Benefits of diversifying and restoring landscape mosaics in the tropics by harnessing tree diversity CBD COP11Rio Pavilion , Hyderabad, India, 8-19 October 2012 Tree Diversity Day 11 October 2012
Trees: essential components of natural ecosystems,indicators for biological diversity. Ø The transition from forests to other land uses in tropical areas is typically accompanied by a landscape simplification; but our vision in the global research programme on Forests Trees and Agroforestry is of tree-rich mosaic landscapes in the tropics.
Trees: essential components of natural ecosystems, indicators for biological diversity.Ø Increased abundance and diversity of tree species –enhanced ecosystem stability in the provision of products,incomes, livelihoods and services.Ø Likewise, maintaining inter and intraspecific diversity of treesincreases the resilience of forests to environmental changes.Ø Recently developed tools and approaches based on a visionof landscape mosaics with greater tree diversity.
MAPFORGEN: a tool for managing and conserving tree diversity in Latin AmericaJudy Loo, Maarten van Zonneveld, Barbara Vinceti, Evert Thomas, Hannes Gaisberger, Riina Jalonen Rome, Italy COP 11 CBD Tree Diversity Day 11th October 2012
Background!As many as100,000 tree species globally; ""Thousands are valuable for food, medicine,fuel, timber and other purposes;""More than 8000 tree species are reportedto be threatened with extinction (GlobalTrees Campaign);" "Highest numbers of tree species by countryare in South America;""Brazil alone has 7,880 tree species;Mesoamerica , about 4000."
Background!Loss of populations of tree species - an extinctiondisaster that goes unnoticed; permanent loss ofgenetic resources with adaptations and existingand potential economic values that can no longerbe realised; ""Most tree genetic resources are conserved in situ(wild populations) and/or circa situ (through use onfarms);" "To enhance conservation and sustainable use ofFGR, we need to know patterns and locations ofhigh or useful diversity;""Information on reproductive systems and useprovides a baseline to develop conservation andmanagement strategies. "
Background!But:!Distribution is not known for many treespecies;""Very little is known about geographicpatterns of genetic diversity to prioritizeareas for conservation;""Limited understanding about reproductionsystems of many tree species. "
MAPFORGEN!Evaluation of the conservation status of and threats to100important tree species native to Latin America and theCaribbean. ""Objectives:! – Establish knowledge base on genetic resources of trees at continental level;" – Promote collaborations between researchers;" – Support actions for conservation of tree populations;" – Increase awareness of tree genetic resources."
Steps! • Map observed and potential distribution using observations from GBIF, herbaria, genebanks; BIOCLIM (global climate data), soils & Ecozones (FAO); and MaxEnt (maximum entropy modelling software); expert review" • Overlay distribution on threat maps developed by CIAT" • Compile life history information (reproductive biology, ecological characteristics)" • Deﬁne conservation status (in situ, ex situ, IUCN listing, protected area coverage)" • Conduct spatial analysis of genetic diversity (DIVA GIS)"http://www.bioversityinternational.org/training/training_materials/gis_manual
Genetic diversity studies and mapping ! Annona cherimola! Bactris gasipaes! Cedrela balansae & C. lilloi! Nothofagus nervosa & N. obliqua ! Picea chihuahuana! Quercus humboltii! Theobroma cacao!
Intra-specific diversity (Annona cherimola Mill)" Microsatellite diversityVan Zonneveld et al 2012. Mapping genectic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use ofplant genetic resources. PloSONE
Practical applications!Set conservation priorities: areas having highdiversity, high threat; unique populations.Set restoration priorities: areas having highgenetic diversity and high ecosystemdegradation; sources for planting when localmaterial is lacking.Target populations for collection of materialsfor planting and breeding programmes.Future: add field trial and genomic markerdata to data platform to improve identificationof adaptive potential.
Extending to other continents…! Thank you!• “I am myself and what is around me, and if I do notsave it, it shall not save me.”• Jose Ortega y Gasset (1914)