Writing references


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This short presentation is about writing a list of references showing the source materials you have cited in an academic assignment.

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Writing references

  1. 1. Writing References Tony Lynch & Anthony Elloway
  2. 2. References: listing your sources This short presentation is about writing a list of references showing the source materials you have cited in an academic assignment.
  3. 3. What to include? • All sources cited and mentioned in your text • Do NOT include sources not cited – even though you may have read them!
  4. 4. Remember to do the following Leave yourself enough time to draw up your list of sources Make sure your list is complete and consistent Follow the appropriate conventions including formatting
  5. 5. Citation styles There are several different citation styles, but whichever is used there are two aspects 1. Citing 2. List of references
  6. 6. Citing
  7. 7. What do you notice about these two extracts? Extract 1 Socioeconomic inequalities in infant mortality exist in many developed countries despite improvements in overall mortality.1 Countries have varying strategies to reduce these inequalities.2 The UK government has made major attempts to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in infant mortality by setting a public service agreement target in 2003 to reduce the relative deprivation gap in England and Wales by 10% by 2010.3 However, recent evidence indicates that this target is unlikely to be achieved and the relative deprivation gap may be widening.4 (Smith, L.K , Manktelow, B N, Draper, E S, Springett, A, David J Field, D J. Nature of socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality: population based study. BMJ 2010;34: c6654)
  8. 8. What do you notice about these two extracts? Extract 2 Records of late-summer pre-departure mortality on breeding areas have mainly involved hirundines. Two major periods of freezing weather in central Europe in 1931 and 1974 killed hundreds of thousands or even millions of birds (Alexander 1933; Bruderer and Muff 1979; Reid 1981). After the 1974 incident, house martin Delichon urbica populations in Switzerland were reduced by an estimated 25–30% in the following year (Bruderer and Muff 1979). Other incidents refer to arctic-nesting waterfowl, unable to leave breeding areas before falling temperatures froze them into the ice for the winter (Barry 1968). (Newton, I. Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds? Journal of Ornithology 147/2L 146-166.)
  9. 9. Extract 1 Extract 1 This is the Vancouver style of citation – numerical. This style is favoured by some scientific journals e.g. British Medical Journal. Note the following: • each piece of work cited has a number, given in order of citation • if a work cited more than once, the same number is used • the number can be written in superscript (small and raised) or placed in brackets • number can be placed within sentence punctuation or outside it (as they are in this example).
  10. 10. Extract 2 Extract 2 This is the Harvard style of citation. This is widely used both in humanities and sciences. Note the following: • each piece of work cited has the surname of the author and then the date the work was published (Reid 1981) • if a piece of work has two authors, include both names (Bruderer and Muff 1979) • if a piece of work has more than two authors, you can write the first name and then add ‘et al’ (= and others) (Smith et al 2010)
  11. 11. Note-taking It is essential to note the information you will need for citing and referencing at the same time as you take your notes!
  12. 12. List of references
  13. 13. What information do you need if you cite a book? • • • • • • Name of author(s) Title Date of publication Place of publication Name of publisher Page numbers (usually only required for direct quotations)
  14. 14. Examples (Harvard)
  15. 15. What information do you need if you cite a paper in an academic journal? • • • • • Name of author(s) Title of paper Date of publication Name of journal Page numbers
  16. 16. Examples (Harvard)
  17. 17. Information required - Internet sources? Same as for books and papers in journals plus • URL • Date when accessed
  18. 18. Examples
  19. 19. A list of references - Vancouver style 1. Barr P, Clegg J, Wallace C. Advanced reading skills. London: Longman, 1983. 2. Abercrombie D. Paralanguage. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 1968, 3:55-59. 3. Kinsella V, editor. Language teaching and linguistics: surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. 4. Oller JW, Richards JC, editors. Focus on the learner. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House, 1973.
  20. 20. Useful references Harvard system http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/studyskills/harvard_referencing.htm http://library.leeds.ac.uk/skills-referencing-harvard#activate-article http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/infosuss/referencing/h_intro.shtml Vancouver (numerical) system https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/library/Public/Vancouver_referencing.pdf http://www2.le.ac.uk/library/help/citing/vancouver-numbered-system/vancouver-numbered-system http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/careers/ld/resources/writing/vancouver http://monash.edu/library/skills/resources/tutorials/citing/vancouver.html