All this political momentus is also causing that the general public is also more and more aware of the problem, that generates even more interest by the politicians. Photo by Marcin Wysmulek (Poland), obtained through stock.xchng (www.sxc.hu)
Some predictions on how the richness in biodiversity is forecasted to decline in all the usable and less usuable biomes for human sustainance. MSA: Mean species abundance, an indicator of naturalness or biodiversity intactness. It is defined as the mean abundance of original species relative to their abundance in undisturbed ecosystems. An area with an MSA of 100% means a biodiversity that is similar to the natural situation. An MSA of 0% means a completely destructed ecosystem, with no original species remaining.
We all know about the biodiversity crisis that we are suffering, although the real scope of it is still to be known. There ’ s great international momentum regarding biodiversity conservation and use, and there is great potential to further the work that we are all doing in the scope of GBIF.
So what ’ s the role of GBIF in this context? In the new Strategic Plan of GBIF, its mission is thefined as “ to be the foremost global resource for biodiversity information, and engender smart solutions for environmental and human well-being ” . To achieve this objective (in other cases phrased as the sustainable management and use of the world ’ s biodiversity), the most common pathway is that primary biodiversity data is managed by publishers that produce content that flows through the GBIF Network, that is processed by scientists and technicians to produce scientific articles and reports, that are used later on to define policies that will (hopefully) take us to a better future. Data being useful in this chain are the ones that garantees that we can continue mobilising more data and producing more science. Counting with limited resources, we have to make sure that we invest them wisely so we accomplhish these objectives and ensure the sustainability of the process.
Currently majority of our Participants lack data discovery and mobilisation strategies. It is essential that countries have strategies in alignment with their overall NBSAP (National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan). It is only then BIFs will become integral part of social, and political progress of biodiversity science at national, regional and global scale. However, as stated by Penny Berents and colleagues, currently we lack best practice guidelines to develop demand-driven action plans.
How are we going to estimate the effects of climate change on agriculture unless we’re going to wait for it to happen? Past changes are not really a good estimator. The little ice age starting in 1450 or thereabouts was a major event, completely changing the life styles and agriculture in Europe. It is piddling compared with what we are likely to see in the next 20 to 50 years. We must therefore rely on modeling situations that we have never before seen.
Native distribution, 100 pts as white squares, purple ramp shows ENM based on those points
North American projection of SE Asian ENM for Aedes
Actual progress of invasion of this species … red = new counties, blue = keeping the tally Click and you see the comparison … NOTE THAT THE SPECIES invaded in NA ONLY out to the limits of its SE Asian ecological potential
Indo norway delhi_vishwas_28_oct2011_final
Project initiation meeting of Indo-Norwegian Pilot Project on Capacity Building in Biodiversity Informatics towards IPBES Role of Biodiversity Information Facilities in sharing and use of biodiversity information Vishwas Chavan, and Olaf Banki Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Email: email@example.com 28 October 2011
World governments fail to halt biodiversity loss Reuters UK GLOBAL: World fails to meet biodiversity target University World News Biodiversité: objectifs non atteints selon l'ONU AFP Third of all plants and animals 'at risk of extinction ‘ Times Online Biodiversité : les solutions de l'ONU pour éviter la catastrophe Le Figaro UN fears 'irreversible' damage to natural environment AFP International call for 'bailout' plan to safeguard biodiversity NY Times World risks irreversible biodiversity loss The Hindu Biodiversity: In News
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (2010) Rethinking Global Biodiversity Strategies: Exploring structural changes in production and consumption to reduce biodiversity Loss. http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/500197001.pdf MSA: Mean Species Abundance. MSA is an indicator of naturalness or biodiversity intactness Biodiversity: A Global Context
“ If the world made equivalent losses in share prices, there would be a rapid response and widespread panic. “ Biodiversity: A Global Context “ a wake-up call for humanity”
A simplistic view: one of many scenarios! Environmental and human well-being Significance of biodiversity data Content Publishers Science Policy
GBIF, Global infrastructure for biodiversity data Vision: A world in which biodiversity information is freely and universally available for science, society, and a sustainable future OECD Global Science Forum recommendation in 2000: establish a global initiative to facilitate free and open access to worlds’ biodiversity data
GBIF, Global infrastructure for biodiversity data <ul><li>“ This facility will enable users to navigate and put to use vast quantities of biodiversity information, thereby: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advancing scientific research … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serving the economic … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing a basis from which our knowledge of the natural world can grow rapidly..” </li></ul></ul>
GBIF, Global infrastructure for biodiversity data Responsive to government needs/demands in biodiversity management – government-initiated, and government funded Developing an advanced informatics infrastructure for the (global) scientific research community for accessing and sharing data and thereby making better use of the huge investments (by national institutions and others) in data collection, storage, management and updating of biodiversity information in countries Started in 2001
56 Countries; 47 International Organisations 1000’s of individuals and datasets..... GBIF, current Participants
October 2011: >312 million occurrence records from >18,000 + datasets from >342 publishers and spanning a wide range of geospatial, temporal and taxonomic coverages, being shared through distributed network GBIF, data coverage
GBIF, Improving the Science-Policy interface Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity Policy development and decision making (at local, national, regional, and global levels) Monitoring of status and trends of biodiversity (sound science) GBIF-enabled data and analyses
Data intensive science Data helps in addressing micro to macro level scientific, social, and economic challenges
21 st century India: challenges Exploding population Natural resources based economy Need for biodiversity information
It is essential for countries to have a biodiversity data discovery and mobilization strategy in alignment with their overall national biodiversity strategy & action plan (NBSAP) Importance of strategic planning “ However, we currently lack best practice guidelines on how to develop demand-driven strategies and action plans” Berents et.al., 2010 Source: Berents, Hamer and Chavan (2011). Towards demand-driven publishing: Approaches to the prioritisation of digitization of natural history collections data. Biodiversity Informatics, 7(2): 113-119.
Participant BIFs: catalysing data intensive biodiversity science <ul><li>Promoting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies on open access to biodiversity data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing and use of biodiversity (demonstrating benefits and applications) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordinating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data sharing activities, including digitization plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions amongst the network partners, at levels including national, regional, international </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools, documentation, best practices for data sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information infrastructure for inventory, discovery, and access to biodiversity data </li></ul></ul>
National BIF: a national partnership Data Publishers Data Users <ul><li>Research Institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Biological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Practitiones </li></ul><ul><li>Rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Policy & decision makers </li></ul>Coordination unit = GBIF Participant Node National Biodiversity Information Facilities (BIF) Coordinating unit Steering committee
BIF: in service of society Build capacity Help identify data and information gaps Outreach to communities of data holders and users Promote best practices in data management Identify user communities – assess end user needs Data analysis to help adress scientific questions and decision making needs Implement informatics infrastructure Coordinate data sharing activities Helpdesk Help develop information products and services Help formulate and adopt data sharing and manahgement policies BIF (coordinated by Node) Promote online publication of scientific data
BIF is a partnership…. <ul><li>Improve access to biodiversity data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the development of biodiversity information products and services for target audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Support research, education, policy and decision-making activities </li></ul><ul><li>Promote scientific collaboration (both nationally and internationally) and enable new fields of research </li></ul><ul><li>Help monitor biodiversity status and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of the country’s biodiversity </li></ul>
InBIF: nation’s response to data intensive biodiversity science ‘ National Biodiversity Information Infrastructure’ Indian Biodiversity Information Facility (INBIF) , a step towards NBII InBIF Effective use and sustainable conservation
From data to science to policy…. What are the high-level policy issues? What are the relevant scientific questions? What are the critical information requirements? Survey of MEAs and other international organizations Survey of scientific literature, global assessments (e.g. GBO) and other science based reports. Study of the state of the biodiversity information, identification of existing gaps, assessment of fit-for-use of the content (e.g. invasive species etc.)
Network of publishers Biodiversity data Ecological Niche Modeling Uses of biodiversity data Invasive species Disease vectors Migration Adaptation Distribution Pollinators Endangered species Wild relatives Protected areas Genetic diversity Population monitoring
Informing policy - Japan <ul><li>The Japanese Diet passed its IAS Act in June 2004 - first list of IAS, based on Act, passed in June 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive alien bass introduced from N. America; predatory, huge impact on indigenous spp; </li></ul><ul><li>Policymakers needed to know which areas of the country are most at risk from invasion; </li></ul><ul><li>Used N. American locality data (via GBIF) to establish EN, applied ENM to Japan; </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental in convincing authorities to develop IAS Act. </li></ul>Iguchi, K., et al. 2004. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society , 133:845-854.
Greater changes than have occurred in the last 10 000 years – way beyond human experience! Variations in the Earth’s surface temperature AD 1000 to 2100 .
Predicting climate-induced changes in tropical forests composition ….. Species richness - forest genera of Sterculiaceae, Meliaceae, Dipterocapaceae
Summary of CC impacts on tropical forests … <ul><li>All families and genera suffer >50% niche loss; species loss ; </li></ul><ul><li>Some gain in potential, but this would require migration and suitable ecological/climate niche (for forests) at destination; </li></ul><ul><li>Important implications for REDD, LULUCF and many other CC adaptation/mitigation programmes….. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Impact of a 100mm more drought resistant bean in Africa; </li></ul><ul><li>Change in the range with Ropt less 100mm; </li></ul><ul><li>Green areas show regions that will benefit from such a technology; </li></ul><ul><li>But where are the drought tolerant genes? </li></ul>Technological options….
mapping Human Disease Vectors <ul><li>Aedes albopictus “Asian Tiger Mosquito” </li></ul><ul><li>Invader - fastest spreading mosquito in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Known to transmit Dengue, La Crosse, St. Louis, Eastern Equine, Ross River, Rift Valley, and West Nile Viruses </li></ul>
Tiger mosquito – native range…… Modeled native range in Asia from specimens & observations
Tiger mosquito : modeled potential continental-US invasion…. Projected Asian ecological niche onto present USA ecological zones to create invasion risk-map.
Tiger mosquito : observed actual US invasion (by county)
Asian Tiger mosquito : world risk-map (present climate niches)
Data intensive science Data helps in addressing micro to macro level scientific, social, and economic challenges