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Sparta: religion death & burial

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Sparta: religion death & burial

  1. 1. HSC Ancient
  2. 2. HSC Ancient
  3. 3. Topics
  4. 4. Topics • Gods and Goddesses
  5. 5. Topics • Gods and Goddesses • Myths and Legends
  6. 6. Topics • Gods and Goddesses • Myths and Legends • Festivals
  7. 7. Topics • Gods and Goddesses • Myths and Legends • Festivals • Religious roles of the kings
  8. 8. Topics • Gods and Goddesses • Myths and Legends • Festivals • Religious roles of the kings • Funerary customs and rituals
  9. 9. Spartan Religion
  10. 10. Spartan Religion • In the ancient world the Spartans were known for their serious attitude towards religion and their obedience to the Gods.
  11. 11. Spartan Religion • In the ancient world the Spartans were known for their serious attitude towards religion and their obedience to the Gods.
  12. 12. Spartan Religion • In the ancient world the Spartans were known for their serious attitude towards religion and their obedience to the Gods. • Their strict adherence to religious ritual caused them to be mocked by other Greek states.
  13. 13. Spartan Religion
  14. 14. Spartan Religion • Religion in Sparta was a way of bringing the community together and uniting the gods with the everyday social and political institutions of the Spartan state.
  15. 15. Spartan Religion • Religion in Sparta was a way of bringing the community together and uniting the gods with the everyday social and political institutions of the Spartan state.
  16. 16. Spartan Religion • Religion in Sparta was a way of bringing the community together and uniting the gods with the everyday social and political institutions of the Spartan state. • The fact that the kings served as chief priests reinforces this amalgamation of religion and government.
  17. 17. Spartan Religion • Religion in Sparta was a way of bringing the community together and uniting the gods with the everyday social and political institutions of the Spartan state. • The fact that the kings served as chief priests reinforces this amalgamation of religion and government.
  18. 18. Spartan Religion • Religion in Sparta was a way of bringing the community together and uniting the gods with the everyday social and political institutions of the Spartan state. • The fact that the kings served as chief priests reinforces this amalgamation of religion and government. • Major festivals celebrated by the Spartans included those common to other Greek city states, along with festivals peculiar to the Spartans.
  19. 19. Gods and Goddesses
  20. 20. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia
  21. 21. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia
  22. 22. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’
  23. 23. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’
  24. 24. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known.
  25. 25. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known.
  26. 26. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals.
  27. 27. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals.
  28. 28. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals. • The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia was near the Eurotas River outside the centre of Sparta.
  29. 29. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals. • The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia was near the Eurotas River outside the centre of Sparta.
  30. 30. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals. • The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia was near the Eurotas River outside the centre of Sparta. • The festival of Artemis Orthia consisted of young Spartan boys trying to steal cheese from the goddess’s altar as it was defended by older youths who whipped the younger boys.
  31. 31. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals. • The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia was near the Eurotas River outside the centre of Sparta. • The festival of Artemis Orthia consisted of young Spartan boys trying to steal cheese from the goddess’s altar as it was defended by older youths who whipped the younger boys.
  32. 32. Gods and Goddesses 1. Artemis Orthia • Artemis – goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of children and women’s health. Associated with forests and is sometimes called the 'mistress of the wild’ • Orthia – was an earlier Spartan goddess about whom little is known. • The combining of the two deities produced Artemis Orthia, goddess of the hunt and wild animals. • The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia was near the Eurotas River outside the centre of Sparta. • The festival of Artemis Orthia consisted of young Spartan boys trying to steal cheese from the goddess’s altar as it was defended by older youths who whipped the younger boys. • This ritual has been interpreted by some as a rite of passage (test of courage/ aggression). According to Pausanias, the goddess was not satisfied until her altar was soaked with blood of the cheese thieves.
  33. 33. Bone fibula catch-plate, 660 B.C., Laconian workshop. The goddess Artemis is represented as Mistress of Animals. From the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, Sparta.
  34. 34. Temple of Artemis Orthia
  35. 35. Gods and Goddesses
  36. 36. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon
  37. 37. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines.
  38. 38. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines.
  39. 39. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia.
  40. 40. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia.
  41. 41. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia.
  42. 42. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia.
  43. 43. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes.
  44. 44. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes.
  45. 45. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes. • Famous Spartan hero Lysander dedicated a military victory to Poseidon.
  46. 46. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes. • Famous Spartan hero Lysander dedicated a military victory to Poseidon.
  47. 47. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes. • Famous Spartan hero Lysander dedicated a military victory to Poseidon. Not far from them [the Markets of Sparta, is a sanctuary ... of Poseidon… (Pausanias)
  48. 48. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes. • Famous Spartan hero Lysander dedicated a military victory to Poseidon. Not far from them [the Markets of Sparta, is a sanctuary ... of Poseidon… (Pausanias)
  49. 49. Gods and Goddesses 2. Poseidon • Poseidon was the god of the sea, fresh water, horses and earthquakes. He was widely worshipped in ancient Greece, with numerous temples and shrines. • There were several sanctuaries of Poseidon in Laconia. • Major temple near Cape Taenaron, at the very tip of southern Laconia. • Earthquakes were attributed to Poseidon’s mood changes. • Famous Spartan hero Lysander dedicated a military victory to Poseidon. Not far from them [the Markets of Sparta, is a sanctuary ... of Poseidon… (Pausanias) The Lakedaimonians put to death men who had taken refuge in the sanctuary
  50. 50. Poseidon of Artemision Bronze statue Archaeological National Museum, Athens
  51. 51. Gods and Goddesses
  52. 52. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo
  53. 53. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo
  54. 54. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky
  55. 55. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky
  56. 56. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans.
  57. 57. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans.
  58. 58. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue.
  59. 59. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue.
  60. 60. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion.
  61. 61. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion.
  62. 62. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion. • Another major festival - the Gymnopaedia also held in honour of Apollo
  63. 63. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion. • Another major festival - the Gymnopaedia also held in honour of Apollo
  64. 64. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion. • Another major festival - the Gymnopaedia also held in honour of Apollo • All major festivals in Sparta honoured Apollo as a young man (indicating Spartan obsession with youth).
  65. 65. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion. • Another major festival - the Gymnopaedia also held in honour of Apollo • All major festivals in Sparta honoured Apollo as a young man (indicating Spartan obsession with youth).
  66. 66. Gods and Goddesses 3. Apollo • Apollo was traditionally the god of the sky • There was a sanctuary of Apollo-Hyakinthia found on the hill at Amyklae called the Amyklaion. Important place of worship for the Spartans. • At the Anyklaion there was a throne of Apollo surrounded by the colossal column-shaped statue of the god. The tomb-altar of the local god or hero Hyakinthos was used as the pedestal of the statue. • Major festival called the Hyakinthia was held at the Amyklaion. • Another major festival - the Gymnopaedia also held in honour of Apollo • All major festivals in Sparta honoured Apollo as a young man (indicating Spartan obsession with youth). • Came to be recognized as the god of light, music and truth and was associated with health. He was also an archer / warrior god.
  67. 67. Ruins of the Amyklaion at Amyclae.
  68. 68. Myths and Legends
  69. 69. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece.
  70. 70. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece.
  71. 71. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples
  72. 72. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples
  73. 73. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples • Spartan kings were claimed to have been descended from the semi-divine hero Heracles who supposedly returned to Laconia with the Dorian invaders.
  74. 74. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples • Spartan kings were claimed to have been descended from the semi-divine hero Heracles who supposedly returned to Laconia with the Dorian invaders.
  75. 75. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples • Spartan kings were claimed to have been descended from the semi-divine hero Heracles who supposedly returned to Laconia with the Dorian invaders. • Sparta eventually took many heroes of Troy - Menelaus and Helen had a shrine in Sparta – the Menelaion
  76. 76. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples • Spartan kings were claimed to have been descended from the semi-divine hero Heracles who supposedly returned to Laconia with the Dorian invaders. • Sparta eventually took many heroes of Troy - Menelaus and Helen had a shrine in Sparta – the Menelaion
  77. 77. Myths and Legends • Sparta made use of legend to justify its claims of leadership in both the Peloponnese and Greece  established links between Sparta and the gods/heroes of ancient Greece. Examples • Spartan kings were claimed to have been descended from the semi-divine hero Heracles who supposedly returned to Laconia with the Dorian invaders. • Sparta eventually took many heroes of Troy - Menelaus and Helen had a shrine in Sparta – the Menelaion • Legend surrounded the military excellence of the Spartan army and the agoge - the suicidal stand of 300 Spartiates against the overwhelming numbers of the invading Persians at Thermopylae
  78. 78. Myths and Legends
  79. 79. Myths and Legends Lycurgus
  80. 80. Myths and Legends Lycurgus
  81. 81. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle
  82. 82. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle • Although the ancients describe him as a real person (or even divine), modern historians tend to see him as a mythological figure.
  83. 83. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle • Although the ancients describe him as a real person (or even divine), modern historians tend to see him as a mythological figure.
  84. 84. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle • Although the ancients describe him as a real person (or even divine), modern historians tend to see him as a mythological figure. ‘…I know not whether to declare you human or divine - Yet I incline to believe, Lycurgus, that you are a god,’ (Herodotus)
  85. 85. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle • Although the ancients describe him as a real person (or even divine), modern historians tend to see him as a mythological figure. ‘…I know not whether to declare you human or divine - Yet I incline to believe, Lycurgus, that you are a god,’ (Herodotus)
  86. 86. Myths and Legends Lycurgus • The mysterious figure who supposedly gave Sparta its political and social institutions, including: – The Great Rhetra – The agoge – Austere lifestyle • Although the ancients describe him as a real person (or even divine), modern historians tend to see him as a mythological figure. ‘…I know not whether to declare you human or divine - Yet I incline to believe, Lycurgus, that you are a god,’ (Herodotus) “The perpetuation of his name was one of the most successful frauds in history” (Andrews)
  87. 87. Myths and Legends
  88. 88. Myths and Legends Dioscuri
  89. 89. Myths and Legends Dioscuri
  90. 90. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles.
  91. 91. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles.
  92. 92. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri
  93. 93. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri
  94. 94. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri • They were associated with young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics and warfare.
  95. 95. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri • They were associated with young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics and warfare.
  96. 96. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri • They were associated with young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics and warfare. • Also assisted in protection of the Sparta in times of danger – protectors of the state.
  97. 97. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri • They were associated with young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics and warfare. • Also assisted in protection of the Sparta in times of danger – protectors of the state.
  98. 98. Myths and Legends Dioscuri • The legend of the twin sons of Zeus - Castor and Polydeuces who were the brothers of Helen of Sparta, and descendants of Heracles. • They were associated with the two Kings of Sparta - descendants of the Dioscuri. The kings were the priests of the Dioscuri • They were associated with young men and their pursuits of horsemanship, athletics and warfare. • Also assisted in protection of the Sparta in times of danger – protectors of the state. • Many hero-relief’s have been uncovered by archaeologists. Thousands of votive offerings to the Dioscuri have been uncovered.
  99. 99. The Dioscuri – shown as naked youths on horseback. They were Sparta's patrons and protectors
  100. 100. Spartan Festivals Clay mask from the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.
  101. 101. Spartan Festivals “Religious festivals were occasions of public display” Clay mask from the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.
  102. 102. Spartan Festivals “Religious festivals were occasions of public display” (Xenophon) Clay mask from the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.
  103. 103. Spartan Festivals “Religious festivals were occasions of public display” (Xenophon) Clay mask from the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.
  104. 104. Spartan Festivals
  105. 105. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia
  106. 106. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia
  107. 107. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him.
  108. 108. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him.
  109. 109. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos.
  110. 110. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos.
  111. 111. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos. • 2 stages to the festival: – 1) marked by rites of sorrow (day of ritual defilement + grief) – 2) consisted of processions, dances and chariot races, sacrifices were held and so were feasts.
  112. 112. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos. • 2 stages to the festival: – 1) marked by rites of sorrow (day of ritual defilement + grief) – 2) consisted of processions, dances and chariot races, sacrifices were held and so were feasts. • Choir boys accompanied by flutes/lyres sang praise of the gods – this was a highlight.
  113. 113. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos. • 2 stages to the festival: – 1) marked by rites of sorrow (day of ritual defilement + grief) – 2) consisted of processions, dances and chariot races, sacrifices were held and so were feasts. • Choir boys accompanied by flutes/lyres sang praise of the gods – this was a highlight.
  114. 114. Spartan Festivals 1. Hyakinthia • Origins in myth that Apollo hit Hyakinthos (a Spartan Prince who was a lover of Apollo) in the head with a discus and killed him. • Hyakinthia was a 3 day festival celebrated in early summer in order to mourn the mythological death of Hyakinthos. • 2 stages to the festival: – 1) marked by rites of sorrow (day of ritual defilement + grief) – 2) consisted of processions, dances and chariot races, sacrifices were held and so were feasts. • Choir boys accompanied by flutes/lyres sang praise of the gods – this was a highlight. • Held at Amyklaion shrine at Amyclae.
  115. 115. Spartan Festivals
  116. 116. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia
  117. 117. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia
  118. 118. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge
  119. 119. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge
  120. 120. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July).
  121. 121. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July).
  122. 122. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports”
  123. 123. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports”
  124. 124. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports” • Was held in honour of the slain at the ancient battle of Thyrea against Argos 550BC
  125. 125. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports” • Was held in honour of the slain at the ancient battle of Thyrea against Argos 550BC
  126. 126. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports” • Was held in honour of the slain at the ancient battle of Thyrea against Argos 550BC • Both young and old males took part in the festival, tending to perform at different times of the day – however older men (30?) who were unmarried & without children were not allowed to participate.
  127. 127. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports” • Was held in honour of the slain at the ancient battle of Thyrea against Argos 550BC • Both young and old males took part in the festival, tending to perform at different times of the day – however older men (30?) who were unmarried & without children were not allowed to participate.
  128. 128. Spartan Festivals 2. Gymnopaedia • 5 day festival of athletic competitions/music events linked to agoge • Held in the Spartan agora (market place), in the hottest part of the year (July). • Unique to Sparta, translates roughly into “naked sports” • Was held in honour of the slain at the ancient battle of Thyrea against Argos 550BC • Both young and old males took part in the festival, tending to perform at different times of the day – however older men (30?) who were unmarried & without children were not allowed to participate. • A grand parade was held at the end of each festival.
  129. 129. Spartan Festivals
  130. 130. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia
  131. 131. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia
  132. 132. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September)
  133. 133. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September)
  134. 134. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram
  135. 135. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram
  136. 136. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events.
  137. 137. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events.
  138. 138. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events.
  139. 139. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events. • 2 main rituals: 1) A procession with model rafts (represented the migration & colonisation of Sparta) 2) A ritual where a runner was adorned with a garland of wool on his head, he prayed to the gods then ran away – if he was caught it was a good omen for the city, if not it was a bad omen.
  140. 140. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events. • 2 main rituals: 1) A procession with model rafts (represented the migration & colonisation of Sparta) 2) A ritual where a runner was adorned with a garland of wool on his head, he prayed to the gods then ran away – if he was caught it was a good omen for the city, if not it was a bad omen.
  141. 141. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events. • 2 main rituals: 1) A procession with model rafts (represented the migration & colonisation of Sparta) 2) A ritual where a runner was adorned with a garland of wool on his head, he prayed to the gods then ran away – if he was caught it was a good omen for the city, if not it was a bad omen. • A large feast was held in tent-like structures
  142. 142. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events. • 2 main rituals: 1) A procession with model rafts (represented the migration & colonisation of Sparta) 2) A ritual where a runner was adorned with a garland of wool on his head, he prayed to the gods then ran away – if he was caught it was a good omen for the city, if not it was a bad omen. • A large feast was held in tent-like structures
  143. 143. Spartan Festivals 3. Karneia • A harvest festival celebrated over 9 days in month of Karneios (August/ September) • Received its name from Apollo Karneios, god of the herd/ram • An extremely important festival for the Spartans, it was a celebration of the foundation of Sparta and various military events. • 2 main rituals: 1) A procession with model rafts (represented the migration & colonisation of Sparta) 2) A ritual where a runner was adorned with a garland of wool on his head, he prayed to the gods then ran away – if he was caught it was a good omen for the city, if not it was a bad omen. • A large feast was held in tent-like structures • Athletic contests /games held – close association with agoge
  144. 144. Religious Roles of the Kings
  145. 145. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta.
  146. 146. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta.
  147. 147. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta. • Regarded as representatives of the gods, they held office as long as gods pleased (every 9 years ephors looked in skies for signs of gods approval/disapproval)
  148. 148. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta. • Regarded as representatives of the gods, they held office as long as gods pleased (every 9 years ephors looked in skies for signs of gods approval/disapproval)
  149. 149. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta. • Regarded as representatives of the gods, they held office as long as gods pleased (every 9 years ephors looked in skies for signs of gods approval/disapproval) • Expected to frequently offer sacrifices for the success of their city, and the safeguard of the army
  150. 150. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta. • Regarded as representatives of the gods, they held office as long as gods pleased (every 9 years ephors looked in skies for signs of gods approval/disapproval) • Expected to frequently offer sacrifices for the success of their city, and the safeguard of the army
  151. 151. Religious Roles of the Kings • Kings were the most important Priests in Sparta. • Regarded as representatives of the gods, they held office as long as gods pleased (every 9 years ephors looked in skies for signs of gods approval/disapproval) • Expected to frequently offer sacrifices for the success of their city, and the safeguard of the army • Carried out sacrifices to their respective Patron gods on behalf of the people on the 1st and 7th day of each month – to Zeus Uranios and Zeus Lacedaemon.
  152. 152. Religious Roles of the Kings
  153. 153. Religious Roles of the Kings • Sacrifices were carried out at important annual festivals, at funerals, before leaving for war (Zeus), before crossing the frontier (Zeus and Athena) and at dawn on the day of battle when a goat was sacrificed.
  154. 154. Religious Roles of the Kings • Sacrifices were carried out at important annual festivals, at funerals, before leaving for war (Zeus), before crossing the frontier (Zeus and Athena) and at dawn on the day of battle when a goat was sacrificed.
  155. 155. Religious Roles of the Kings • Sacrifices were carried out at important annual festivals, at funerals, before leaving for war (Zeus), before crossing the frontier (Zeus and Athena) and at dawn on the day of battle when a goat was sacrificed. • Accountable for the preservation of the gods’ happiness, and if disaster struck, the kings were held responsible.
  156. 156. Religious Roles of the Kings • Sacrifices were carried out at important annual festivals, at funerals, before leaving for war (Zeus), before crossing the frontier (Zeus and Athena) and at dawn on the day of battle when a goat was sacrificed. • Accountable for the preservation of the gods’ happiness, and if disaster struck, the kings were held responsible.
  157. 157. Religious Roles of the Kings • Sacrifices were carried out at important annual festivals, at funerals, before leaving for war (Zeus), before crossing the frontier (Zeus and Athena) and at dawn on the day of battle when a goat was sacrificed. • Accountable for the preservation of the gods’ happiness, and if disaster struck, the kings were held responsible. • Appointed 4 pithioi to consult the Oracle at Delphi  responsible for the safe keeping of all oracles
  158. 158. Funerary Customs & Rituals
  159. 159. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Plutarch gives us some idea about Spartan attitude towards death:
  160. 160. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Plutarch gives us some idea about Spartan attitude towards death:
  161. 161. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Plutarch gives us some idea about Spartan attitude towards death: ‘… [Lycurgus] removed all superstition by not placing any ban on the burial of the dead within the city…thus through their upbringing young people came to regard such sites as familiar and normal: they were not disturbed by them, nor did they fear death…’
  162. 162. Funerary Customs & Rituals
  163. 163. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS:
  164. 164. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS:
  165. 165. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state.
  166. 166. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state.
  167. 167. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death
  168. 168. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death
  169. 169. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death • Were given graves / tombs only if died in battle (male) or in childbirth (female) or were buried in simple pits.
  170. 170. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death • Were given graves / tombs only if died in battle (male) or in childbirth (female) or were buried in simple pits.
  171. 171. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death • Were given graves / tombs only if died in battle (male) or in childbirth (female) or were buried in simple pits. • Soldiers were buried wrapped in their red cloaks with olive leaves placed around
  172. 172. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death • Were given graves / tombs only if died in battle (male) or in childbirth (female) or were buried in simple pits. • Soldiers were buried wrapped in their red cloaks with olive leaves placed around
  173. 173. Funerary Customs & Rituals A) SPARTAN CITIZENS: • Spartans were encouraged to view death as a normal part of life – so they would give their lives for the state. • Burials within the city – encourage not to fear death • Were given graves / tombs only if died in battle (male) or in childbirth (female) or were buried in simple pits. • Soldiers were buried wrapped in their red cloaks with olive leaves placed around • Warriors could be buried on the battlefield with grave markers ‘in war’ placed to identify the body
  174. 174. Funerary Customs & Rituals
  175. 175. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Funerary rituals were conducted by female relatives and included: – Laying out the body – Funeral procession – The Burial
  176. 176. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Funerary rituals were conducted by female relatives and included: – Laying out the body – Funeral procession – The Burial • Grave goods/offerings were not placed in graves
  177. 177. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Funerary rituals were conducted by female relatives and included: – Laying out the body – Funeral procession – The Burial • Grave goods/offerings were not placed in graves
  178. 178. Funerary Customs & Rituals • Funerary rituals were conducted by female relatives and included: – Laying out the body – Funeral procession – The Burial • Grave goods/offerings were not placed in graves • A strict period of mourning was enforced - 11 days - and the 12th day was marked by a sacrifice to Demeter and the end of grieving.
  179. 179. Funerary Customs & Rituals
  180. 180. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS
  181. 181. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS
  182. 182. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS • Spartan king burials were dealt with differently.
  183. 183. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS • Spartan king burials were dealt with differently.
  184. 184. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS • Spartan king burials were dealt with differently. • Herodotus is our main source in investigating the death and burial of a king. He states that kings received elaborate burial rituals in keeping with their divine origins and religious significance
  185. 185. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS • Spartan king burials were dealt with differently. • Herodotus is our main source in investigating the death and burial of a king. He states that kings received elaborate burial rituals in keeping with their divine origins and religious significance
  186. 186. Funerary Customs & Rituals B) KINGS • Spartan king burials were dealt with differently. • Herodotus is our main source in investigating the death and burial of a king. He states that kings received elaborate burial rituals in keeping with their divine origins and religious significance ‘Spartans held their kings as demi-gods, worthy of a hero’s funeral.’ (H.W Parker)
  187. 187. Funerary Customs & Rituals
  188. 188. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died:
  189. 189. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died:
  190. 190. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants
  191. 191. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants
  192. 192. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief
  193. 193. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief
  194. 194. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had
  195. 195. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had
  196. 196. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment
  197. 197. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment
  198. 198. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment – For 10 days following the burial, no meetings were allowed to be held
  199. 199. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment – For 10 days following the burial, no meetings were allowed to be held
  200. 200. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment – For 10 days following the burial, no meetings were allowed to be held – If a king is killed in war - they must make a statute of him and carry it to burial on a richly decorated bier
  201. 201. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment – For 10 days following the burial, no meetings were allowed to be held – If a king is killed in war - they must make a statute of him and carry it to burial on a richly decorated bier
  202. 202. Funerary Customs & Rituals • According to Herodotus when a Spartan King died: – Horseman would ride all over Laconia and inform the inhabitants – Women would beat cauldrons and strike their heads in grief – People would proclaim that the late King was the best they ever had – Two free people from each household were required to put up signs of desecration  failure to comply meant heavy punishment – For 10 days following the burial, no meetings were allowed to be held – If a king is killed in war - they must make a statute of him and carry it to burial on a richly decorated bier – Spartan Kings buried outside the city to separate them from the living
  203. 203. HSC Style Questions
  204. 204. HSC Style Questions Name TWO gods/goddesses worshipped at Sparta (2 marks).
  205. 205. HSC Style Questions Name TWO gods/goddesses worshipped at Sparta (2 marks).
  206. 206. HSC Style Questions Name TWO gods/goddesses worshipped at Sparta (2 marks). Name TWO Spartan festivals (2 marks).
  207. 207. HSC Style Questions Name TWO gods/goddesses worshipped at Sparta (2 marks). Name TWO Spartan festivals (2 marks).
  208. 208. HSC Style Questions Name TWO gods/goddesses worshipped at Sparta (2 marks). Name TWO Spartan festivals (2 marks). With reference to sources, describe the main features of Spartan religious festivals. (8 marks)

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