The Black Death The Crusades Great Schism Hundred Years War With a partner, make a list of 5 things you remember.
Black Death The Crusades With the death of a third Many noblemen died w/o of Europe’s population, the heirs labor and skills of the Property went to the king survivors were in great Broke down the power of demand feudal nobility and gave Former serfs could become more power to kings skilled laborers and New products from merchants Middle East, India, and China Created trade and strengthened merchant class
Great Schism Hundred Years War Two popes weakened National Pride the authority of the Increased power of the Catholic Church. kings of France and Kings gained more England power over their own So many people died territories during the war, survivors found new opportunities (serfs could become merchants and skilled laborers)
Began in Italy-large urban centers, wealthy merchants (patrons), and the were closest to the heritage of Greece and Rome Rebirth of interest in learning and art (classical Greece and Rome)
Began with movement called humanism Medieval scholars studied classical Greece and Rome Tried to make everything fit with Christian teachings 1300s-Italian scholars focused on classical literature Wanted to learn from Greeks and Romans about moral and virtuous behavior
Studied grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry using classical works These studies are called the humanities and the scholars who studied them, humanists Interested in the beauty and opportunity on earth- taught that people should live a full life and enjoy new experiences
Looked for Greek and Roman manuscripts Sometimes found more than one copy-critical attitude needed to compare and decide which manuscript was “most” correct
Translated manuscripts into the vernacular-their native language rather than Latin Generally wrote on non-religious subjects Many humanists began to write their own works instead of just translating-this began the actual Renaissance!
“I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated…as if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it.” Erasmus
“I disagree very much with those (people) who are unwilling that Holy Scripture (Bible), translated into the vernacular (spoken language such as English or French or Italian instead of Latin which was known only to the clergy and nobility), be read by the uneducated (common people)…as if the strength of the Christian religion (being a member of the Church) consisted in the ignorance (not understanding it) of it.” Erasmus Now re-write this quote in your own words…
Write your quote on your paper, leaving a space behind any words you don’t know (you will put a definition or synonym in this space). Read your quote several times and look up any words you don’t know. Now, re-write the quote in your own words and be prepared to share it with the class.
Based on the quote that you read and those read by your classmates, write down THREE things that you learned about the humanists. This is your ticket out of class!!!
Francesco Petrarch-poems in Italian to a woman named Laura Giovanni Boccaccio-wrote The Decameron, a collection of stories told by a group of people fleeing to the countryside during The Plague Niccolo Machiavelli-wrote The Prince-the end justifies the means
In the North, humanists tended to focus on social problems and reform in the Church Desiderius Erasmus(Netherlands)-most famous work is In the Praise of Folly-exposed inappropriate behavior of people, including the clergy. Also translated Bible to Latin from Greek (found many errors) Sir Thomas More(England)-criticized the society of his day by describing an ideal imaginary community
William Shakespeare(England)-poet and playwright (comedies, tragedies, and historical tragedies) Francois Rabelais(France)-Gargantua and Pantagruel- about the travels of two gentle giants-through these characters he offered opinions on religion, education, and other subjects
Books in the Middle Ages were rare-very rich and the Church Copied by hand on animal skins (300) Paper and printing press changed EVERYTHING! Johann Gutenberg-more people could buy books and learn to read Bible, scientific discoveries, writings of the Humanists, and the works of ancient Greeks and Romans
Roman Catholic Church-Vatican in Rome St. Peter’s Basilica most important church in Rome 1506-Pope Julius II wanted new basilica, but how to pay for it??? The sale of indulgences (paid for forgiveness of sins) Johann Tetzel-sold indulgences in Germany “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings/the soul from Purgatory springs”
Martin Luther (German monk)-objected to the sale of indulgences and other practices within the Church Wrote his 95 Theses-posted on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany, hoping to start a discussion Translated from Latin into German-printed and distributed throughout northern Germany Caused a decrease in the sale of indulgences Luther was excommunicated Lutheran Church was begun
Luther believed: That the Bible was sole authority to give people salvation Priests were unnecessary Common people and aristocracy sided with Luther Beginning of the Protestant Reformation Protestant=Protest Reformation=Reform
John Calvin-Geneva, England-King Henry VIII Switzerland Married to Catherine of Calvinists- Aragon-wanted divorce (no Predestination-when male heir) people are born, their Pope would not annul the course in life has already marriage been determined Henry removed England Ministers had 4 functions from the Catholic Church Preach and made himself head of Instruct members of the the Church of England Church about the beliefs of the church Organized much like the Provide discipline Catholic church, but with Care for poor and needy new ideas from the Reformation
In response to the Reformation Led by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)-founded by Ignatius Loyola (Spanish soldier) Jesuits were well-educated, strictly disciplined, and devoted to their work First goal was to stop the spread of Protestantism 1545-Council of Trent confirmed Catholic beliefs Pope was the supreme head of the Church The Vulgate (Latin Bible) was ONLY Bible to be used Index (forbidden books) was created The Inquisition-system of church courts intended to discover and punish heretics-used torture in many cases to gain a confession
Political Europe is now politically fragmented along religious lines Spain and France-Catholic England-Protestant Holy Roman Empire-Catholic and Protestant Principalities Holy Roman Empire weakened Henry VIII makes himself head of the Anglican Church- Act of Supremacy The state (Kings) begins to become more powerful than the Church!
Intellectual Lutheranism expanded educational opportunities for men and women Printing press spreads ideas to different parts of Europe Rising sense of individualism as people try to create a better life Artistic Protestant emphasis on the individual’s personal relationship with God was reflected in the number of common people and day-to-day scenes depicted in art
Religious Unity in Europe as a Christian society was shattered Wars between Catholics and Protestants Catholic Counter-Reformation Vernacular translations of the Bible led many people to read and interpret the Bible for themselves Protestant focus on coming to God without the intervention of a priest Persecution, Inquisition, and banned books