Reformation and religious wars


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A history of the Protestant Reformation and the Counterreformation

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Reformation and religious wars

  1. 1. Reformation and Religious Wars Protestantism and Inquisition
  2. 2. Warm Up <ul><li>What problems was the Catholic Church facing before & during the Renaissance? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Northern Christian Humanism <ul><li>Turned to the Greeks and Romans for more information concerning religion </li></ul><ul><li>Erasmus wanted to restore Christianity to simplicity and a return to biblical study </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Moore used his studies to try to improve the state </li></ul><ul><li>In his book Utopia, More describes a society without corruption or fame: people work only for what they need </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes of the Reformation <ul><li>Papal Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences and Relics </li></ul><ul><li>Heresy vs. Reform </li></ul>
  5. 5. Papal Leadership <ul><li>Failure of Renaissance popes to provide leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption and secular power of Popes </li></ul><ul><li>Pope’s primary concern was with raising money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New churches (St. Peters Basilica) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting the large Catholic bureaucracy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. St. Peters Basilica
  7. 7. Rome from the Top of St. Peters
  8. 8. Inside St. Peters Basilica
  9. 9. Pluralism and Absenteeism <ul><li>One clergyman held more than one position (priest, monk, bishop, archbishop, cardinal, etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed more than one job obtained to increase revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positions often held by already rich nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the clergy ignored their positions and hired other, less qualified underlings to do job for them </li></ul>
  10. 10. Indulgences and Relics <ul><li>Indulgences were basically passes into heaven for one’s self or family member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No biblical basis; fundraising alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prince Fredrick of Saxony had 19,000 relics whose combined might could relieve one of 2 million years in purgatory simply by paying to visit them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relics were fake more often than not, but since the church backed them, they were perceived as real. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Heresy vs. Reform <ul><li>People were searching for meaningful religious expression and certainty of salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Many, especially among laymen, were looking for leadership, but found only power hungry clerics </li></ul><ul><li>All Reformers were sure of the certainty and perfection of the Catholic Church, at first… </li></ul><ul><li>Any challenge to the canon, beliefs, and supremacy of the Catholic Church was seen as heresy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they could not be wrong as God’s representatives on Earth </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Martin Luther <ul><li>Originally Lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Became monk after near death </li></ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul><ul><li>Luther’s primary concern: What must I do to be saved? </li></ul><ul><li>Luther was a professor of theology in Wittenburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came to a conclusion by teaching and studying the Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that man needed faith alone to be saved because Christ died for the salvation of mankind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics emphasized that certain actions on earth must also be completed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Luther was a Catholic Monk! <ul><li>He was not interested in starting a new religion </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to help fix the problems that he saw in the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Cast out as a heretic for challenging beliefs over indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Religion spread in part due to backing by German princes such as Saxony’s Prince Fredrick </li></ul><ul><li>Lutheranism appealed to German princes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No control from outside sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lutheranism also spread to Northern Europe as well </li></ul>
  14. 14. Luther’s Focus on Reform <ul><li>All religious practices (including sacraments) must be biblically based </li></ul><ul><li>All religious laws must be biblically based </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation through faith alone </li></ul><ul><li>Priesthood is there for guidance, not dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Church should not concern itself with amassing wealth </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other Protestant Movements <ul><li>Zwinglianism </li></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists </li></ul><ul><li>Anglicanism </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism </li></ul>
  16. 16. Zwinglianism <ul><li>Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss born son of a wealthy peasant </li></ul><ul><li>He set the ground works for Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>He started preaching the Gospel in 1518 </li></ul><ul><li>Began the disputation , or town hall, method for deciding religious matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally favored Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked to the State for leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade any images or music; took away from scripture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished monasteries, pilgrimages, saints, celibacy, and the pope’s authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unable to ally with Luther b/c of differences over communion </li></ul>
  17. 17. Anabaptism <ul><li>The most radical form of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually favored by peasants and artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conglomeration of different groups with similar beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult vs. Infant baptism: no choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All believers equal: democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministers appointed by vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Christian living of early Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete separation of church and state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are pacifists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1530s, violent millenarian Anabaptists take control of Munster in Westphalia </li></ul><ul><li>John of Leiden (right) took control of the now communal city as its king </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince of Westphalia massacred Anabaptists with a large army </li></ul></ul>Today, Anabaptists are known as the Amish and the Mennonites
  18. 18. Anabaptist Leaders Executed
  19. 19. Calvinism <ul><li>John Calvin (1509-1564) was a scholar of humanism and law before conversion to Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Originally from Paris, he eventually migrated to Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology: </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation through faith alone </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute sovereignty of God </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “elect” vs “probate” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militant international Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Scripture and 2 sacraments </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus present in spirit during communion </li></ul><ul><li>Future Calvinists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presbyterians </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Religious Wars <ul><li>Very little unity between Protestant churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They become separated and easily defeatable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schmalkaldic Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles V vs. Lutheran Princes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survives due to alliance with French Catholic Henry II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace of Augsburg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zwinglian’s influence creates war between Catholics and Protestants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zwinglian’s forces defeated; Z killed, cut up and burned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists create widespread revolution, leaders executed </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin’s Geneva seeks purity leading to severe punishments for “sinners” </li></ul>
  21. 21. French Wars of Religion <ul><li>Period lasting between 1562 and 1598 </li></ul><ul><li>Huguenots vs. Ultra-Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre vs. Duke of Guise </li></ul><ul><li>Huguenots were 10% of population but 50% of the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Well organized and well funded </li></ul><ul><li>Third group called politiques or people more interested in the state than religion </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine de Medici ruled France as regent for unstable sons of King Henry II (died in an accident) </li></ul>
  22. 22. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
  23. 23. War of the Three Henrys (1574-1589) <ul><li>Ultra-Catholics: Henry of Guise </li></ul><ul><li>Henry III, King of France (son of Henry II): Politiques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost influence due to massacre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turned Catholic to escape Paris in St. Bart’s Massacre, but turned back Calvinist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry of Guise and Henry III assassinate each other </li></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre gains throne by re-re-converting back to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing warfare leads to the passing of the Edict of Nantes in 1589, ending the war </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cardinal Richelieu <ul><li>After the death of Henry IV, his son, Louis XIII is too young to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Richelieu assumes power as regent </li></ul><ul><li>Disarms and takes local power from Huguenots promised in the Edict of Nantes </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates feudal castles, creates the French Academy, and strengthens the French monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Creates spy network to root out plots and crush conspiracies, further increasing the central power of the state </li></ul>
  25. 25. Anglicanism <ul><li>King Henry VIII wanted the right to remarry when his wife, Catherine, could not produce a male heir </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Clement VII would normally have done so, but was dependent on Charles V, nephew of Catherine </li></ul><ul><li>With the Act of Supremacy , Henry removed all papal authority from England </li></ul><ul><li>Created the Anglican Church with the King at the head </li></ul><ul><li>The humanist, Thomas More, disagreed with the king’s actions and was beheaded </li></ul><ul><li>There was almost no ideological change from the Catholic Church </li></ul>
  26. 26. Anglicanism After Henry <ul><li>After Henry’s death, three of his children would reign, the sickly Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary, Henry VIII’s first daughter, tries to convert England back to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Mary would try to reinstitute Catholicism, in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People resist leading to burnings, murders, and vodka drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also after Henry’s death, the parliament of England reformed the church to follow with other Reformation churches </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglican church always retained the grandeur of Catholicism </li></ul>
  27. 29. Catholic Reformation <ul><li>Council of Trent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of the Old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewed Papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition: Malleus Malificarum </li></ul>
  28. 30. Council of Trent <ul><li>In 1542, a general council was called to discuss religious differences </li></ul><ul><li>Met intermittently between 1542 and 1563 because of political strife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not well attended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonetheless made important decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the Church can interpret scripture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvation requires works and faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Sacraments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in transubstantiation, indulgences, and saints upheld </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Catholic Reforms in Trent <ul><li>Priests must be officially trained at a seminary in one’s diocese </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal to forcefully push indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Scripture and the Bible placed on equal footing </li></ul><ul><li>Latin upheld as the churches language </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated pluralism and absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Gave bishops authority to enforce local rules of the church </li></ul>
  30. 32. Jesuits <ul><li>Started by St. Ignatius of Loyola </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the ultimate authority of the pope in all religious matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for reasserting the authority of popes over councils at the Council of Trent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militantly supportive of the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in “conflict for God” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsible for going out amongst the “heathens” and Protestants to covert them to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Believed education of Catholics was key to creating a strong base for the Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Francis Xavier one of the many missionaries, went to Asia to achieve converts in India, China, and Japan </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Other Monastic Orders Reformed <ul><li>Franciscans returned to poverty and simplicity of St. Francis </li></ul><ul><li>Carmelite order formed by Teresa of Avilia as a mystic society to explore union between God and men (or more specifically women </li></ul><ul><li>St. Vincent de Paul : an order specifically started to help the poor </li></ul>
  32. 34. Renewed Papacy <ul><li>The ineffectual Pope Leo X led to Pope Clement VII who unsuccessfully fought against Henry VIII of England </li></ul><ul><li>The next pope, Paul III (1534-49) was a turning point for the Church </li></ul><ul><li>He created the Roman Inquisition to root out Protestant sympathizers and corrupt bishops and Cardinals </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanied Inquisition with focus on spiritual self-improvement and sanctity of the Church </li></ul>
  33. 35. Inquisition: Spanish, Roman, or Christian?
  34. 36. Inquisition Methods
  35. 39. Mannerism and Late Renaissance <ul><li>The political atmosphere in Italy changed with the takeover of Florence by the Medici </li></ul><ul><li>The religious atmosphere of Europe changed with the onset of the Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Art became disturbed and emotional </li></ul>Jacopo Pontormo, Entombment (1528)
  36. 40. Bologna, Rape of the Sabine Woman (1583) Titian, Rape of Europa (1559)
  37. 41. <ul><li>Pieter Bruegel continued with some of the disturbing images just as the Italians, Triumph of Death (1561) </li></ul>
  38. 42. Reformation Spreads