 - 1352 - Epidemic of the bubonic plague. - Killed ⅓ of European population (≈ 25 million people) - Originated in Asia. Then it spread towards the West by rats & fleas through the trade routes. - Factors: lack of hygiene, medicines & information. - Symptoms: buboes (lumps), black marks & fever. - Doctors were unable to control the disease. They used bleeding treatment to try to treat it. The Black Death - Though it was spread by rats, people believed it was a punishment from God. Some hit themselves with leather whips to show repentance (flagellants).
  96. 96. The spread of the Black Death
  97. 97. Symptoms of the bubonic plague
  98. 98. ♫♫ Ring Around the Rosy ♫♫
  99. 99. Consequences of the Black Death  Families were torn apart and villages deserted.  Businesses collapsed and fiefs were left bankrupt by loss of taxes.  There was a strengthened belief in God, but an increased skepticism about the established Church.  The shortage of labor shifted the balance of power between the lords and the serfs.  Authority and tradition were no longer accepted with out question.
  100. 100. CONSEQUENCES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS POPULATION DROP ECONOMIC DECLINE SOCIAL CONFLICTS 1300: 80 million people 1400: 45 million people • Agricultural production dropped so prices of food raised. • The demand of handcrafted goods decreased (less population = less demand) so craftwork & trade went into a crisis • In the countryside peasants rebelled against the lords, who had increased feudal taxes to make up for the decreased population. • In the cities the poorer people attacked the wealthier classes in demand of jobs. Jews were also attacked due to a rumour that said that they had caused the Black Death by poisoning the water wells.
  101. 101. 15th Century recovery Population began to grow again Economy improved (agriculture, crafts & trade) due to greater demand, so social conflicts stopped Search for new trade routes (fall of Constatinople, 1453) led to geographical discoveries New mentality (humanism) led to the European Renaissance Kings gained control over the feudal lords
  102. 102. Activity 8 P. 132   exercise 3  exercise 4  exercises 5a / 5b / 5c