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AP European History Overview 1450-1650


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AP European History Overview 1450-1650

  1. 1. A New Beginning
  2. 2. Medieval to Modern: Foundations of Modern European History 1400-1648 <ul><li>Individualism and Humanism slowly replace Theism </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant power slowly replaces Catholic power </li></ul><ul><li>Observation and Experience slowly replace Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Secular power slowly replaces Papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Nation States slowly replace city states and feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant trade slowly replaces Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Education slowly replaces Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom slowly replaces Feudal serfdom </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Renaissance - People Changing their World instead of just accepting it as it is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning Nation States (list them)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning Modern Thinking (Individualism, Humanism, Scientific Investigation)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants gain freedom and slowly build a middle class outside of the typical 3 Estates (peasants, nobility, clergy)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the End of the Pope’s power </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Differences <ul><li>Middle Ages Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Church Power Nation Power </li></ul><ul><li>Pope rules King Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Little travel Lots of travel </li></ul><ul><li>Communities matter Individuals matter </li></ul><ul><li>Learn and Accept it Learn and Question it </li></ul><ul><li>Geocentric Heliocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic and united Protestants divide </li></ul><ul><li>City states Nation states </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>3 Estates 3 Estates plus merchant class </li></ul><ul><li>No perspective Perspective in art </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity and position matter Money matters </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nations gain Power As Church loses it <ul><li>Nations begin fighting each other for power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian Penisula Wars lead to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habsburg-Valois Wars (paper or plastic?)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants Wars because of Reformation lead to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and Civil Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France and War of 3 Henris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch and Spanish Conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain vs. England - Spanish Armada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All culminate in the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 Years War 1618- 1648 which ends religious warfare and sets the political stage for political conflicts of the next 300 years </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Individuals gain Influence As Freedom Grows <ul><li>The Kings, Nobles and Churchmen were so busy fighting that few noticed the individuals around them were gaining tremendous confidence in themselves and doubting the abilities of the powerful to rule </li></ul><ul><li>The Church lost its ultimate authority when the Protestants split the Catholic church and Luther said “each person is a priest” </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press let people talk to each other and helped individuals be heard over the king & Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges created to better educate the clergy also educate the sons of new rich merchants </li></ul>
  7. 7. All of the Above allow two Generally Persecuted Groups to Gain Influence : Artists and Intellectuals Inspire Change in the World <ul><li>Renaissance and Baroque Artists led the drive for scientific observation as they tried to paint and sculpt accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Writers and thinkers pursue a new philosophy based on freedom for individuals and importance of people </li></ul><ul><li>List some artists and intellectuals of the Renaissance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Artistic and Philosophic Investigations Create the Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Copernicus says the stars and planets matter </li></ul><ul><li>Brahe charted them </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler explained their motion scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo made it all practical plus gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Newton explained all motion </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon (inductive/empirical) and Rene Descartes (deductive) give us new ways of thinking about thinking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dominant Question of the Renaissance <ul><li>What Religion are You? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics and Protestants Divide Western Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Lutherans Calvinists Anglicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Martin Luther John Calvin King Henry VIII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presbyterians Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hugeunots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain Germany Geneva England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy Scandinavia France Charles I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S. America England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul III Prot Princes William of Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyola Gustov Adolphus Cromwell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip II German Peasants New Model Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine Medici </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Answer is… <ul><li>The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 settled the Religious Question. By 1648, Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists and Anglicans are all ok </li></ul><ul><li>But, who will control all this diversity? </li></ul><ul><li>The Next Big Question was… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Religious Big Ideas <ul><ul><li>Catholicism lost its hold on Europe because of corruption and dissention within the church as well as greed for political power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luther was successful because he tapped into ideas already being considered around Europe, the printing press, the political protection offered by the Protestant Princes in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvin organized and structured Protestantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics and Calvinists tried to spread so they caused most of the wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion was often used as an excuse to take political power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Henry VIII, French kings and German princes)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious leaders knew that by conquering territory they could change the local religion and so they supported many wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Spain in New World, Calvinists in Netherlands and New England) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some religious freedom led people to also want political, economic and social freedoms (Reformation led to peasant revolts)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Some Political Must Know Dates <ul><li>Constantinople defeated by Ottoman Empire – 1453 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well educated people move back West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of Nation States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France- 1461 Spain – 1469, England 1485, Russia -1462 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sackings of Florence and Rome – 1496, 1526 </li></ul><ul><li>Diet of Worms – 1521 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther and Lutheranism survive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace of Augsburg – 1555 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts Luthanism as legitimate in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spanish Armada Defeated – 1588 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of Spanish decline and English rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserves Dutch Independence and makes them Top Country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henri IV ends French Civil Wars 1589 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edict of Nantes allows Hugeunots to co-exist in France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace of Westphalia – 1648 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinism accepted; new nations added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell beheads Charles I – 1649 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Italian Renaissance:15 th Century <ul><li>Trade routes from middle east go through Italian city states, especially Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Florentine bankers (Medici) bring the financial power to Florence and fund art/learning </li></ul><ul><li>European Cultural and Social Influence centered in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>European Religious and Political power centered in Rome under the Pope </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spanish Dominate 16 th Century <ul><li>Hapsburgs gain control of central Italy in Hapsburgs-Valois War </li></ul><ul><li>Several Spanish Popes and Cardinals take the power of the papacy – Julius II and Leo X and other Borgia family popes </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish explorers gain gold and land in South America and become richest country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Hapsburg family also elected HRE in 1515 so they also control central Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ends under Philip II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly wars end in defeat (Spanish Armada)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loses Netherlands to Calvinist Independent Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold wasn’t being found in as large of amounts </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dutch: Constitutionalist & Capitalist First <ul><li>1610 – 1660 or so is the Dutch “1/2 Century” </li></ul><ul><li>First to become merchant nation </li></ul><ul><li>First to have an active Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>First to have use corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Best bankers and insurance systems so they gathered in money and used it for capital </li></ul>
  16. 16. French and English fight to Dominate 18 th Century <ul><li>English 2 nd to be Constitutionalist and Capitalist because of the Civil War led by Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>French perfect Absolutism under Louis XIV and Colbert’s Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>The Rivalry begins with Restoration of Charles II in 1660 and ends with the French and Indian War of 1756 (English win)‏ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Top Countries <ul><li>15 th Century – Italy </li></ul><ul><li>16 th Century – Spain </li></ul><ul><li>17 th Century – Dutch; French </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Century – French and English </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century – English </li></ul><ul><li>20 th Century – United States </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century - ??? </li></ul>