The question concerning “quality”        in theological education inparticular and higher education in                    ...
Lester Edwin J. Ruiz, PhD Director, Accreditation and Institutional Evaluation                  Association of Theological...
Introduction: contextual            assumptions
Mapping the presentation                     State of the                           The question of                       ...
5Personal (diasporic) context                      Accountabilities                          (Grace)                      ...
Academic and professionaltheological/higher education:           Status quaestionis
7Dimensions of the question                 Substantive/Definitional                  Difference/DiversityMethodological  ...
The goals of academic and                         8professional (theological) education                  Contextualization...
General structure of academic and                                                   9professional (theological) education ...
Dimensions of academic and professional       10        (theological) education               Governance               Aca...
The state of the question:         A North American perspective*All data on ATS member schools from ATS database
Theological education: The state of the industry   Geography, diversity,institutional character and   size as conditions o...
The ATS Community of Schools
The ATS Community of Schools:Distribution of Schools and Enrollment by        United States and CanadaDistribution of ATS ...
The ATS Community of Schools: Distribution ofSchools and Enrollment by Ecclesial Family        Schools                   S...
The ATS Community of Schools:   Most Recent Institutional Characteristics           Most Recent  Institutional Characteris...
US Colleges and Universities   Type of Institution                              Number   Public 4-year institutions       ...
Theological education:The state of the industry     Institutional   resources as a     condition of       quality
Adjusted unrestricted revenues, expenditures,           and surplus (deficit), all independent schools           $2,000   ...
Revenue and expenditures for US colleges and universities,Fiscal Year 2008                   250   224        Billions    ...
Expenditures for education, institutional              support, and scholarship in ATS schools           $900           $8...
Adjusted expenditures for education, institutional   support, and scholarship in US colleges and   universities, Fiscal Ye...
Endowment, R&D, and library expenditures of thetop five research universities in the US, Fiscal Year 2008                 ...
Average expenditures per FTE student                     by school size$50,000$45,000$40,000$35,000$30,000$25,000$20,000$1...
Surplus/deficit in independent schools,       FY2001-FY2010 (adjusted revenues – expenses)100%90%80%70%60%                ...
Primary reserve capacity/flexibility, freestanding schools,                  June 2008, June 2009, June 2010100%          ...
Theological education:The state of the industry      Students   as conditions of       quality
2008	  US	  Population	  Projection	  by	  Race                 500                 450                 400               ...
0%        2%             4%                     6%                                   8%                                   ...
Total enrollment by race and gender,                      1993-201080,00070,00060,00050,000                               ...
Enrollment by degree category, 1993-201090,00080,00070,00060,000                                    Other50,000           ...
Women as percentage of total enrollment         by degree programs, 1981-201060%50%40%                                    ...
Enrollment by age category100%90%80%70%60%                                                                                ...
Growth in Patterns ofProgram Delivery by Ecclesial FamilyHead Count Enrollment in Extension Centersin which half or more o...
Fall 2010 completions Duration in years – MDiv & Prof MAMDIV             Total      Average      Estimated              Co...
Full-time position expected after graduation,                                              MDiv students, GSQ             ...
Level of satisfaction with progress in skills       related to future work, GSQ, MDiv students                   (-2 – Ver...
Educational debt brought                   by all students, ESQ100%       6%              9%               9%             ...
Educational debt incurred            at seminary by all students, GSQ100%            12%               14%               1...
Significance of financial aid                              in decision to attend school, ESQ                      30      ...
Theological education:The state of the industry        Faculty   as a condition of        quality
The Changing Context—  “We take as our point of departure a bold and    unqualified assertion: American higher education ...
The Changing Context—  The coming change is unprecedented due to    two powerful conditions that reinforce each    other:...
Full-Time Faculty by  Racial/Ethnic Group, 1991-2010100%90%80%70%                                              Asian60%   ...
Relative Racial/Ethnic Presence    in Students and Faculty, 1991 vs. 2010100%	   90%	   80%	   70%	                       ...
ATS Faculty               Total           New Hires2008           3,676           4202009           3,629           339201...
Median Age of FT Faculty, Fall 2010                          Professor        Assoc. Prof        Asst. Prof             Ot...
Growth in PT Faculty, 1993-2007200%180%160%140%120%100%80%60%40%20% 0%         ATS     Research, Research,   Masters   Mas...
Part-time faculty as a percentage             of all faculty in ATS schools, 1990-201060%50%40%30%20%10%0%      1990   199...
Average Total Compensation for     Administrators and Faculty in US Schools,                    2000-2010$180,000$160,000$...
Comparison of PhD training                 and current work responsibilities     (-2 - not at all effective or important /...
Changes in Faculty Work—  Assessment of Student Learning—  Educational Technology: Access vs.    Formation—  Changes in...
Quality
54    The Purpose of quality             Transformation             (Improvement)              Curriculum      NormativeAs...
55       Dimensions of quality                 Credentialing                  InstitutionalAccreditation                  ...
56                      Areas of quality                                  Governance                          Authority, S...
57  Example 1: Accreditation                 Institutional               Institutional andAspirational   Degree Program   ...
58        Example 2: Curriculum                     Educational AssessmentCourse and Program        Curriculum            ...
59                                    Religious heritage              Personal                                   Capacity ...
60     Example 3: Assessment                    Revised goals                       ServiceSystem of data                 ...
Pedagogies and strategies       of transformation
62            Dimensions of transformation                 Historical                                         “The creatio...
63                         Practice…                                        “The creation and nurture of                  ...
64                         Formation                       Transformative      Interpretation                    Contextua...
65                               Understanding        Speaking                                (re) reading                ...
66                            Integration        Holiness            Formation     IdentityPedagogies and strategies    Vo...
67                              Transforming                               the context     Encounter                      ...
Questions about quality—  Is it “green,” (ecologically)   —  Does it build networks of    efficient, and sustainable?   ...
Questions about quality—  Is it beautiful?—  Is it truthful?—  Does it create and nurture mindfulness and    receptiven...
The question concerning “quality”        in theological Education inparticular and higher education in                    ...
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Lester J. Ruiz - The Question Concerning Quality in Theological Education

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Lester J. Ruiz - The Question Concerning Quality in Theological Education

  1. 1. The question concerning “quality” in theological education inparticular and higher education in general Challenges and Promises of Quality Assurance in Theological Education: Ecumenical and Multi-Contextual Inquiries WOCATI Consultation  4-8 July 2011 Johannesburg, South Africa
  2. 2. Lester Edwin J. Ruiz, PhD Director, Accreditation and Institutional Evaluation Association of Theological Schools Commission on Accrediting Pittsburgh, PA USA 15108 ruiz@ats.eduPlease do not reproduce without author’s permission
  3. 3. Introduction: contextual assumptions
  4. 4. Mapping the presentation State of the The question of question transformation • Purpose • Dimensions • Questions• Contextual • Comments assumptions • Areas • Dimensions • Examples: • Transformation • Complaints • Personal • Goals accreditation, • Practice • Reformulati context • Structures curriculum, • Pedagogies ons • State of the assessment • Questions about industry quality Introduction The question Discussion of quality
  5. 5. 5Personal (diasporic) context Accountabilities (Grace) DesiresVulnerabilities Hopes Risks (Humility) Passions (Trust) Struggles Contingencies (Differences/Pluralities Locations/Positionalities Limits
  6. 6. Academic and professionaltheological/higher education: Status quaestionis
  7. 7. 7Dimensions of the question Substantive/Definitional Difference/DiversityMethodological Metatheoretical Dialogue/Inclusion Institutional/Political
  8. 8. The goals of academic and 8professional (theological) education Contextualization Transformative Performance Interpretation imagination Formation
  9. 9. General structure of academic and 9professional (theological) education The transformation of our world (Mondialisation) (Theological) (Theological) (Theological) Curricula: Scholarship: understanding Explicit/Implicit/Null Learning, Teaching, Research (Engaged) Communities of faith, practice, and Competence
  10. 10. Dimensions of academic and professional 10 (theological) education Governance Academic/ Institutional Faculty Professional resources Education Students
  11. 11. The state of the question: A North American perspective*All data on ATS member schools from ATS database
  12. 12. Theological education: The state of the industry Geography, diversity,institutional character and size as conditions of quality
  13. 13. The ATS Community of Schools
  14. 14. The ATS Community of Schools:Distribution of Schools and Enrollment by United States and CanadaDistribution of ATS Schools Relative Head Count Enrollment by by Country Country and Ecclesial Family, 2010 70% 60% 62% 14% 50% 48% 40% 37% 30% 28% 20% 86% 10% 15% 10% 0% Canada (HC = 5,466) U.S. (HC = 70,432) U.S. Canada Evangelical Mainline Roman Catholic/Orthodox
  15. 15. The ATS Community of Schools: Distribution ofSchools and Enrollment by Ecclesial Family Schools Students 10% 21% 39% 29% 61% 40% Evangelical Evangelical Mainline Mainline Roman Catholic/Orthodox Roman Catholic/Orthodox
  16. 16. The ATS Community of Schools: Most Recent Institutional Characteristics Most Recent Institutional Characteristics Total ATSNumber of schools 261HC enrollment 2010 75,898HC enrollment 2009 75,500Total expenditures 2010 $1,720,000,000Total expenditures 2009 $1,684,000,000Total endowment 2010 $6,430,000,000Total endowment 2009 $5,800,000,000
  17. 17. US Colleges and Universities Type of Institution Number Public 4-year institutions 653 Public 2-year institutions 1,127 Private 4-year nonprofit institutions 1,551 Private 4-year for-profit institutions 530 Private 2-year nonprofit institutions 183 Private 2-year for-profit institutions 893 Total 4,937 ATS member schools 261Source: The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 27, 2010
  18. 18. Theological education:The state of the industry Institutional resources as a condition of quality
  19. 19. Adjusted unrestricted revenues, expenditures, and surplus (deficit), all independent schools $2,000 $1,800 $1,600 $1,400 $1,200 $1,000Millions $800 $600 $400 $200 $0 -$200 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Adjusted Revenues Expenses Surplus (deficit)
  20. 20. Revenue and expenditures for US colleges and universities,Fiscal Year 2008 250 224 Billions 200 215 150 133 100 50 50 46 Revenue 139 1 1 2 2 0 Expenditures
  21. 21. Expenditures for education, institutional support, and scholarship in ATS schools $900 $800 $700 $600 $500Millions $400 $300 $200 $100 $0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Education (Instruction, Library, Academic Support) Institutional Support (All Other) Scholarship
  22. 22. Adjusted expenditures for education, institutional support, and scholarship in US colleges and universities, Fiscal Year 2008 80,000 Millions 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 Instruction 20,000 10,000 0 Institutional Support ScholarshipSource: Chronicle of Higher Education, August 27,2010
  23. 23. Endowment, R&D, and library expenditures of thetop five research universities in the US, Fiscal Year 2008 30,000 MIT Utexas Millions Princeton Stanford Yale Harvard 25,000 Endowment 20,000 R&D 15,000 Expenditures Library 10,000 Expenditures 5,000 0 Source: Chronicle of Higher Education, August 27, 2010
  24. 24. Average expenditures per FTE student by school size$50,000$45,000$40,000$35,000$30,000$25,000$20,000$15,000$10,000 $5,000 $0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0-150 151-500 501-1000 1000+
  25. 25. Surplus/deficit in independent schools, FY2001-FY2010 (adjusted revenues – expenses)100%90%80%70%60% Deficit >$2million50% Deficit $1-$2million Deficit $0-$1million40% Surplus30%20%10% 0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  26. 26. Primary reserve capacity/flexibility, freestanding schools, June 2008, June 2009, June 2010100% 10% 7% 9%90% 18%80% 21% 20%70%60% More than 6 years 37%50% 42% 41% 3–6 years40% 1–3 years 6 months–1 year30% 19% Less than 6 months 14%20% 15%10% 19% 16% 12% 0% June 2008 June 2009 June 2010
  27. 27. Theological education:The state of the industry Students as conditions of quality
  28. 28. 2008  US  Population  Projection  by  Race 500 450 400 350 300in  millions 250 200 150 100 50 0 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Other Asian African  American Hispanic White
  29. 29. 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14%197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000 in ATS Schools, 1977-20102001200220032004200520062007 Relative Racial/Ethnic Presence200820092010 visa asian black hispanic
  30. 30. Total enrollment by race and gender, 1993-201080,00070,00060,00050,000 RE Female40,000 RE Male30,000 White Female White Male20,00010,000 0
  31. 31. Enrollment by degree category, 1993-201090,00080,00070,00060,000 Other50,000 Adv Acad Adv Prof40,000 Acad MA30,000 Prof MA20,000 MDiv10,000 0
  32. 32. Women as percentage of total enrollment by degree programs, 1981-201060%50%40% MDiv Prof MA30% Acad MA Adv Prof20% Adv Acad Other10%0% 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2010
  33. 33. Enrollment by age category100%90%80%70%60% 50+50% 40-4940% 30-3930% <3020%10% 0% 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Median age during this period has been between 32-33 even as age categories shift.
  34. 34. Growth in Patterns ofProgram Delivery by Ecclesial FamilyHead Count Enrollment in Extension Centersin which half or more of the credits requiredfor an ATS-approved degree may be earned, 1995–2010 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Evangelical Mainline Roman Catholic
  35. 35. Fall 2010 completions Duration in years – MDiv & Prof MAMDIV Total Average Estimated Completions Duration CompletionAll ATS 6629 4.3 79%Evangelical 3185 4.4Mainline 2896 4.1RC/Orthodox 548 4.4PROF MA Total Average Completions DurationAll ATS 2947 3.7Evangelical 2240 3.7Mainline 293 3.6RC/Orthodox 414 3.8
  36. 36. Full-time position expected after graduation, MDiv students, GSQ 60 50Percentage of Respondents 40 30 20 10 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Male - Parish Ministry Male - Undecided Female - Parish Ministry Female - Undecided
  37. 37. Level of satisfaction with progress in skills related to future work, GSQ, MDiv students (-2 – Very dissatisfied / 2 – Very satisfied) Ability to think theologically Ability to use Scripture Ability to relate social issues Knowledge of own tradition Ability to preach well Ability to conduct worship Ability to lead others Knowledge of church doctrine Ability to teach well Knowledge of Christian ethics Ability in pastoral counselingAbility to give spiritual direction Knowledge of church polity Knowledge of other traditions Ability to administer parish -2 -1 0 1 2
  38. 38. Educational debt brought by all students, ESQ100% 6% 9% 9% 10% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 52% 51% 48% 48% 20% 10% 0% 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 None <$10,000 $10-20,000 $20-30,000 $30-40,000 >$40,000
  39. 39. Educational debt incurred at seminary by all students, GSQ100% 12% 14% 15% 16%90%80%70%60%50%40%30% 46% 43% 46% 43%20%10% 0% 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 none less than $10,000 $10-20,000 $20-30,000 $30-40,000 >$40,000
  40. 40. Significance of financial aid in decision to attend school, ESQ 30 25Percent of Students 20 2004-05 15 2006-07 2008-09 10 2010-11 5 0 No Great Greatest Did Not Apply Significance Significance Significance
  41. 41. Theological education:The state of the industry Faculty as a condition of quality
  42. 42. The Changing Context—  “We take as our point of departure a bold and unqualified assertion: American higher education and the academic profession that serve it are on the edge of an unprecedented restructuring that is changing the face—indeed, even the very meaning—of higher education.”Jack H. Schuster and Martin J. Finkelstein, The American Faculty, 2006.
  43. 43. The Changing Context—  The coming change is unprecedented due to two powerful conditions that reinforce each other: —  The sheer number of institution-molding forces that are in play, and —  The stunning rapidity with which these forces are reshaping higher education.
  44. 44. Full-Time Faculty by Racial/Ethnic Group, 1991-2010100%90%80%70% Asian60% Black50% Hispanic40% Native American30% Visa20% White10% 0% 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2010
  45. 45. Relative Racial/Ethnic Presence in Students and Faculty, 1991 vs. 2010100%   90%   80%   70%   Asian   60%   Black   50%   Hispanic   40%   Na@ve  American   30%   Visa   20%   White   10%   0%   Students   Faculty   Students   Faculty   1991   1991   2010   2010  
  46. 46. ATS Faculty Total New Hires2008 3,676 4202009 3,629 3392010 3,566 226 Total New Hires (2010) Men 77% 73% Women 23% 27%
  47. 47. Median Age of FT Faculty, Fall 2010 Professor Assoc. Prof Asst. Prof Other M F M F M F M FAll FT Faculty 60 58 51 53 42 45 51 46New FT Faculty 59 55 53 53 42 39 44 51 Tenure Status of FT Faculty, Fall 2010 Professor Assoc. Prof Asst. Prof ALL FT Faculty - Tenured 73% 68% 54% NEW FT Faculty - Tenured 48% 48% 46%
  48. 48. Growth in PT Faculty, 1993-2007200%180%160%140%120%100%80%60%40%20% 0% ATS Research, Research, Masters Masters Bachelors 2-year, All higher Schools private public private public public education
  49. 49. Part-time faculty as a percentage of all faculty in ATS schools, 1990-201060%50%40%30%20%10%0% 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Part-Time Head Count as % of Total Head Count Part-Time FTE as % of Total FTE
  50. 50. Average Total Compensation for Administrators and Faculty in US Schools, 2000-2010$180,000$160,000$140,000$120,000 CEO$100,000 CAO $80,000 Professor Assoc Prof $60,000 Asst Prof $40,000 $20,000 $0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  51. 51. Comparison of PhD training and current work responsibilities (-2 - not at all effective or important / 2 - very effective or important) Teaching ScholarshipStudent Formation Service Administration -2 -1 0 1 2 Importance in Current Work Effectiveness of PhD Training
  52. 52. Changes in Faculty Work—  Assessment of Student Learning—  Educational Technology: Access vs. Formation—  Changes in Faculty Culture —  Workload —  Questions about tenure —  Definition of “the faculty”—  The Church —  Definition and needs —  Is the work for the church valued by the school?
  53. 53. Quality
  54. 54. 54 The Purpose of quality Transformation (Improvement) Curriculum NormativeAssessment (Goals) orientation Relevance
  55. 55. 55 Dimensions of quality Credentialing InstitutionalAccreditation Licensing Mission Quality Assurance
  56. 56. 56 Areas of quality Governance Authority, Structure, Process Institutional and Degree Faculty Resources ProgramLearning, Teaching, Research Personnel, Financial, Physical Standards Assessment/Planning Student Learning, Program, Institutional (Outcomes)
  57. 57. 57 Example 1: Accreditation Institutional Institutional andAspirational Degree Program Regulatory Standards Professional
  58. 58. 58 Example 2: Curriculum Educational AssessmentCourse and Program Curriculum Educational Strategies Content (Goals) Resources
  59. 59. 59 Religious heritage Personal Capacity for ministerial and Pedagogy and spiritual formation public leadershipExample:Content of the Master of DivinityAmong ATS member schools Cultural context
  60. 60. 60 Example 3: Assessment Revised goals ServiceSystem of data Identification of goals Educational Program gathering or outcomes Performance Assessment based on information gathered
  61. 61. Pedagogies and strategies of transformation
  62. 62. 62 Dimensions of transformation Historical “The creation and nurture of the fundamentally new which is also fundamentally better.Political Practice Personal In the context of “Continuity and change, conflict and collaboration, Sacred and the creation of justice.
  63. 63. 63 Practice… “The creation and nurture of the fundamentally new which is also fundamentally Historical better... “Without shape or predetermined structure, emphasizing state over outcome, process overPolitical Practice Personal product, but always articulated as specific and concrete locations and occasions… “Continuity and change, Sacred conflict and collaboration, and the creation of justice…
  64. 64. 64 Formation Transformative Interpretation Contextualization ImaginationPedagogies andstrategies of Performancetransformation
  65. 65. 65 Understanding Speaking (re) reading Interpretation Listening (re) writingPedagogies and strategies ofinterpretation Dialogue
  66. 66. 66 Integration Holiness Formation IdentityPedagogies and strategies Vocationof formation
  67. 67. 67 Transforming the context Encounter Consciousness Contextualization with context of contextPedagogies and strategies Experienceof contextualization of context
  68. 68. Questions about quality—  Is it “green,” (ecologically) —  Does it build networks of efficient, and sustainable? solidarity across the terrain of global civil society?—  Is it personally and institutionally strategic? —  Is it personally, professionally and—  Does it build appropriate, institutionally, dialogical? innovative, and useful competencies and skill —  Is it missionally, sets? substantively, and procedurally honorable?—  Does it build collegiality, diversity, and —  Is it genuinely hospitable? transformative leadership?
  69. 69. Questions about quality—  Is it beautiful?—  Is it truthful?—  Does it create and nurture mindfulness and receptiveness to self, other, and world?—  Does it transform the world?
  70. 70. The question concerning “quality” in theological Education inparticular and higher education in general Challenges and Promises of Quality Assurance in Theological Education: Ecumenical and Multi-Contextual Inquiries WOCATI Consultation  4-8 July 2011 Johannesburg, South Africa

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