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CORE STUDY Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii & Herculaneum HSC ANCIENT HISTORY
<ul><li>PART 2: </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Geography ...
Location
 
 
Bay of Naples Mt Vesuvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Physical Environment
<ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum were located on the coast of the Bay of Naples in the region known as Campania, south of R...
Resources of Campania <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum many resources because of their coastal location and fertile volcani...
Archaeological sources on the physical environment of Campania “Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius” a wall painting from a household ...
 
 
<ul><li>Several ancient writers describe the natural setting of Campania.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Strabo, Martial, Pliny, S...
<ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum were fairly small compared to other Italian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Pompeii and Her...
The Urban Landscape <ul><li>Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated to have been roughly around 66 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
 
<ul><ul><li>Pompeii has been described as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a confused jumble of shops, workshops, crafts, res...
<ul><li>Herculaneum   </li></ul><ul><li>was about 22 hectares  </li></ul><ul><li>Population was about 5000 </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
Streetscape A .  This is a view of one of the minor streets in Pompeii. The buildings on the right are the backs of houses...
Streetscapes of Pompeii & Herculaneum Streetscape B .  This is a view of one of the busier streets of Pompeii showing deep...
Streetscapes of Pompeii & Herculaneum Nucerian gate, Pompeii. One of the eight gates into the city, the Nucerian Gate is s...
 
 
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Pompeii Part 2: Geographical context

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Pompeii Part 2: Geographical context

  1. 1. CORE STUDY Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii & Herculaneum HSC ANCIENT HISTORY
  2. 2. <ul><li>PART 2: </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Geography & Natural Features </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Urban Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Town Plan of Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Town Plan of Herculaneum </li></ul>
  3. 3. Location
  4. 6. Bay of Naples Mt Vesuvius
  5. 13. The Physical Environment
  6. 14. <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum were located on the coast of the Bay of Naples in the region known as Campania, south of Rome. Because of their coastal location, both towns were engaged in trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bay is dominated by the Volcano Mt Vesuvius. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt Vesuvius is part of a chain of volcanoes along the western coast of Italy. It is still active, last erupting in 1944. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 13 low craters as part of the chain of volcanoes, a result of a huge eruption 36000 years ago which created these Phlegraean Fields – which the poet Virgil called “foul breathing…entrance to the underworld” </li></ul><ul><li>Both towns in close to Vesuvius – Pompeii to the south, Herculaneum to the North West. </li></ul><ul><li>Campania is one of the most fertile regions in Italy, due to the rich volcanic soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Slopes of Mt Vesuvius ideal for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>River Sarnus South-East of Vesuvius. Plains easily farmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky terrain in many locations along the Bay of Naples – difficult for agriculture, olives grown successfully in these locations. </li></ul>The Physical Environment
  7. 15. Resources of Campania <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum many resources because of their coastal location and fertile volcanic soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Mild winters, early spring ideal for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Crops: </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat, barley </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage, broad-beans, chickpeas, dates, figs, olives, grapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock: </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep and Goats </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured – olive oil, wine, fish paste (garum), wool. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploited the sea for fishing and salt (for preservation). </li></ul>
  8. 16. Archaeological sources on the physical environment of Campania “Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius” a wall painting from a household shrine in the House of the Centenary
  9. 19. <ul><li>Several ancient writers describe the natural setting of Campania. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Strabo, Martial, Pliny, Seneca. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions in the booklet on the literary sources regarding the physical setting of Pompeii and Herculaneum. </li></ul>Literary sources on the physical environment of Campania
  10. 20. <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum were fairly small compared to other Italian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Pompeii and Herculaneum were designed in rectangular blocks ( insulae). </li></ul><ul><li>These insulae were separated by streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Main streets ran through the entirety of the cities, with smaller, narrower streets running off them. </li></ul><ul><li>Public buildings and amenities were located throughout the cities. They were located for easy access by the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum. These included: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amphitheatre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theatres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnasiums ( Palaestra) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Forum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Town Halls ( Basilica) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Baths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Fountains </li></ul></ul></ul>The Urban Landscape
  11. 21. The Urban Landscape <ul><li>Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated to have been roughly around 66 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>It was a planned town with streets forming a regular grid based on two main streets </li></ul><ul><li>Population of about 20 000. </li></ul><ul><li>The roads varied in width; being between 2.4, 3.6 or 4.5 metres wide. </li></ul><ul><li>It was enclosed by a 3.2 kilometre wall which tended to follow the defensive structure of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>City blocks ( insulae ) about 35 by 90 metres. </li></ul><ul><li>The roads had raised footpaths with stepping stones on the road so pedestrians could get from one footpath to the other without getting wet. </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeian street names are not known. They have been given modern Italian names by Fiorelli eg Via del Abbondanze (eg. Street of Abundance). </li></ul><ul><li>A Via is a main highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Decumani were roads running from east to west and they met at right angles. Shrines and water fountains were often placed at these intersections. </li></ul>
  12. 24. <ul><ul><li>Pompeii has been described as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a confused jumble of shops, workshops, crafts, residential and horticultural plots and houses across the whole city with no real attempt at commercial segregation or concentration beyond the tendency of shops to line the main roads and horticulture to cluster on the margins” (Amery & Curran) </li></ul></ul>The Urban Landscape
  13. 25. <ul><li>Herculaneum </li></ul><ul><li>was about 22 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Population was about 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>A large part of Herculaneum lies beneath the modern city of Resina </li></ul><ul><li>Only four insulae have been excavated </li></ul><ul><li>Herculaneum had less wheeled traffic as it was not a large manufacturing or trading centre. It was mostly residential. </li></ul><ul><li>It had a sea wall, storm drains and an underground sewer beneath the roads which sent sewerage and rainwater to the sea > no need for stepping stones. </li></ul><ul><li>The two main streets running eat to west are Decumanus Maximus and the Decumanus Inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>Herculaneum had better drainage and sewerage systems. </li></ul>The Urban Landscape
  14. 28. Streetscape A . This is a view of one of the minor streets in Pompeii. The buildings on the right are the backs of houses. This street is paved with well-laid lava stones and has raised footpaths on each side edged with cut blocks of stone. The absence of wheel ruts suggests this street was closed to wheeled vehicles. Note the modern surface of the footpaths. Streetscapes of Pompeii & Herculaneum
  15. 29. Streetscapes of Pompeii & Herculaneum Streetscape B . This is a view of one of the busier streets of Pompeii showing deep wheel ruts in the lava paving stones. Note the strategically placed stepping-stones, which enabled people to avoid waste water and sewage which ran down the street. Compared to Streetscape A, this image shows many more doorways opening onto the street. The number of each house is clearly displayed.
  16. 30. Streetscapes of Pompeii & Herculaneum Nucerian gate, Pompeii. One of the eight gates into the city, the Nucerian Gate is situated in the eastern part of Pompeii, near the amphitheatre. Crowds of people coming into the city for the gladiatorial games would have entered through this gate. Funeral processions leaving the city for the nearby necropolis would also have passed through this gate. This road leads down to a group of more than 40 tombs, which by Roman law, had to be outside the pomerium of the town. Near this gate is an inscription stating that Suedius Clemens, Emperor Vespasian’s envoy to Pompeii, demolished private buildings and tombs, which had been illegally built within the pomerium

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