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Domestication,utilization and conservation of superior agroforestry germplasm

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Domestication,utilization and conservation of superior agroforestry germplasm

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Domestication,utilization and conservation of superior agroforestry germplasm

  1. 1. Global Research Project 1 (GRP 1)<br />Domestication,utilization and conservation of superior agroforestry germplasm<br />http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/research/grp1_agroforestry_germplasm<br />Presentation by GRP 1 team HQ and ICRAF Regions <br />Science Week, 12 – 17 September 2011<br />
  2. 2. Global exports value for some tree commodities (Edible)<br /> 2001-2008 (US$ ‘000)<br />Source: FAOSTAT, 2011<br />$ 126,282,549,680 industry <br />
  3. 3. The Right Trees for the Right Place<br />A. Trees for Products<br />fruit<br />firewood<br />medicine<br />income<br />sawnwood<br />fodder<br />B. Trees for Services<br />soil<br />fertility<br />carbon <br />sequestration<br />watershed<br />protection<br />soil<br />erosion<br />shade<br />biodiversity<br />
  4. 4. GRP 1 sub projects<br />GRP1.1: Improved tree planting material produced (fruit, medicinals, fertilizer, bioenergy, timber, etc.) to contribute to mitigating global challenges of hunger, health, climate change and environmental degradation. ( CRP 6, CRP 4)<br />GRP 1.2: Access to quality agroforestry tree germplasm for smallholder farmers through formal and informal sector supply systems and development of associated extension information that influences production, use and adoption. Address best conservation strategies for agroforestry trees.<br />(CRP 1 , CRP 6)<br />
  5. 5. Highlights of some GRP 1 achievements 2010-2011 <br />Decision Support Tools: Knowledge that influences production, use, adoption and conservation of treesRoeland Kindt<br />Understanding and using phenotypic variation Carmen Sotelo and John Weber<br />New molecular approaches to enhanced tree productivity Ian Dawson<br />Allanblackia domestication Daniel Ofori <br />Student SuccessesRamni Jamnadass<br />
  6. 6. Decision-support tools for species selection<br />“ICRAF have a nifty new tool out called Useful Tree Species for Africa. I’ve been playing around with it and I have to say it’s impressive.”<br />Luigi Guarino http://agro.biodiver.se/)<br />
  7. 7. Decision-support tools for species selection<br />Why did we develop these tools?<br />“the right trees for the right place”<br />Advise our clients on good candidate species for planting in a particular area<br />Point location data are not sufficient for statistical modelling for most species<br />How did we develop these tools?<br />By using vegetation maps and data on their species assemblages<br />
  8. 8. Suggested method for using the tool<br />
  9. 9. Suggested method for using the tool1. Zoom to your area of interest<br />
  10. 10. Suggested method for using the tool2. Identify the vegetation type<br />
  11. 11. Suggested method for using the tool2. Identify the vegetation type<br />
  12. 12. Suggested method for using the tool2. Identify the vegetation type<br />
  13. 13. Suggested method for using the tool3. Select species<br />
  14. 14. Suggested method for using the tool3. Select species<br />
  15. 15. Suggested method for using the tool3. Select species<br />... links to ICRAF’s<br />Agroforestry Tree database<br />
  16. 16. A higher resolution map will be ready very soon for 7 countries in eastern Africa<br />(Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia)<br />http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx<br />
  17. 17. A higher resolution map will be ready very soon for 7 countries in eastern Africa<br />(Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia)<br />A collaborative effort by:<br />Ethiopia: DemissewSebsebe and Ib Friis<br />Kenya: Francis Gachathi<br />Malawi: Cornell Dudley<br />Rwanda: Christopher Ruffa and MinaniVédaste<br />Tanzania: Frank Mbago and HerielMoshi<br />Uganda: James Kalema, John Mulumba and Mary Namaganda<br />Zambia: Mike Bingham<br />F&L Denmark: Jens-Peter Lillesø and Lars Graudal<br />ICRAF: Roeland Kindt and Paulo van Breugel<br />http://www.sl.life.ku.dk/English/outreach_publications/computerbased_tools/vegetation_climate_change_eastern_africa.aspx<br />
  18. 18. Geographic variation in wood properties – correspondence between provenance/progeny tests and studies in natural populationsCarmen Sotelo Montes and John C. Weber, West and Central Africa, Sahel Node<br />Background:<br />90% of tree species used for fuel and other wood products in Sahel<br />Tree species disappearing due to hotter/drier climate in Sahel<br />Research about variation in wood properties in Sahel is needed to select better germplasm and develop climate change adaption plans <br />Wood properties vary with rainfall, and rainfall varies with latitude and longitude in Sahel<br />Wood properties generally under relatively strong genetic control, so much of the variation in natural populations is genetic<br />This research provides recommendations for improving wood properties in a changing climate<br />
  19. 19. Hypothesis and justification<br />Hypothesis: patterns of geographic variation in wood properties similar in provenance tests and natural populations<br />Hypothesis tested using calorific value of Balanitesaegyptiaca wood, a priority species in Sahel for fuel, construction, furniture, etc. <br />Why is this important?<br />Because if results similar, then variation in natural populations could be used to identify genetic trends in wood properties and make recommendations about germplasm collections to improve wood properties<br />This would save time and money for domestication programmes<br />
  20. 20. Methodology<br />Study in natural populations in Mali<br />Provenance test in Niger <br />Individual trees sampled along rainfall gradients<br />Multiple regression: calorific value ofindividual trees with geographical coordinates<br />Mother trees sampled along rainfall gradients<br />Test established at one dry site <br />Multiple regression: mean calorific value of provenances with geographical coordinates <br />
  21. 21. Results<br />Patterns of geographic variation similar in provenance test and natural populations: calorific value higher in more humid locations<br />Predicted relationships between geographical coordinates and gross calorific value (GCV) of B. aegyptiacawood<br />Trees in natural populations in Mali<br />Provenances in Niger<br />Lower rainfall Higher rainfall<br />Higher rainfall Lower rainfall<br />GCV (kcal/kg)<br />R2 = 0.55, P < 0.01<br />East<br />West<br />North<br />South<br />Latitude (°N)<br />Longitude(°W)<br />
  22. 22. Impact pathway<br />* Partners: NARs and IFAD developmentprojects in Niger (INRAN, PPILDA), Burkina Faso (INERA, PDRD, PICOFA) and Mali (IER, FODESA), and universities in Brazil (UFRRJ, UFRP)<br />
  23. 23. Nextsteps<br />Determine if relationshipswithrainfalland otherwoodproperties are similar in provenance test in Niger and natural populations of B. aegyptiacain Mali - for examplewoodstrength, color, anatomy and gasemissions<br />Study variation in woodproperties in natural populations of otherspecies and compare with new provenance tests on farms in Niger<br />Synthesize and results and makerecommendations to improvewoodproperties in a changingclimate<br />Measuring color<br />Measuringstrength<br />
  24. 24. Publications<br /><ul><li>Sotelo Montes C, Weber JC. 2009. Genetic variation in wood density and correlations with tree growth in Prosopisafricana from Burkina Faso and Niger. Annals of Forest Science 66 (7):713-719.
  25. 25. Sotelo Montes C, Weber JC, Garcia RA, Silva DA, Muñiz GIB. 2010. Variation and correlations in traits of Prosopisafricana and Balanitesaegyptiaca in the West African Sahel: implications for tree domestication programs. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. 19:289-298.
  26. 26. Sotelo Montes C, Silva DA, Garcia RA, GIB, Weber, JC. 2011. Calorific value of Prosopisafricana and Balanitesaegyptiaca wood in the West African Sahel. Biomass and Bioenergy 35:346-353.
  27. 27. Weber JC, Larwanou M, Abasse TA, Kalinganire A. 2008. Growth and survival of Prosopisafricana provenances tested in Niger and related to rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel. Forest Ecology and Management 256:585-592.
  28. 28. Weber JC, Sotelo Montes C. 2010. Correlations and clines in tree growth and wood density of Balanitesaegyptiaca(L.) Delile provenances in Niger. New Forests 39:39-49.</li></li></ul><li>Affordable molecular markers for agroforestry trees: developing expressed sequence-tagged site simple sequence repeats for 36 species<br /><ul><li> Molecular markers can provide useful data for field management, but ‘starting from scratch’ has been expensive. Can new technology reduce development costs?
  29. 29. A possible approach for a magnitude of reduction in development expense is ‘tagged’ Illumina Solexa second generation sequencing
  30. 30. Trial on 36 tree species important to smallholders, from a wider pool of priority species identified by ICRAF scientists
  31. 31. Expressed sequence-tagged site simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) sequences will be placed online in the public domain</li></li></ul><li>Affordable molecular markers for agroforestry trees: developing expressed sequence-tagged site simple sequence repeats for 36 species<br />RNA extraction from root of <br />germinating seed<br />Second generation sequencing<br />Illumina RNA-seq<br />Multiplex samples through bar-coding<br />Data QC<br />Sequence assembly<br />EST-SSR discovery<br />Online posting of sequences<br />Marker validation<br />Diversity, gene flow, mating system studies<br />
  32. 32. Affordable molecular markers for agroforestry trees: developing expressed sequence-tagged site simple sequence repeats for 36 species<br />36 species that give the best quality RNA from the following list...<br />Already sequenced Ready to sequence Subset of remainder to add....<br />
  33. 33. Next steps in marker development: genomic applications<br /><ul><li> Identify DNA mutations linked to adaptive traits in trees, understand adaptation and tools for selection
  34. 34. David Neale (Conifer Translational Genomics Network) will discuss the topic tomorrow
  35. 35. Proof of concept study on Prunus africana. Genomics with field and nursery trials and comparison with vegetation maps</li></li></ul><li>Bringing Allanblackia<br />into cultivation via tree domestication<br />Ofori, D., Asaah, E.,<br />Munjuga, M., Peprah, T., <br />Tchoundjeu, Z.,<br />Simons, T.,<br />Jamnadass, R. <br /><ul><li>Allanblackia oil has received approval of the EU Novel Food Regulations that certify safe usage as a foodstuff
  36. 36. Demand for AB oil > 100,000 tons/yr
  37. 37. Tree domestication offers opportunity for sustainable AB oil production
  38. 38. AB domestication programme - Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria and Cameroon.</li></ul>Science forum, 12 – 17 September 2011<br />
  39. 39. Status of propagation<br /><5% in 24 months 75 % in 10 months<br />Stem cuttings = 67%<br />Marcotting = 40%<br />
  40. 40. Reduction of gestation period through grafting<br />Fruits on 4-year old graft in Cameroon<br />Grafted in 2006, planted in 2007, first flowered in 2008<br />Asaah et al., 2011<br />T-Budding= T-budded graft;<br />ST-Al = side tongue graft protected with aluminium foil; <br />ST-NPP = side tongue graft protected with non perforated plastic; <br />ST-PP = side tongue graft protected with perforated plastic<br />Seedling planted in 2004 in Ghana<br />Fruited at 7 years old <br />
  41. 41. Tree-to-tree variation in stearic acid content in seed fat from Allanblackiafloribunda<br />Atangana et al 2011<br />Highly significant different (P < 0.0001)<br />Stearic = 44.16% to 66.12%, <br />
  42. 42. Creation of AB cultivar via grafting<br />Variation in Allanblackia fruits<br />Earlier fruiting after 4 years, smaller tree, anticipated uniform Allanblackiafruits<br />
  43. 43. On farm management<br />54,580 AB trees produced and distributed for planting by 1,224 farmers in Ghana and Tanzania.<br />Allanblackia + tea: 8 ha in Tanzania<br />Allanblackia + Food crops on degraded Forest; 25 ha in Ghana<br />Current and future studies<br /><ul><li>Reduction in seed germination time
  44. 44. Stock plant management for enhanced success of vegetative propagation
  45. 45. Development of cultivars
  46. 46. Identification of seed germination inhibitors
  47. 47. AB- mycorrhiza association</li></li></ul><li>Novella partners<br />Novel International <br />NARs: FORIG, ANR, FRIN, TAFORI, JHI (SCRI), FLD<br />Techno serve (TNS)<br />IUCN<br />Unilever<br />ICRAF<br />
  48. 48. Celebrating some of our students (2010-2011)<br />Dr. Jonathan Muriuki : PhD awarded<br />University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna<br />BoKu, Austria<br />Medicinal Trees in Agroforestry Systems <br />Stepha McMullin: PhD viva this week<br />University College Dublin, Ireland<br />Use and Marketing of Traditional<br />Herbal Medicine (THM) in Kenya<br />Sammy Carsan: PhD submitted <br />University of Free state South Africa<br />Transitions in smallholder coffee based <br />systems of Mt. Kenya<br />
  49. 49. Noel Onyango (MSc) submitted 2011<br />Kenyatta University, Kenya<br />Identification of specific markers linked to regional differentiation of Warburgiaugandensis in Kenya <br />NkathaMuriungi(MSc) Submitted 2011<br />Kenyatta University, Kenya<br />Impact of forest fragmentation and domestication on genetic diversity of Warbugiaugandensiswithin Lake Victoria region<br />Anne Sennhenn(MSc) finalizing<br />Ernst-August University Goettingen, GermanyIdentification and classification of local mango varieties in Kenya using morphological and molecular approaches<br />Kennedy Olale (MSc) Submitted 2011<br />University of Nairobi, Kenya<br />Multivariate Calibration Models Using Infrared Spectroscopy on Wood density, Carbon and Nitrogen across Species In Tropical Agroforestry <br />
  50. 50. GRP1 HQ STAFF AND REGIONAL FOCAL POINTS & ADVISORS<br />

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