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Biodiversity & conservation sai


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Biodiversity and Conservation, world and India

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Biodiversity & conservation sai

  1. 1. Disaster Management<br />8th to 10th June 2010 <br /> BIODIVERSITY & CONSERVATION <br />Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy<br />CEO, GEO<br /><br />
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  4. 4. What is BIODIVERSITY ?<br /> 1992United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro defined "biological diversity" as "the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems".<br />
  5. 5. A PEEK THROUGH CBD<br />Birth of CBD: In 1992 at Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil<br />Goals of CBD:<br />The conservation of biological diversity<br />The sustainable use of its components<br />The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.<br />
  6. 6. Factors determining Degree of Diversity<br />Habitat stress<br />Geographical isolation<br />Dominance by one species<br />Availability of ecological niches<br />Edge effect<br />Geological history<br />
  7. 7. Source:<br />
  8. 8. Climate ChangeMore adverse than beneficial impacts on biological and socioeconomic systems are projected<br />
  9. 9. Food production needs to double to meet the needs of an additional 3 billion people in the next 30 years<br />Climate change is projected to decrease agricultural productivity in the tropics and sub-tropics for almost any amount of warming<br />
  10. 10. Estimated 10-15% of the world’s species could become extinct over the next 30 years<br />Biodiversity underlies all ecological goods and services<br />Climate change will exacerbate the loss of biodiversity<br />
  11. 11. Agricultural Lands<br />Coastal<br />Zones<br />Forest<br />Lands<br />Freshwater<br />Systems<br />Arid Lands & Grasslands<br />Food and Fiber Production<br />Provision of Clean and Sufficient Water<br />Maintenance of Biodiversity<br />Maintenance of Human Health<br />Storage and cycling of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus<br />Climate change will affect the ability of ecological systems to provide a range of essential ecological goods and services<br />
  12. 12. Importance of Biodiversity.<br />Biodiversity has contributed in many ways to the development of human culture, and, in turn, human communities have played a major role in shaping the diversity of nature at the genetic, species, and ecological levels.<br />
  13. 13. Ecological Role of Biodiversity <br />All species provide at least one function in an ecosystem. Each function is an integral part of regulating the species balance, species diversity and species health: all aspects which are intrinsic for the ecosystem as a whole to survive and prosper <br />
  14. 14. Economic Role of Biodiversity .<br />Food: Crop Biodiversity or agrobiodiversity.<br />Goods: Various things like timber, paper, medicines.<br />Recreation: Wildlife tourism, trekking nature photography, birdwatching.<br />
  15. 15. Scientific Role of Biodiversity <br />Genetic resources:Biotechnology and genetic enginnering use the genes of organisms to make new crops and medicines.<br />Each species can give scientist some clue as to how life evolved and will continue to evolve.<br />
  16. 16. Causes of Biodiversity losses<br />At least 40 per cent of the world’s economy and 80 per cent of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources. In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change.<br /> — The Convention about Life on Earth, Convention on biodiversity website.<br />
  17. 17. Habitat and Degradation<br />Destruction of biodiversity rich areas like tropical forests.<br />Destruction of coral reefs and Wetlands.<br />Ploughing of grasslands.<br />Aquatic ecosystem is threatened.<br />Pollution of freshwater streams, lakes, and marine habitats.<br />
  18. 18. Other causes of decline<br />Pollution of wetlands.<br />Over-exploitation of resources.<br />Construction of large dams.<br />Commercial hunting and poaching.<br />
  19. 19. Threatened Tropical Forests<br /> A world imperiled- forces behind the forest losses <br /><br />
  20. 20. Threats to Reefs<br /> 10% of the coral reefs around the world are already dead. Coral bleaching is another manifestation of the problem and is showing up in reefs across the planet.<br /><br />
  21. 21. Habitat fragmentation<br />Emergence <br />of discontinuities in <br />organism’s preferred <br />environment.<br />Fragmentation and <br />destruction of <br />Great Ape habitat <br />in Central Africa.<br />
  22. 22. INDIA<br />
  23. 23. 7th largest country in world<br />Asia’s second largest nation<br />15,200 kms land frontier<br />7,516 km coastline<br />
  24. 24. BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA<br />Himalayas - This  majestic range of mountains is the home of a diverse range of  flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas is one of the two biodiversity hotspots in India.<br />Chilika - This wetland area is protected under the Ramsar convention.<br />Sunder bans - The largest mangrove forest in India.<br />Western Ghats - One of the two biodiversity hotspots in India.<br />Thar desert - The climate and vegetation in this area is a contrast to the Himalayan region.<br />Source: <br />
  25. 25. 244/18664<br />88/390<br />72/458<br />25/521<br />03/231<br />09/5749<br />Source: <br />
  26. 26. Insects<br />
  27. 27. Butterflies<br />
  28. 28. Spiders<br />
  29. 29. Amphibians<br />
  30. 30. Reptiles<br />
  31. 31. Reptiles<br />
  32. 32. Water Birds<br />Bar-headed Goose<br />Greater Flamingoes<br />
  33. 33. Water birds<br />
  34. 34. IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA UNDER THREAT?<br />10% of India’s plant species are under threat. <br />More than 150 medicinal plants have disappeared in recent decades.<br />About 10% of flowering plants,20% of mammals and 5% of the birds are threatened.<br />
  35. 35. Convention on Biological Diversity<br />Implementation steps<br />Biological Diversity Act<br />National Biodiversity Authority<br />Traditional knowledge digital library<br />Traditional Knowledge Resource classification<br />People’s Biodiversity Register<br />
  36. 36. Diversity in India<br /><ul><li>India has a rich and varied heritage of biodiversity
  37. 37. India figured with two of the 34 hotspots - the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas
  38. 38. With a mere 2.4% of the world's area, India accounts for 7.31% of the global faunal total with a faunal species count of 89,451 species (MoEF, 1999)</li></li></ul><li>Comparative statement of recorded number of animal species in India and the World<br />Source: MoEF 2002. <br />
  39. 39. Comparison between the Number of species in India and the World<br />
  40. 40. Comparison between the Number of species in India and the World<br />
  41. 41. Summary of Plant Conservation Status Information at WCMC<br />
  42. 42. History of Biodiversity Conservation in India<br />The protection of wildlife has a long tradition in Indian history.<br />Wise use of natural resources was a prerequisite for many hunter-gatherer societies which date back to at least 6000 BC<br />Examples of some of the historic reserves are:<br />Gir in Gujarat <br />Dachigam in Jammu and Kashmir <br />Bandipur in Karnataka <br />Keoladeo, Ranthambore and Sariska in Rajasthan.<br />
  43. 43. The following Acts were devised to protect biodiversity:<br />Indian Forest Act, 1927<br />Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972<br />Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980<br />The network was further strengthened by a number of national conservation projects, <br />Project Tiger, initiated in April 1973 by the Government of India with support form WWF and <br />the crocodile Breeding and Management Project, Launched on 1 April 1975 with technical assistance form UNDP/FAO<br />
  44. 44. National Biodiversity Authority<br />Of INDIA<br />(Section 8 of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002)<br />
  45. 45. NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN<br />Chapter 1: Background and objective, scope and approach of the NBSAP methodology and critical analysis of the project.<br />Chapter 2: statement of principles on which the analysis and recommendations are based<br />Chapter 3: evolutionary, physical and historical context of India’s biodiversity <br />Chapter 4: overall profile of India’s biodiversity<br />Chapter 5: key causes for lost of biodiversity<br />Chapter 6: ongoing initiatives in conversation, sustainable use and equity<br />Chapter 7: broad strategies and related actions for achieving conversation, sustainable use and equitable access/sharing of benefits<br />Chapter 8: overall implementation mechanism that would be needed for the strategies and actions presented in the earlier chapter<br />
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  47. 47. Impact of loss of Biodiversity<br />Increased vulnerability of species extinction<br />Ecological imbalance<br />Reduced sources of food, structural materials, medicinal and genetic resources<br />Cost increase to the society<br />
  48. 48. What is Countdown 2010?<br />Local action:<br />17 October 2007, Zagreb, Croatia.<br />Twenty cities representing 54 million citizen create and implement 10-year Biodiversity Action Plans. This week saw the first workshop of the project “Local Action for Biodiversity‟ (LAB) that brings them together, taking place in Zagreb from October 15-17.<br />
  49. 49.<br />International Day for Biological Diversity - 22 May<br />
  50. 50. The 2010 biodiversity target is now fully integrated into the framework of the Millennium Development Goals and, as a sign of further support, the<br />international community decided to declare 2010 the International Year for Biological Diversity.<br />Ban Ki-moon, May 22, 2007<br />
  51. 51. LOCAL PLANS AND ACTION<br />------------<br />------------<br />------------<br />
  52. 52. Thank You<br /> Ref: http://www...<br />