Integrated Islamic Education Curriculum; An Imperative for Educational Revival in Northern Nigeria.2

1,568 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,568
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Integrated Islamic Education Curriculum; An Imperative for Educational Revival in Northern Nigeria.2

  1. 1. Integrated Islamic curriculum; An Imperative for Educational Revival in Northern Nigeria By YUNUSA BELLO B.Sc, PGDM, MBA Independent Researcher: Islamic Education, Management and Economic Development ybello902@gmail.com +2348053158402 Oct, 2014.
  2. 2. DRAFT COPYONLY 1 Integrated Islamic Education; an Imperative for Educational Revival in Northern Nigeria By Bello Yunusa (B.sc, PGDM, MBA) Independent Researcher; Islamic Education, Management, & Economic Development ybello902@gmail.com ABSTRACT For more than five decades, the North has suffered from slow educational progress as well as the expected rate of economic development. Despite huge resources, avalanche of educational policies, intellectual conferences, seminars, and workshops, the problem of educational backwardness of the North as so far defiled secular solutions. Indeed, instead of solving the problem it as only succeeded in aggravating it; thus, increased the educational and development gab between the North and the south. This paper intends to critically analyze the root causes of the problem by exposing the hidden core believe of secular doctrine that makes it unacceptable to the majority of Muslim population at the grass root; critically review the effect and consequences of long time neglect of traditional Islamic educational system by the state despite the fact that it enrolls over 70% of school age children. Present strategic options for reviving and revitalizing Islamic education in the form of Integrated Islamic Education and curriculum as encapsulated in the Islamic’ epistemology of knowledge and envisioned in the concept of Tauwhidic Islamic worldview. The discourse postulates that Northern Ummah and other Muslim Ummah elsewhere in the world for that matter cannot achieve optimal education under the current Worldview of secular epistemology.
  3. 3. DRAFT COPYONLY 2 Chapter One 1.0 Introduction The problem of backwardness in secular educational development of Muslim Ummah is not unique to Northern Nigerian Ummah, as similar conditions are prevails in all developing countries where Muslim Ummah are either in the majority like Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt and Bangladesh to mention a few, or the largest minority as in the case of India. It is a statistical fact that Muslim Ummah in the North constitutes a significant number of the Worldwide Muslim population. Northern Nigeria has the largest population of (65%) of the total population of Nigeria, majority of who are Muslims and occupies the 10th position in terms of population ranking out of fifty Muslim countries in the world. With such a significant number and ranking it would be erroneous to treat the educational backwardness of Northern Muslims in isolation without recourse to possible solutions from Muslim Ummah in other parts of the world, when they share similar believe, religious history and devastating colonial experiences, that “kick stopped” not only their history but also their booming civilization. It is in this connection that this paper wonders why our intellectuals, especially Northern Muslim intellectuals and policy makers failed to see the linkage and explore it with a view to share from their post colonial experiences, especially with regard to educational and economic revivals that has taken place in those countries in line with their Islamic believes and values. A thought in this direction would have safe time and scares resources that were being wasted for more than fifty years. Even though the secular nature of the country’s type of governance might seems to be a constrain, the federal nature of constituent parts allows and promotes each part to develop independently along its chosen path. However, the desire for political hegemony, control of
  4. 4. DRAFT COPYONLY 3 the centre and resources seem to be overriding factor among the political class and the intellectuals. It is however an historical fact that these has not and cannot translate to educational and economic development for the North. A new vision and strategy is therefore required that would take cognizance of the socio-cultural factors and Islamic believe and Worldview as encapsulated in the Islamic epistemology of knowledge. Western Education or worst still Secular Education as presently constituted, is epistemologically rooted in European history, traditions and values if any, and is therefore suited only for a Godless society like theirs. Islam and Muslims on the other hand have their own unique epistemology of knowledge, history, tradition, values and norms that have being tried and tested for over 1400 years and have provided the best civilization during it glorious days. It is therefore repugnant to Muslims to accept secular education; hook, line and sinker as it is un-Islamic. In this study, it shall be argued that secular education has not and cannot provide the kind of education that would herald the desirable form of development for the Muslim Ummah either in Northern Nigeria or elsewhere. Furthermore, it is the intention of the study to set a bush fire huge enough to attract the attention of Muslin intellectuals especially in the Northern Nigeria to reawaken them and rekindle their iman. This has become imperative in view of the fact that despite the huge and sustained educational revival that as long began in almost all Islamic countries, as well as countries with secular type of government like Nigeria where Muslims constitutes a majority. The Nigerian Muslim intellectuals especially in the North appeared unconcerned and reluctant to key- in with their counterparts around the world to ensure that their Ummah become
  5. 5. DRAFT COPYONLY 4 librated form the shackles of mass- illiteracy resulting from decades of domination by unaccepted secular system of education by their Ummah. Having being secularized, they have fallen into the trap of material accumulation and the unsustainable “political advantage” cleverly designed by the imperialist to hoodwink them in to gradually forgetting their Islamic culture and believe, had consistently led them to fail to realize that their Ummah are the most educationally backward and economically deprived compared with their compatriots in the south. Consequent to lack of serious attention to the real causes of educational backwardness of the North, and consistent fallen standard of secular education in national schools due to poor and in effective educational policies formulation by the central government, there arose a parallel system of Islamic education whose establishment was spearheaded by the Ulamas. This led to the development of dual educational system in which traditional and modern types of Islamic educational system co-exist with secular system of education. Thus, like other Muslim Ummah elsewhere, Muslim Ummah of Northern Nigeria is bedeviled with all the negative consequences of dual educational system, but unlike other Ummah elsewhere, Muslim Ummah of Northern Nigeria have made no spirited efforts to attempt a reform along Islamic concept. It has therefore become imperative upon Muslim scholars to gear up efforts on the ongoing noble objective of Islamitization of knowledge. The need to desecularise knowledge has become more urgent in the face of backwardness of Muslim Ummah in education and economic development leading to poverty and misery. After all knowledge is an inheritance of humanity and as civilizations come and go each succeeding generation try to improve on what it inherited along its own epistemological thoughts. The west has thus secularized the
  6. 6. DRAFT COPYONLY 5 knowledge it inherited from Muslim civilization and developed it materialistic modernization. The time is now ripe for Muslim Ummah to recover their lost glory by reviving Muslim education along their own unique epistemology that is in congruence with its own concept of development.
  7. 7. DRAFT COPYONLY 6 1.1 Basic Thesis The educational and economic development of Muslim Ummah cannot be predicated on the epistemology of western secular schools of thought vanguard by enlightenment campaign as currently being pursued. It is the basic thesis of this study that the education upon which economic progress reside must be conceived, design and shaped by Islamic norms and values. This study posit than an Integrated Islamic Education System is ideal for producing a balanced individual with balanced education capable of been a true and effective khalifah. And these must be achieved through the Islamic epistemology of knowledge as encapsulated in the concept of Tauhidic worldview.
  8. 8. DRAFT COPYONLY 7 1.2 Statement of the Problem This study is an attempt to provide a new insight into the problem of educational backwardness of the Muslim Ummah in Northern Nigeria. Despite several attempts over the past 50 years to solve the problem through policy formulation using secular methodologies, the problem of slow pace of education in the Northern Nigeria refuse to abide. In fact instead of improving, educational statistics have consistently shown a downward trend. This study contends that failure to find solution to the problem stem from failure or unwillingness on the part of relevant stakeholders to conduct a proper diagnosis of the root cause of the problem. Thus, this work intends to diagnose the problem form an Islamic perspective and offer an Islamic solution. In the light of the above objective, this study attempts to address the following set of questions; 1. What are the causes and effect of slow pace of educational development in Northern Nigeria 2. What is the current state and standard of Islamiyya School in Northern Nigeria? 3. What are the effects of government neglect of Islamiyya schools? 4. What are the pros and cons of the Integrated Islamic Education and Curriculum? 5. What are the strategies options to ensure effective implementation of the Integrated Islamic Education System (I.I.E.S) in NN? In order to elucidate the above questions, expository and exploratory research methods as well as analytics would be employed. Relevant texts, journals, monographs and periodicals; concepts and ideas from primary, secondary and tertiary sources of literature would be reviewed and analysed.
  9. 9. DRAFT COPYONLY 8 1.3 Significance of the Study; The study presented here is considered not only significant but also timely. It significance lies in the humble attempt to provide an Islamic solution to the problem of educational backwardness of Muslim Ummah in Northern Nigeria. By providing an effective solution through proper diagnosis, the study would ensure that more than70%3 of school age children alienated from education would now have a balanced education. If the recommendation of this study is fully and effectively implemented, the North would have an appropriate system of education that is proudly Islamic. The study is also considered as timely because it came at a time when education system both secular and Islamic had fallen to the lowest standard. It is also a time when the consequences of neglecting the education of more than 70% of school age children of Northern extraction are at the peak of manifestation the negative vices. Incidences such as the Boko Haram Insurgence, and many other socio-cultural upheavals and vices resulting from vicious circle of: low education > low economic development > poverty> lower educational attainment.
  10. 10. DRAFT COPYONLY 9 Chapter Two 2.0 Overview of Factors that led to rejection of Secular Education in Northern Nigeria. 2.1 Historical Antecedence It is an undeniable historical fact that when the truth precedes falsehood, it is always difficult (if ever) for falsehood to triumph, but the truth will always be victorious over preceding falsehood no matter how long it may take. This assertion always hold unless and until the truth is no longer pure, having become contaminated with falsehood. Thus, when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) came with the truth, that is Islam: as encapsulated in the Qur’an, he did not only triumphed over the idol worshipers of Mecca, he also became victorious over all semi-falsehood and it areas of influence extended far and wide culminating in what was referred to above as the Golden Age of Islam. It was not until the hold on the truth became weak and the rank and file of Muslim ummah got broken and their iman (faith) somersaulted. These led to the decline of Islamic caliphate and its subsequent defeat by the marauding crusaders, consequence of which is the rise of western civilization, colonization, the spread of Christianity and modernization. Hence, before the coming of colonial intruders, the North had a booming Islamic education and culture. In the words of Khalid (1997),” Islamic scholars trooped in from all nocks and corners of Islamic world and transmit knowledge of advanced nature. Intellectual activities were said to compare favourably with what obtained in Italy about the same time”. It was also an historical fact that there was a significant number of local Ulamas who were the vanguards of preserving and disseminating Islamic knowledge and education, and about
  11. 11. DRAFT COPYONLY 10 them Smith (1987:35) wrote, “they possessed a vast fund and Qur’anic knowledge, and were in addition particularly well informed in tradition, laws, rhetoric and classical Islamic history”. Similar evidences of advanced nature of Islamic education have been variously recorded to prove that Islamic education in Northern Nigeria was not simply Qur’anic recitation, memorization and ritual prayers, but more advanced scholarly knowledge in several spheres of academic discipline that would have ushered in new dawn of vibrant Islamic state would have come to being. By 1960 when the onslaught of colonization had ended and despite the in-direct rule and the purported protection of Islamic tradition and religion by Lord Lugard, Islamic education had suffered serious and deliberate neglect. Not only that and as always the case everywhere, the oppressive forces of western imperialism don’t just occupy lands only, they also enslave minds and hearts of the oppressed nations. This they did in Northern Nigeria by neglecting the elsewhere thriving Islamic education in favour of their own western Worldview and epistemology. This strategy enables them to create a class of the Ulamas which were Muslim in name but practically loved the western values and culture in all aspects. Nevertheless, Islam and Islamic traditions have not only become widespread but also deep rooted amongst the majority of rural population under the tutelage of local Ulamas who are graduates of foreign Islamic scholars. It was these groups of Ulamas that formed the core of the ultra conservative traditional Islamic scholars. With large followership, they hold sway in most rural and semi-urban areas commanding great respect among the nobles as well as the talakawas. They were not only revered as teachers, they are also opinion leaders and moulder in fact they were regarded as inheritors of the Prophets. They are the reference points for both the nobles and their followers on personal
  12. 12. DRAFT COPYONLY 11 and state matters. Thus by time when Christian missionaries started venturing into the North to spread Christianity and western education, the message of the Holy Qur’an has already become implanted in the minds of the vast majority of the populace. And the Ulamas only need to quote relevant verses like the ones below to send the message of rejection across which were promptly adhered to;- Q.3:100 O ye who believe! If ye listen to a faction among the people of the Book, they would indeed render you apostates after ye have believed. (Al-i-Imran) Q.3:118 O! Ye who believe! Take not into your intimacy those not into your ranks: they will not fail to corrupt you. They only desire your ruin: Rank hatred has already appeared from their mouths. What their hearts conceal is far worst. We have made plain to you the signs if ye have wisdom. (Al-i-Imran) These and other similar verses from the Holy Qur’an warn Ulamas to be wary of treachery and deceits of the people of the Book and has been used to effectively hardened the minds of Muslim believer against the onslaught of Christian evangelism. Thus, the Ulamas succeeded in pressurizing the emirs who in turn persuaded the colonial administration into prevailing on the European Christian missionaries not to venture into the North. However, despite the vehement resistance by Lugard to the incursion of the Christian missionaries in to the North, A.I Ajayi et al ( 2012), asserted that Christian missionaries did penetrated into the hitherto pagan minority enclaves converting them to Christianity and subsequently western education schools were established in Katsina and Bauchi by 1922. And by 1931 there were 29 western education schools in the North with a total of 1,931 students (FRN)1. It was the products of these schools consisting mainly of Christian
  13. 13. DRAFT COPYONLY 12 converts and children of the servants of emirs of Northern emirates (forced by emirs to fulfil mandated school enrolments by the colonial administration) that formed the first class of Northerners to receive western education. Unfortunately, some of these pioneers became captivated by western glamour, thoughts and civilization. Consequently, they became westernized in their thought, appearance and habit in place of their Islamic traditions and values. These developments led the ultra conservative Ulamas to quickly point out the erosion of Islamic value as a consequent of western education that must be avoided. They provided evidences from the Qur’an like the verse quoted above, and the net result was to drive the vast majority of rural population away from anything western. In fact not even the relative prosperity and material acquisition of the westernized Muslims was enough motivation for the grass root population to change their perception, as they found solace in the qur’anic verse that says:- 2:168. O ye people! Eat of what is on earth, lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one, for he is to you an avowed enemy. (Baqara) Thus the Qur’an has provided for the Ulamas true guardian and warnings of things to come even before they become manifest. Although consequences of some warnings and guardians may not be immediately apparent to Ulamas, they are nevertheless required to accept and believe the message of the Qur’an as the absolute truth and have faith until they can fully understand they full meaning of the message and those things that were not immediately apparent becomes manifest, ( …. “We hear, and we obey” ….: 2:285) .Hence as contemporary events began to unfold Ulamas began to notice a transformation of
  14. 14. DRAFT COPYONLY 13 western Christian education to Western secular education. The former was repugnant enough to Ulamas, while the later was considered an outright blasphemy. In addition, unfiltered liberal freedom of western civilization that promotes and enforces ungodly activities like atheism, nicked walking, lesbianism, and other social vices on humanity as well as unceasing military attacks on Ulamas and Islam is seen by the ultra conservative Ulamas as a confirmation of Qur’an warnings and a manifestation of its unapparent meanings. In a nut shell, the most fundamental factor that led to the consistent and prolonged rejection of western education Muslim ummah is the its secular nature. The concept of “Godlessness” is not only repugnant to Muslims; it is UN Islamic and therefore completely unacceptable. To try to persuade a whole Muslim Ummah to accept secular education (Godlessness) is akin to renouncing the Islamic religion. 2.2 Consequences of Rejection The rejection of secular education by the Ulamas led to the declaration of the verdict of unlawfulness of western education; “Boko Haram”. This is because to them western education (Boko) connotes all the vices listed above which are islamically unlawful (Haram). It was this verdict that increased the resistance to western education among the rural population of Northern Nigeria who constitutes over 70% of the Northern population. Thus the degree of resistance to western education is not only deep rooted, is it also massive but because it is passive it is often underestimated by scholars. It should however be borne in mind that the verdict of “Boko Haram” is erroneously been attached to western education per se instead of the western epistemology that de-emphasizes Godliness,
  15. 15. DRAFT COPYONLY 14 morality and value, the consequent of which are the ungodly activities and vices listed above and these are unequivocally un-Islamic and therefore Haram. Thus Islam does not oppose to scientific knowledge or any other knowledge for that matter as long as it contains Godliness, morality and value systems. Thus, secular education as currently presented, is devoid of these basic criteria that are so fundamental to the tenants of Islam and therefore cannot be accepted. The rejection of Western education coupled with failure of the government to patronise Islamic education lead to sustained educational crises resulting in erosion of standards and an increasing number of out of school children. Thus as the population continue to increase, the number of out of school children also raises. It is this situation that led Ulamas to take advantage of educational gap created by government’s neglect of Islamic education and badly managed secular schools to establish Islamiyya schools that proliferated and mushroomed over the years. Thus without a central control and supervision agency, and with increasing enrolments Islamiyya schools became over populated, under staffed, poor infrastructure, lacked of internal efficiency and effectiveness. The resultant effect is poor educational outcomes and like the secular counterpart, both system of education capsized and somersaulted leading to the total or near total collapse of education in Northern Nigeria generally. The challenge to present day Muslim Ummah is therefore to develop an educational system that does not only satisfy the spiritual and moral requirement of their religion but also capable of ushering the much desired accelerated but sustainable economic development. Thus if the economic development of a people is dependent upon its level of educational
  16. 16. DRAFT COPYONLY 15 attainment, then the process of economic development must start with reviving and revitalizing an Islamic educational system capable of comprehensively training individual in all fields of human endeavours necessary for the achievement of desired goals. It is in these regard that Islamic scholars must brace up to lead the vanguard in emancipating Muslim Ummah from the entangling York of colonial mentality. An entanglement that is so pervasive that only concerted and consistent efforts can ensure a successful and sustainable mental decolonization of the Muslim Ummah.
  17. 17. DRAFT COPYONLY 16 Chapter Three 3.0 State of Educational System in Northern Nigeria, A CRITIQUE The educational system prevalent in Northern Nigeria can better be described as educational dualism. A system that is common to the universal Muslim ummah, having suffered from similar colonial experiences. Dualism in education denotes two different system of education; traditional Islamic system (Religious Education) and modern secular system (Western Education). Religion is compartmentalized as one subject namely Islamic Studies, among many subjects taught in the modern secular system. Whether it focuses on Religious Education or Modern Education, these two systems or modes of education are completely independent. Students who opt for religious education are usually exposed to traditional subject matters related to religion, and they tend to discredit and considered modern sciences as secondary. As for those who opted for “secular” system of education, mathematics, science, geography, chemistry known as modern education, are their favourite subject matters, but lacking the satisfactory level of knowledge of their Islamic faith, tradition and religious duties. Thus creating dual personality within the same society; a situation that has been vehemently criticized by contemporary Islamic scholars as doing immeasurable damage to the moral, spiritual and ethical values of Islamic culture and heritage (Ali 1984: 51). Having two parallel streams of secular and religious education has drawn virtually unanimous condemnations in the Islamic world as a hindrance to national development and "the epitome of Muslim decline" (Farabi 1982). This study, in the section below seeks to critically examine the present state of both educational system with a view to highlight their strengths and weaknesses:
  18. 18. DRAFT COPYONLY 17 3.1The Islamiyya system of education Historical facts revealed that by the beginning of the 20th century when the British colonialists conquered and established their suzerainty over the caliphate, Islamic education was very much alive in the hands of the Ulamas. However, the system was dealt a heavy blow even before the formal commencement of colonialism due to the death or dispersal of a large number of ulama in the military campaigns that characterized British colonial conquest of the Sokoto caliphate (Khalid 1997). In addition, by introducing an alternative education and making its acquisition the sole criterion for entry into privileged positions, the ‘new’ colonial order undermined the monopoly of the Ulama over literacy and access to positions, resources and prestige (Umar 2001). Overwhelmed but not dead, Islamic schools persisted as parallels to the growing dominance of western education. Lacking any cohesive response to the onslaught of western education and modernity, these schools maintained an exclusive focus on other-worldly aspects of Islamic education described earlier (Bano 2009). Even though Islamic schools continued to have large patronage among the populace, they remained without supervision or support from the state because the British colonial authorities failed to develop a coherent policy of engaging with them or their owners. Instead, the attitude of the colonialists towards these schools were characterised by ambivalence, and neglect. Therefore, according to Abdulrahman & Canham 1978; Ozigi & Ocho 1981, while the ulama lost linkages with the state, their control over curricula contents, instructional practices and management of Islamic schools remained as it had always been in the pre-colonial period: uncontested and unchecked.
  19. 19. DRAFT COPYONLY 18 Although post independent development plans tried to maintain the status co, failure of most educational development policies from 1970s to date encouraged the resurgence of Islamic schools. This was view is supported by studies conducted by both USAID (2003a) and Abd-el-Khalik, Boyle & Pier (2006) which suggested that the motivation of parents in enrolling their children in Islamic schools is not entirely religious; they have concerns over quality as well. The point here is to establish the poor delivery of public education in Nigeria as the driving force behind the different manifestations of Islamic schools in the education arena. Although they have been effectively sidelined in the implementation of the state’s development agenda in education, Islamic schools have regained relevance following the failure of these developmental policies. Another point that has also been made is the inability of the state to seize the initiative by providing a common framework that would guide the future direction of Islamic schools and establish credible points of contact between these schools and the state-driven education agenda. This situation according to N.M Baba (2011) leaves the ulama in charge of the dominant discourse as far as the participation of Islamic schools in educational development is concerned. Consequent to the above historical antecedents, N.M Baba (2001) identified three types of Islamic education namely; Madrassa, Islamiyya schools and Traditional Qur’anic schools. However, a fourth type that can be called Modern Islamiyya schools which is a recent development as an attempt to integrate secular and Islamic education may be added for the purposes of this paper. It is considered pertinent at this point to review each of these Islamic learning centres to ascertain their strength and weakness in contributing to the education at least from the Muslim Ummah point of view;-
  20. 20. DRAFT COPYONLY 19 3.1.1Traditional Qur’anic Schools:- These are commonly referred to as “Makarantan Allo”. These are the earliest forms of Islamic education, being introduced into Northern Nigeria since 14th century. It is therefore deep rooted amongst the vast majority of rural populace under the tutelage of ultra conservative Ulamas. It is the entry point for most Muslim children and is binding upon all Muslim parents to enlist their children and wards as a religious obligation. The primary function of Qur’anic schools is to contribute to the early upbringing of Muslim children by training them in the reading and memorization of the Qur’an. In performing these functions, Qur’anic schools laid the foundation for the emergence of an Islamic system of education long before the advent of western education in Northern Nigeria (Clarke 1982). The second phase is the Makarantar ilmi; - This is the school of higher learning where graduates of Makarantar Allo, now being adults Muslims further their studies in different branches of Islamic learning. The sole objectives according to A.M Gada (2010) is to make a student more familiar with the knowledge of the Qur’anic exegesis, the knowledge of the explanation of the Ahadith of the Prophet particularly contained in the renown collections of the traditions, Islamic law and jurisprudence, and knowledge of the existence, uniqueness and attributes of ALLAH. While Qur’anic schools provide the equivalent of modern pre-primary and primary education, Makarantar ilmi is a long educational experience designed to provide students of Qur’anic schools with an understanding of the meaning of the Quran and exposure to other specialised branches of Islamic learning (Fafunwa 1991). Although many of the Islamic schools described above had humble beginnings as Qur’anic schools, the expansion they have witnessed has been concentrated at the advanced level of Islamic learning.
  21. 21. DRAFT COPYONLY 20 However, Traditional Qur’anic schools are been criticized by secularists has been basically as centres of “indoctrination” they asserted that Islamic education "moulds" students into a predetermined conception of how they should lead their lives and inculcates "specific kinds of dispositions", which does little to "liberate pupils from ignorance and misconceptions" (White 1982: 126). He went further to say that “One of the primary dicta of education in a modern context is to prepare people for productive employment. The relevance of religious education from this perspective is unclear since obvious priorities should be given to those subjects furthering usable skills in the work place. Furthermore, N.M Baba (2001) pointed out that these traditional religious schools have also provided the intellectual and recruitment base for what Danfulani (2009) refers to as ‘syncretistic and anti- establishment’ Islamic movements. These movements blend Hausa folk beliefs and practices with selected parts of Qur’anic content to justify anti-development practices such as non-school enrolment, the rejection of immunization programmes, and the denial of women’s and children’s rights. The latest manifestations of these movements are the Boko- Haram and Kala Kato upheavals that affected some northern states in July and December 2009 respectively. This is in line with the view expressed in this study that the ultra conservative Ulamas heading the Traditional Qur’anic schools are averse to modernity generally and would do everything humanly possible to maintain the status co. Despite the above criticisms and many more, Traditional Qur’anic schools has played and would continue to play vital and indispensable religious function among the Muslim ummah. Firstly, the products of these schools are memorizers of the Qur’an (hafz). Learning the Qur’an by heart ensures its incorruptibility; for they do not only recite they can also write the whole Qur’an off head without missing out a coma or a full stop. Thus,
  22. 22. DRAFT COPYONLY 21 Muslim ummah cannot afford not to have hafiz within their mist in fact the more the number the better. It is pertinent therefore that the noble traditions of Qur’an memorization is uphold and passed from generation to generation. As pointed out by U.A.Al-beely (1980);- “Nobody concerned with Islamic education would disagree that the Qur’an is a cornerstone which links the Arabic and Islamic. Memorization of the Qur’an helps the jurist in producing evidences, helps linguists in finding examples, and helps others interested in Islam and Arabic studies whenever they used authoritative references. It also improves the style of public speakers and writers whenever they borrow from its elegant, unlimited words and verse”. Moreover most graduate of Traditional Islamic schools (Makarantar Allo and Makarantar ilmi), are eligible to pickup employment as scribes, theologians, Muslin magistrate or qadis in addition to traditional occupation of farming and other vocational works. Thus contrary to the claim that they are not economically productive graduates of Traditional Islamic schools do and can contribute to the socio-economic development of the ummah if properly harnessed, empowered and mainstreamed by relevant stake holders. 3.1.2 Madrassas;- These are Islamiyya schools that were modelled out of a government initiative that capitalized on the provision of a colonial legacies of 1934, that established the institution named Northern Provinces Law School. It was meant to train judges to administer Islamic laws in it territories (Umar, 2003). This follow the pioneering establishment of primary and post primary in the south-west (Taiwo 1980; Ibrahim 2005), by the late 1980s when concerns over the quality of public schools became widespread, the penetration of the Ulama in the delivery mechanisms of public education had, therefore, produced two tracks of Islamic schools that became popular, particularly among urban
  23. 23. DRAFT COPYONLY 22 Muslims in Northern Nigeria (N.M.Baba, 2011). The Madrassa operated a distinct curriculum based mainly on Arabic and Islamic studies. The medium of instruction is basically Arabic, and English was taught only as a subject. They were fully owned and operated by the Ulamas in conjunction with their urban Muslim collaborators. They were however under a loose kind of supervision from the National Board of Arabic and Islamic studies. In an effort to incorporating elements of western education in their programmes, they adopted modern organizational and management styles of public schools. However, they differ from the latter in their conscious projection of distinct Islamic cultural identity and orientation in the physical outlay of the school, dress and discipline. The reason according to (Umar, 2003) is the emphasis they place on Arabic and Islamic studies in their curricula that shapes their Islamic character and differentiates them from public schools. This effort was one of the earliest in presenting Islamic education in a formal setting. As encouraging as the above may seems, graduates of the Madrassas have limited job opportunities, as most of them ended up as Arabic and Islamic studies teachers. Their lack of good command of English language makes it difficult to socialize and integrate fully with their peers in secular schools. This also explains why most of them find it hard to gain admission into Nigerian Universities and when they do find it even harder to graduate. Consequent upon this, graduate of Madrassas now find it a profitable venture to establish their own modern Islamiyya schools where attempts are made to integrate some secular subjects with the Madrassa curriculum. In fact some more progressive ones have introduced English language as medium of instruction; however these efforts are largely constrained by poor quality and lack of trained English teachers. The prevailing proliferation of Islamiyya schools leads to mushrooming devoid of unified standards.
  24. 24. DRAFT COPYONLY 23 3.1.3 Modern Islamiyya Schools:- These are Northern state government version of Islamic schools modelled out of the defunct Northern Province Law School of 1934. It was an initiative to establish colleges that offered a combination of western and Islamic education for the training of Arabic teachers, popularly known as Arabic teachers’ college. According to Umar (2003), these colleges had become established in the Northern Nigerian cities of Sokoto, Gombe, Maiduguri, Hadejia and Kano by 1979. By structuring their curricula to reflect the two-tier structure of Nigerian secondary school system, these Arabic colleges operates the modified national curricula intended to facilitate the integration of their students in educational and career opportunities without abandoning their pursuit of Islamic education. They have been able to achieve this by broad coverage of subjects prescribed for secondary schools in the NPE, the use of English as the medium for teaching these secular subjects, and putting their students forward for common national examination and certification processes (N.M.Baba, 2011). However, use of English to teach only secular subjects while Arabic language is used to teach Arabic and other Islamic studies seems to be the root causes of what (Umar 2003; Abd-el-Khalik et al. 2006), referred to as constraints that limit their internal efficiencies. These constraints stem from lack of qualified English based Arabic and Islamic studies teachers. Thus the lack of effective linkage between English and Arabic language caused by failure to teach Arabic and Islamic studies using English as medium of instruction limits students’ exposure and comprehension of English language. The resultant effect is poor performances of students generally and development of inferiority complex among their peers from the south-west that uses English solely as a medium of instruction to teach the same curriculum. The poor command of English the Nations linqua Franca is also responsible for the rapid national
  25. 25. DRAFT COPYONLY 24 integration as envisaged by the government. Furthermore, as stated above it limits their opportunities to gain admission into Nigerian Universities and makes it even more difficult to graduate. However despite the above, Modern Islamiyya schools enjoys very high patronage. Its sources of recruitment includes students from Traditional Qur’anic Schools, who having fulfil their parents’ desire for strong Qur’anic foundation, now wants to have a go at modern secular education. Thus there is a fluid mobility of students from Traditional Qur’anic Schools to Modern Islamic schools; hence Modern Islamic Schools would continue to enjoy continuous inflow of student from TQS. In addition, Urban Muslim parents who also desire their children and wards to be well grounded in Islamic knowledge before proceeding to secular institutions also form a significant number of those who patronizes Modern Islamiyya Schools. Thus in addition to Madrassas, Ulamas have also seized the opportunity created by the state governments to establish Modern Islamiyya Schools of various standards thus leading to the proliferation of these schools at every nock and crannies. The resultant effect is to impact negatively on the standards and quality of the delivery system. The Ulamas have not only established Modern Islamic Primary Schools to feed the government Arabic teachers colleges, they have gone even further to establish post primary Islamic primary schools and in most cases using private secular schools as models. 3.1.4 Islamic Science Schools;- Perhaps the most ambitious in the efforts of Islamic school to modernize and implement a curriculum in line with public schools is the establishment of Islamic Science Secondary Schools. Being capital intensive, it is being spearheaded by
  26. 26. DRAFT COPYONLY 25 organized Islamic sects. In most cases large day schools with huge patronage from urban Muslim population have kept these schools alive and functioning. The curriculum design for these schools are meant to offer Islamic education simultaneously with secular education using the same time table and same school routine as similar to public schools. With due approval from states ministry of education they have being over the years presenting their students to sit for all public examination such as W.A.S.C.E, and NECO. Despite the claims of good performances in public exams, experienced school teachers and administrators often entertain serious reservation at such claims. Experience have shown that the challenges of combining Islamic and secular education in one single stream using a single time table, and ending a school days session of eight hours of forty five hours per week including long and short breaks with the intention of covering the required syllabuses in certainly an impossible task. It however, suggest yearnings of Muslim parents for their wards to acquire both Islamic education and sciences education, and Islamic schools are striving to satisfy the parents by providing hybrids of dual education. Nevertheless, for a successful combination of Islamic and scientific education serious thoughts and comprehensive planning of time and the curriculum ought to be carried out to ensure the effectiveness of the system. In an Islamic based science school, only basic Islamic education such as Tawhid, Tarbiyya, in addition to basic ritual such as sallat that are already acquired at the early stages may be consider necessary to give room for science and social science education, pending the ongoing comprehensive desecularization of knowledge.
  27. 27. DRAFT COPYONLY 26 The analysis presented above, points to a near chaos system of education in Northern Nigeria. From the State supported and sponsored secular schools that have been consistently near total collapse over the years to the proliferation of mushrooming Islamiyya schools that lack unified standards nor effectiveness, Northern Nigeria is bedevilled with an unofficial dual educational system. However, despite is weaknesses Islamiyya schools enjoy very high patronage. Thus over 70% of school age Muslim children are enrolled in one type of Islamiyya School or another, and of the remaining 30% that are supposed to enrol in secular schools only 10% of them are Muslim pupils while 20% are Christian pupils from the minority enclave and other parts of Nigerian. It is for these reasons that official records often show that only 10% of school age children in the North attends schools and therefore receive the support and sponsorship of the government. While the vast majority 70% in enrolled in the Islamiyya schools are unrecognised and therefore unaccounted for. Consistent neglect of Islamiyya educational system over the years by the various tiers of government meant that there are no official records of number of Islamiyya schools or enrolments figures. However, using the statistics of enrolment figures in secular schools it is possible to estimate the number of possible pupil enrolment into Islamiyya schools. Using the figures presented by Prof. O.S.Okobiah (2000) in his paper on Educational Imbalance between the Northern and Southern states. He presented tables showing widening trends in the gap of enrolments in secular schools for primary, secondary and the universities. These tables are reproduced below along with a modified figure to show the possible number of enrolment in Islamiyya schools;-
  28. 28. DRAFT COPYONLY 27 Table 1a; Primary School Level Table 1 presents the trends in the primary school enrolment and the observed disparities between the northern and southern states as early as beginning of the 20th Century. TRENDS IN SECULAR PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT DISPARITY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH NORTH SOUTH PERIOD PARAMETERS Number % Nation Number % Nation 1913 Population 8,487,000 51.5 791,000 48% Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 1,510,686 1,417,058 Population enrolled 25,000 7.4 313,000 92.6 Enrolment Rate (%) 1.8 22.1 1960 Population 26,854,000 55.7 21,357,00 0 44.3 Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 4,779,478 3,801,546 Population enrolled 282,849 9.9 2,629,770 90.1 Enrolment Rate (%) 5.6 68.2 1975 Population 37,423,945 53.5 32,527,33 5 46.5 Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 6,628,898 5,789,870 Population enrolled 1,698,700 27.6 4,463,000 72.4 Enrolment Rate (%) 25.6 77.1 1980 Population 40,607,200 53.5 35,294,10 0 46.5 Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 7,228,082 6,282,350 Population enrolled 4,500,000 37.1 7,617,483 62.9 Enrolment Rate (%) 62.3 121.3 1990 Population 46,593,100 53.5 40,496,80 0 46.5 Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 8,293,572 7,208,430 Population enrolled 5,676,672 44.6 7,044,408 55.4 Enrolment Rate (%) 68.4 97.7 1998 Population 57,656,000 53.4 50,314,00 0 46.6 Expected Pop. Of Pri. Sch. Age 10,262,768 8,855,892 Population enrolled 7,984,368 44.5 9,958,032 55.5 Enrolment Rate (%) 77.8 111.2
  29. 29. DRAFT COPYONLY 28 Sources (O.S.Okobia, 2000) Compiled and computed from; (a) Federal Republic of Nigeria (1985), Statistics of Education in Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Education Science and Technology. Lagos. (b) Federal Republic of Nigeria (1990) Statistics of Education in Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Education. Abuja. (c) Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999) Statistics of Education in Nigeria; Working Document Note: Expected population of school ages for Primary and Secondary schools are 17.8% and 14.6% respectively. (Federal Government Study group on Funding of Education, 1984) Table 1b ESTIMATED TRENDS IN ISLAMIYYA PRIMARY SCHOOLS ENROLMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA NORTH ONLY PERIOD PARAMETERS SECULAR SCHOOLS ISLAMIYYA SCHOOLS Number % Nation Number** % Nation 1913 Population Size 8,487,000 51.5 8,487,000 51.5 Expected Pop of Pri. Sch. Age 1,510,686 1,510,686 Population Enrolled 25,000 1.7 1,460,686 98.3 Enrollment Rate (%) 1.8 98.2 1960 Population Size 26,854,00 0 55.7 26,854,000 55.7 Expected Pop of Pri. Sch. Age 4,779,478 4,779,478 Population Enrolled 282,849 6.0 4,496,629 94.0 Enrollment Rate (%) 5.6% 94 1975 Population Size 37,423,94 5 53.5 37,423,945 53.5 Expected Pop of Pri. Sch. Age 6,628,898 6,628,898 Population Enrolled 1,698,700 27.6 4,930,198 74.4 Enrollment Rate (%) 25.6% 74.4 1980 Population Size 40,607,20 0 53.5 40,607,200 53.5 Expected Pop of Pri. Sch. Age 7,228,082 7,228,082 Population Enrolled 4,500,000 37.0 2,628,082 63.0 Enrollment Rate (%) 63.0 37.0 Population Size 46,593,10 53.5 46,593,100 53.5
  30. 30. DRAFT COPYONLY 29 1990 0 Expected. Pop. Of. Pri. Sch. Age 8,293,572 8,293,572 Population Enrolled 5,676,672 68.5 2,616,428 31.5 Enrollment Rate (%) 68.4 31.6 1998 Population Size 57,656,00 0 53.4 57,656,000 53.4 Expected Pop of Pri. Sch. Age 10,262,76 8 10,262,768 Population Enrolled 7,984,368 77.8 2,278,400 22.2 Enrollment Rate (%) 77.8 22.2 Source; Modified from Table 1a. Note: All figures in italics were gotten by deducting population enrolled from expected population of primary school age. The balances are deemed to have enrolled in one Islamiyya or the other. This is considered very crucial in explaining the short fall in enrolment when compared with the figures of expected. Table 1a above was used by O.S.Okobiah (2002) to showcase the consistent trend of increasing gaps in the primary school enrolment figure between the North and south. Table 1b on the other hand was modified from table 1a to show the preference of Islamiyya system of education than secular educational system. This argument is considered pertinent because Muslim children who do not attend secular schools do as a matter of course attend one type of Islamiyya School or another. Thus the Islamic educational system provides an alternative system of education for children of school age in the North, while their counterparts in the south do not such opportunity. Thus the rejection/acceptance theory of Okobiah (2002) may be seen as contra factual since the presence of an alternative led to the rejection of secular education while absence of an alternative led to an unconditional acceptance of secular education in the south. Furthermore, the fluctuating fortunes of public schools in terms of policy implementation inconsistency over the years as explained by Abd-Khalik at el (2006) , is an additional factor responsible not only of the sustenance of Islamiyya schools but also its increasing preference in most part of Northern
  31. 31. DRAFT COPYONLY 30 Nigeria. The consequences of this preference and the consistent neglect over the years by all tiers of government is the alienation of more than 70% in school age children most of them in the North from receiving the type of education that is in congruence with their faith. Thus despite its perceived good intention the government through it educational policy of non inclusiveness as succeeded in throwing more than half of its youthful population into the waste bin. Similarly, the argument that Islamic educational system is not functional and therefore not capable of producing individuals with the requisite skills and expertise to contribute significantly to the economic development of a nation is considered in this discourse as a secularist campaign. As argued above Islam has never been against form of skill or expertise nor indeed scientific knowledge for that matter, as long as it is not secularized. After all Muslim scholars were at forefront of knowledge acquisition and preservation during the golden age of Islam before universal knowledge became secularized by secularist propagandists. As it were, knowledge being a universal heritage need and must be desecularise and imbibed with the spirit of Tawhid before it can be acceptable to Muslims. However, as the challenge of de - secularising knowledge is certainly beyond the capacity of the Ulamas who hitherto have been the vanguards of Islamic education in Northern Nigeria, there is the need for the reluctant of Muslim elite, academia, and the political class who have imbibed an overdose of secularist mentality to allow their Islamic heritage and background to prevail for a sober reflection upon the state of Muslim children education. The perception of class that Islamic education is no alternative to western education A.Haruna (1999) is an indication of academic bankruptcy of what Islamic system of education entails and what it should be. Unfortunately, it is these group of Northern Elite
  32. 32. DRAFT COPYONLY 31 that have being at the helm of affairs since Nigerian attained independence in 1960. Under their watch, Muslim children have remained half –educated or uneducated and thousands have thus become ready tools for all imaginable vices that bedevilled the North particularly and Nigeria in general. In the section below this discourse would highlight the Islamic theory of knowledge, its principle and objectives as well as a brief review of scholars’ efforts on developing an Integrated Islamic curriculum. The aim is to present Islamic World view and its epistemology of knowledge as a viable alternative to secular World view and its epistemology.
  33. 33. DRAFT COPYONLY 32 Chapter Four 4.0 The Islamic Worldview and Epistemology: The central theme of this paper is essentially an attempt to reverse the dwindling fortunes of educational system in Northern Nigeria, by presenting an Islamic alternative that is in congruence with the believe of the Muslim Ummah. The dualism of educational system currently in practice in which state sponsored secular educational system run parallel with Islamiyya system established by the Ulamas has not yielded desire results. As a result, levels of educational standard continue to fall and the gap between Muslim ummah in the North and their compatriots in the south continue to widen. In presenting an Islamic alternative, it is considered pertinent at this juncture to know where Islamic education is coming from and where it is headed. The concept of Islamic epistemology spelt out the underlining philosophy of knowledge in Islam. It provides the insights in to the sources, nature, purpose, scope, types, branches, goal as well as the uses and how to acquire knowledge. Thus Islamic epistemology refers to the Islamic theory or concept of knowledge which is a product of Islamic World view as enshrined in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Epistemology, according to M. Amin (2009) is the product of the worldview of a society (its concept of man, the universe, and the deity).The concept of knowledge in a society gives birth to different disciplines and branches of knowledge, educational philosophy, and institutional infrastructure. Education plays a key role in the character building of individuals who in turn make up the society and develop a civilization, all of which are encapsulated in an all-encompassing concept of Tawhidi unity of Divine knowledge.
  34. 34. DRAFT COPYONLY 33 4.1The Islamic worldview; The Islamic world-view is constructed on three fundamental concepts. These concepts according to Chapra (1993) are Oneness and Unity of God (tawhid), vicegerency of human beings (khalifah), and justice (adalah). Chapra asserted the Tawhid is the most important of these concepts because the other two are its logical derivatives. Tawhid symbolizes the affirmation of uncompromising oneness of Allah, this implies that the universe has been consciously designed and created by the Supreme Being, Who is One and Unique, and that it did not come into existence by chance or accident (Qur’an, 3:191, 38:27, and 23:15). Everything created by Him has a purpose; it is this purpose, which gives meaning and significance to the existence of the universe, of which human beings are a part. This being the case, Chapra (1993) argues that, human beings by virtue of the fact that they have been endowed with freewill, rationality, and moral consciousness combined with an inherent God consciousness, are required to live in exclusive worship and obedience to the Supreme Being. This is what Kamal (2003) refer to, as servitude (Udubiyyah) to AllahS.W.T. Thus, tawhid is not merely recognition of reality, but also an active response to it. The human being as stated earlier, is the Supreme Being's khalifah or vicegerent on earth (Qur’an, 2:30, 6:165, 35:39, 38:28, and 57:7), therefore all the resources at his disposal including knowledge are a trust (Qur’an, 57:7). As His vicegerents, human beings are accountable to Him and will be rewarded or punished in the Hereafter in accordance with whether they do or do not while in this world in conformity with the guidance provided by Him. It follows from the above therefore that since everyone, rather than any single privileged person or member of a particular race or group or country, is a khalifah, Chapra
  35. 35. DRAFT COPYONLY 34 (1993) implied that khalifah essentially stands for the fundamental unity, in fellowship of humankind. Fellowship would remain a hollow concept devoid of all substance if justice (‘adalah) does not accompany it. The establishment of justice has therefore, been declared by the Qur’an to be one of the primary objectives that God's Messengers seek to achieve (Qur’an, 57:25). In fact, the Qur’an (5:8), places justice "nearest to piety" in terms of its importance in the Islamic faith. Piety, or moral development, implies closeness to God attained through the faithful implementation of all values and establishment of all institutions prescribed by Him through the Qur’an and the Sunnah (the Prophet's sayings and actions), and is thus extremely important because it serves as a springboard for all rightful actions, including the establishment of justice. Thus as vicegerents (khalifa), humankind especially believers are assigned special responsibilities by Allah (S.W.T). Moreover, as followers and lover of the final messengers of Allah (S.W.T), they form part of a unique ideological community or nation (Ummah) which has been designated as best community or khair Ummah (Q: 3:110) for human kind to follow. Furthermore, with all the intellectual, spiritual, and material resources put at their disposal by the compassionate Master, Allah (S.W.T), they become a role model of excellence of servant hood and vicegarency. Thus, they are to enjoin people to what is good, forbid what is bad, and strive with their material and non-material resources including knowledge to construct human life for comprehensive servitude to Allah (S.W.T). Hence, their motto in life as pointed out from the Qur’an by M. K. Hassan (200?) is “Inna salati wa nusuki, wa mahyaya, wa mamati li-Allahi Rabb- al-Alamin”. (Q: 6:162). They also need to remember that all the God-giving means of acquiring knowledge including intellect are accountable before Allah (S.W.T)on the Day of Judgment. For Qur’an (17:35)59,”And pursue
  36. 36. DRAFT COPYONLY 35 not that which you do not have knowledge of; for surely the hearing, the sight, and the heart of all those shall be questioned of”. 4.2 The Epistemology of Knowledge in Islam The Islamic theory of knowledge or epistemology refers to the underlying philosophy of knowledge in Islam. It consist of the sources, objective, scope, types and branches of Islamic knowledge; it spelt out guidelines on useful and harmful knowledge, what is humanly possible to know and those that are impossible to know as well as methodologies of acquiring them. The Islamic theory of knowledge or epistemology is a product of the Islamic Worldview explained above, and it reflects the Muslim perception of the concept of Man, Universe and the deity. This epistemology in turn gave birth to the different disciplines, branches of knowledge, its educational philosophy, and institutional infrastructure. Thus, education derived from an alien type of epistemology and Worldview such as Western or secular education world and has only promote Western values and ideas and as noted by Al-Attas ( 1979), Western education being a product of Western epistemology and Worldview can neither find roots in Muslim society and culture nor can it needs be meet. This is the reason why Western education is being resisted by the Muslim Ummah, hence the slow pace of educational development, which in turn gave rise to slow economic development and poverty and hence a further derogation of educational attainment of Muslim Ummah, such is the perpetual vicious circle of slow education > slow economic development > poverty > slower educational attainment >.
  37. 37. DRAFT COPYONLY 36 4.2.1 Sources of Islamic Knowledge As vicegerents (Khalifah) of Allah (S.W.T) Muslims are ordained to hold in, trust, manage, and develop the resources of the earth to construct a holistic civilization. To fulfill these responsibility, human kind are empowered with guidance and knowledge from divine revelations (al-wahy al- illahi) and the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad(P.B.U.H) as well as the exertion of human intellect (al-‘aql al- insani) and will. While affirming the supremacy of divine revelation, the Qur’an teaches that sound human intellect as being entrusted by divine revelation to play a crucial role in the confirmation of revealed truth and the development all fields of human knowledge necessary for effective and wholesome human vicegarancy on earth. Thus, as M.K.Hassan (2003) asserted, there should not be any conflict between divine revelation and sound human reason. The Qur’an, has presented a Worldview that enjoins a harmonious integration of divine revelation with intellectually acquired knowledge in other words; it encourages a complimentary role between Books of revelation and the Book of universe. This complimentary role was succinctly described by M.K.Hassan (2003): “As the most fundamental method for sound and holistic development of man, state, culture and civilization in order to realize the “good life”, just and the virtuous society”. “A land fair and prosperous in the care of a forgiving God”: A balance and theocentric civilization leading ultimately to everlasting felicity in the hereafter”. Thus contrary to the wrong notion that Islamic education consists only of Qur’anic memorization (rote learning) and learning of routine rituals for Ibadaat, but not functional and deprived of critical thinking. For example, J.M. Halstead (2004; p.519) argues that the
  38. 38. DRAFT COPYONLY 37 Islamic philosophy and education is not promoting critical thinking such as He writes:”Independence of thought and personal autonomy do not enter into the Muslim thinking about education, which is more concerned with the progressive initiation of pupils into the received truths of the faith. The Islamic Worldview of Tawhid is moulded to present a brilliant holistic Islamic civilization, which unified ethics, faith, and religion with the natural and experimental science, technology, governance of the state, economic activities and education. The Islamic educational system thus embodied the Qur’anic vision of unity of religion with science, religious knowledge, and Worldly knowledge, morality with professional discipline, the physical, and the spiritual. 4.2.2 Concept of Islamic Education Meaning of Education The Western classical definition of education is any process by which an individual gains knowledge or insight, or develops attitudes or skills … (Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 9:642). On the other hand, the Concise Oxford Dictionary defines it as ‘bringing up’ (of the young); ‘systematic instruction’. Hence, the most typical working definition of education is as a “process of transmitting cultural values and other information from generation to generation” (L. Adedeji; 2012). Generally, in Western classical term, the purpose of an educational system is that of educating and training young people who are equipped with solid knowledge and abilities, able to think creatively and act independently. It should educate and train fully developed personalities who unfold their abilities and talents for the good of the society, who can think and act as patriots, have a sense of community, love for work and readiness to defend the country (Glaessner; 1998).
  39. 39. DRAFT COPYONLY 38 Thus, the key terms in the general definition of education guiding mainstream schools today may be summarized; as “Education is the delivery/transmission of knowledge/information and skills from teachers to students”. However, the concept of “delivery/transmission” typical of most classical definition of education have been roundly criticized as haven missed what is most important about education (HUMAN MIND). It is this mistaken idea of what true education and how it can be achieved, that J.H. Thomas (2002), considers as the root of mainstream education in most western countries and their colonies. Providing a proper definition of education is complicated by the fact that there is no clear consensus about what is important about being and becoming educated. Thus for many, the importance of education lies in future job prospects. For others its quality of citizenship, and yet others just want literacy, creative thinking and or/creativity. This study propose that behind all the different opinions about what it means to be educated is one very basic idea: an educated person is someone who perceives accurately, thinks clearly, and acts effectively on self-selected goals. To achieve this, the mind needs to be nurtured (Tarbiyah) to maturity. Furthermore, there is consensus that the western concept of education is utilitarian that restrict and constrict education to a narrow band of skills for the work place. It is a concept that is geared towards economic performance, completion, efficiency above all else. This assertion is attested by the British Department of Education and E employment (DfEE), when it postulated that: “the success of our children at school is crucial to the economic, health and social cohesion of the country, as well as their own life chances and personal
  40. 40. DRAFT COPYONLY 39 fulfillment”. This statement implies that economic power governs educational policies giving it direction and solely economic goals to achieve. However, although the need for qualified professionals capable of achieving economic goals cannot be over emphasized, this study argue that such professionals required as a matter of necessity; a type of education that does not only ensures their success in their specialized fields, and able to; advance their own carriers; but also creative: well – educated and well- rounded in the broader sense with concomitant culture, moral, emotional, and spiritual development. Herein then lies the broad objectives of Islamic education as would be elucidated below. 4.2.3 Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education The aim of education in Islam as stipulated in the First World Conference on Muslim Education held in Jeddah-Mecca (1393A.H.-1977A.D.) is to produce a good man; it aims at the “balanced growth of the total personality of man through the training of man’s spirit, intellect, the rational self, feelings, and bodily senses”. That is not all; “it caters for the growth in all aspects including spiritual, intellectual, imaginative, physical, scientific, linguistic, both individually and collectively, and incorporate all these aspects in a holistic system of education towards goodness and the attainment of perfection. The ultimate aim lies in the realization of complete submission to Allah (S.W.T) as the Creator, on the level of individual, community, and humanity at large”. Islamic education therefore aims at developing peoples’ talent and inspiring lofty ethical values in them. These goals are the main foundation upon which Islamic civilization,
  41. 41. DRAFT COPYONLY 40 societies and peoples personality are built. The above declaration is further broken down and articulated in to what is called powerful themes by the Tarbiyah Project as follows;- The aim of Islamic education is to produce a total, well-rounded person who is: � God-conscious: Is aware of God and the interconnectedness of creation in all that one thinks, feels, and does. (Tawhīd – Unity & Systems) � Principled: Has a sound grasp of the principles of moral reasoning and a commitment to self-reflection, self-direction, and moral action, with an emphasis on integrity, honesty, compassion, and justice. (Tazkiyah – Power/Force, Duality, Causation) � Knowledgeable: Has a deep understanding of the major patterns and recurring issues of humankind and the impact of significant events and discoveries on the course of human development. (Hikmah – Space, Relations & Structure) � Well-balanced: Understands the scope and importance of balance and wellbeing in one’s personal and collective life, and actively works to establish it therein. (Istiqāmah – Form & Substance) � Cooperative: Has an understanding of the role of good communications, cooperation, fairness, and friendship in establishing and maintaining meaningful and healthy relations between individuals and groups. (Ihsān – Motion & Interaction) � Committed: Has a commitment to a lifestyle consistent with the principles and practices of Islam, especially as reflected in one’s daily interactions with others. (Dīn – Time & Pattern)
  42. 42. DRAFT COPYONLY 41 � Caring: Has a strong sense of caring, stewardship, service and social activism, and a commitment to using one’s life to make a difference in the world. (Amānah – Function & Outcome) (D, Tauwhid, ) These entire components need proper education and training in such a way that faith is infused into the whole of one’s personality and creates an emotional nafs al-mutmainnah attach to Islam and enables one to follow the Qur’an and Sunnah appropriately. Consequently, this personality can govern by the Islamic system of values and sincerely, willingly and ecstatically so that one may proceed to the realization of human status as Vicegerent of Allah. This means that education has a great task in achieving this goal, which is moulding a person to become Khalifatullah to whom Allah(S.W.T) has promised the authority of the universe. This could be achieved through appropriate strategies, approaches, leadership, and, well-organized curriculum. Based on the aims and objectives above, construct of core principles upon which Islamic education lies are illustrated below;- Key Principles of Islamic Education Fitrah. Each child is endowed with a God-given nature, known as the fitrah. Like the seed of a tree, it contains the essential programming needed to grow. In the right soil or environment, it will naturally unfold and develop. This is contrary to the notion of tabula rasa (blank slate) of John Locke and others, and suggests instead the complementary blend of both nature and nurture.
  43. 43. DRAFT COPYONLY 42 � Uniqueness. Each child (and each brain) is unique, based on the unique genetics, natural talents, and life experiences of that child. Each child has his or her own individual personality, temperament, and abilities. This is the individualized part of the child’s fitrah, the part that makes him or her a unique creation of God. Education must acknowledge this unique aspect of each child and that children are not identical objects on an assembly line. � Holistic: Tawhīd. Authentic education must encompass and engage the whole child— spiritually, morally, intellectually, physically, emotionally and socially. It must open up to theChild a “big picture” views of the world as a network of interconnected and interdependent relationships and systems. Ultimately, holistic education must seek to connect the heart, mind, and soul of the learner experientially to the Source of all wholeness, holiness, and wellbeing. � Integrative: Tawhīd. Education must be integrative in the broad range of topics it addresses and its treatment of these topics; integrative across time, place and cultures; integrative across the curriculum; integrating knowledge, beliefs, and values with action, application and service. These integrative aspects have been found to have the potential to truly enhance the power of the learning experience. Additionally, learning is mind-body integrated. All learning is dependent on the body's physiological state. Nutrition, hormones, bio rhythms, attention cycles and down time are all integrated parts of the learning process. � Developmental Stages: Tarbiyah. Developmental windows for learning exist, but vary between children. Children develop in stages as a function of natural gifts, genetics, and
  44. 44. DRAFT COPYONLY 43 environment. As noted earlier, the word tarbiyah itself conveys this idea of developing from “stage to stage” until reaching one’s full potential. � Emotion-based: Ayat Allāh. Emotion drives attention, motivation, meaning, and memory. Emotional experiences code our learning as important. The Quran draws our attention to the fact that awe, wonder, and “being there” experience are the natural starting point of the learning process. Conversely, stress & threat inhibit normal learning and thwart its effectiveness. � Pattern & Meaning Seeking: Sunnat Allāh. We gain meaning through patterns; meaning comes from understanding the larger pattern of things. In search of meaning, the brain seeks patterns, associations, and connections between new data and prior knowledge. This search for meaning is innate. Intelligence and understanding are the ability to make connections and construct patterns. The Quran calls us to discover the recurring “patterns” in nature and Human history. � Challenging (Enrichment): Ibdā’. Students must be challenged to thoughtfully examine what they are studying, to participate actively and assertively in-group discussions, to work productively in cooperative learning activities, and to come to grips with controversial issues. Such activities and experiences help foster the skills needed to produce competent citizens able to present and defend their beliefs and principles effectively. Challenging, authentic learning stimulates curiosity, creativity, and higher- order thinking. � Higher-Order Thinking (Problem Solving): Ijtihād. Higher-order thinking involves the manipulation of information and ideas by synthesizing, generalizing, explaining,
  45. 45. DRAFT COPYONLY 44 hypothesizing, or arriving at conclusions that produce new meaning and understanding. Of course, the brain is continuously responding and adapting to the changing requirements of the environment; humans have survived throughout the ages by problem-solving and flexible thinking. � Deep Knowledge: Hikmah. Understanding, or wisdom, is a key goal of knowledge and education. “Deep knowledge” involves addressing the central ideas of a topic or discipline with enough thoroughness to explore connections and relationships, and to produce complex understanding. The Quran (62:2) notes that the real goal of knowledge is deep understanding (hikmah, or wisdom), not information. � Hands-on (Active): Amal. Like the roots of a tree, children must get their hands dirty in order for knowledge and understanding to take root. This is done through active learning experiences. Effective teaching and learning must emphasize hands-on and minds-on activities that call for students to interact with what they are learning and use it in their lives in some meaningful way. Teachers must be prepared to take advantage of unfolding events and teachable moments to develop examples that relate directly to students, and to implement other practices that facilitate active and meaningful instruction. One of the major, recurring themes of the Quran is the importance of joining theory with hands-on practice and application. � Real-world Connections (Relevance): Dīn. Students should feel that the content they are studying is worth learning because it is directly meaningful and relevant to their personal lives (lifestyle/ways of life). Students must see the usefulness and potential application of knowledge to their everyday lives. Real-world connections involve making
  46. 46. DRAFT COPYONLY 45 connections between the knowledge gained and the larger issues of the world outside the classroom. � Values-based: Akhlāq. By focusing on values and by considering the ethical dimensions of topics, education becomes a powerful vehicle for character and moral development. Educators need to realize that every aspect of the teaching-learning experience conveys values to students and provide opportunities for them to learn about values. � Social Brain (Substantive Conversation, Cooperative Learning): Hiwār, Ta’āwun. Language is the primary means of human communication. A great deal of learning takes place by talking and interacting with others, especially in learning communities. Substantive conversation involves dialogue and extended conversation with peers and experts about a particular subject or topic in order to build shared understanding. Groups, teams, and cooperative learning experiences benefit our understanding of new learning and its application. Essentially, the Noble Prophet (P.B.U.H) utilized similar notions as social brain, substantive conversation, and cooperative learning in formulating the learning communities of early Islam. � Non-conscious Learning (Modeling) Qudwah, Suhbah. Much of what we learn is not taught directly, but simply "picked up.” Real learning is not forced, but orchestrated. This highlights the importance of association, role modeling, and mentoring. In fact, the Companions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) received their special designation of sahābah because of their association with him in this type of learning community. This section that deals with aims, objectives, principles, and features of Islamic education provides a comprehensive vocabulary of powerful words and themes around which the
  47. 47. DRAFT COPYONLY 46 transformative nature of Islamic education revolves uniquely and wholesomely. The challenges Islamic teachers to creatively enrich the pedagogical content in an integrated manner to provide for a balanced education. 4.2.5 Integrated Islamic Education The meaning of Islamic education according to M. J. Saleh (2009) in its totality is fundamentally in the combination of the terms Tarbiyyah, Ta’lim and Ta’dib. Literally, Tarbiyyah means ‘educate’, Ta’lim means ‘knowledgeable’ and Ta’dib derived from the word ‘adaba’ means ‘moral’. These terms comprehensively reflects the multilateral relationship of human and their society; human and environment; society and environment; and in relation to Allah. These cross-sectional relation are all together represent the scope of education in Islam of both ‘formal’ and ‘non-formal’, comprising the Fardhu Ain and Fardhu Kifayah. As S.H.Nasir (2009), explains, “Islamic education is concerned not only with the instruction and with training of the mind and the transmission of knowledge (Ta’lim), but also with the education of the whole being of men and women (Tarbiya)”. The teacher is therefore not only a transmitter of knowledge (muallim), but also a trainer of soul and personality (murabi). Thus, Islamic education ideally aims to provide a milieu for total and balance of every student in every sphere of learning – spiritual, moral, imaginative, intellectual and physical ; directing all these aspects towards the attainment of a conscious relationship with God, ultimate purpose of man on earth. The concept of education in Islam must take into consideration of all the dimensions of teaching and learning activities that reflect the above concepts of tarbiyyah, ta’līm and ta’dīb. No matter which one of the stated concepts is preferable to scholars, Yasin, et al, (2013)
  48. 48. DRAFT COPYONLY 47 cautioned that it should not be used as a pretext for controversy and intellectual acrimony among scholars; because what does matter, is not the concept, but the practice, methodology and its objectives. Islamic education encompasses the two traditional categories of knowledge and the hierarchical relationship between them namely: revealed knowledge attained through the religious sciences and acquired knowledge attained through the rational intellectual and philosophical sciences. As explained above, in the Islamic worldview of Tawhid (divine unity), the concept of unity of knowledge asserts that knowledge is holistic and there is no compartmentalization of knowledge into religious and secular spheres. Both type of knowledge contributes to the strengthening of faith, the former through careful study of revealed words of Allah (S.W.T), religious sciences. These include:  The Qur’an and knowledge derived from it such as its recitation, interpretation, tafsīr and ta’wīl.  The Sunnah: the life of the holy Prophet, the history and message of the Prophets before him, the hadīth and its authoritative transmission.  The Sharīhah: jurisprudence and law, the principles and practice of Islam  Theology: God, His essence, attributes and names and acts (al-tawhīd)  Islamic metaphysics (al-tasawwuf): psychology, cosmology, and ontology; legitimate element of Islamic philosophy including valid cosmological doctrines pertaining to the hierarchy of being  Linguistic sciences: Arabic, its grammar, lexicography, and literature
  49. 49. DRAFT COPYONLY 48 And the later, through a meticulous systematic study of the world of man and nature. These include:  Human sciences  Natural sciences  Applied sciences  Technological sciences It is this concept of holistic system of education as explained above that Islam aims to provide a broad and balanced system of education based on an understanding of the full potential of the human being and a system of pedagogy designed to awaken and develop that potential. This it seeks to do through the means of an integrated curriculum as presented below; .4.2.5 Integrated Islamic Curriculum 4.2.5.1 Meaning of Curriculum For many people, curriculum is a vague concept that everyone talks about, but no one seems able to explain very well. It really is not that difficult.  Curriculum is the entire body of knowledge that a school has decided a student should learn at each level/grade.  Because curriculum is based on what we think should be taught, curriculum is based on our values – what we believe is important. This creates tension as we all push and pull for our vision of the world. Sometimes decisions can be made by looking at the subject, its expected outcomes, and the needs of our society. For example, if we
  50. 50. DRAFT COPYONLY 49 know that universities expect students to know algebra before entering, we know we will have to offer it before students graduate. However, sometimes we cannot solve the problems very easily. For example, sex education is a tough subject for schools to determine. Will we even teach it? How much will we teach? How will we teach it? It can be a divisive topic.  Textbooks oftentimes will cover much of the knowledge we decide to offer children, but never all of that knowledge. If a school or teacher uses only the textbook, she/he will omit teaching those skills/concepts not in the text but required in the curriculum.  Administrators need to facilitate teachers’ understanding the skills/concepts that the curriculum calls for but that are not in the chosen textbooks. Additionally, they need to facilitate teachers in supplementing the textbook, developing or searching out materials to teach those skills/concepts, and making certain the entire curriculum is taught.  While the concept of curriculum is fairly straightforward, the decision about what to include in the curriculum is very complicated. The above considerations informed the concept, design and modelling of an Islamic curriculum, this is clearly reflected presented in the section below.
  51. 51. DRAFT COPYONLY 50 4.2.6 The Aim and Features of Islamic Curriculum Contemporary Muslims scholars such as Professors Ismail Faruqi, Abu A’la Al- Maududi, Mohd Kamal Hassan, Hassan Langgulung, and, Sidek Baba state that the Islamic curriculum should aim at the following objectives: To develop goodness piety and fear of God in individuals so that social justice prevails To develop tolerance, brotherhood, love, mercy, goodness and righteousness in the individuals so that a truly Islamic society may come into existence To develop the habit of consulting each other in the individuals so that maximum benefit could be achieved from intellectual capacities. To develop the ability of self–expression, and shouldering responsibility so that a representative and responsible society is built up. To provide opportunities to the individuals to live in an ideal, pure and happy life so they can come closer to Allah. They further postulated that the curriculum of Islamic education should have the following main features: It develops and integrated personality. It prepares individual for every aspect of life; it should be a continuous and never ending process of education. It should meet the spiritual as well as material needs of the individual. It inculcates faith on Islam in the minds and hearts of the individual.
  52. 52. DRAFT COPYONLY 51 It develops morality based on Islamic faith. It raises spiritual level of the individual. It develops quest for acquiring knowledge to apply in day-to-day life. It develops student-teacher relationship in the service of God. It emphasizes the need of proper pre-service and in-service program of teacher- education for Islamic education. It develops necessary skills for exercising reasoning power and insight into life. It discourage blind invitation of the ideas and practices of ancestors, if they erroneous, misunderstood and twisted. It creates in minds and souls the foundations of permanent happiness. It ensures constant security through belief in God. It develops in the individual the habit of acquiring knowledge throughout his life. It encourages the individual to widen his scope of different branches of knowledge. It emphasizes the value and sincerity of the individual’s work in the way of Allah and humanity. It requires that the individual should have faith in Allah. It should develop love, righteousness, and compassion in the individual toward others. It should acquaint the individual with truth in his attempt to realize the unity of being and the unity of living. It should encourage the belief, morals, and scholarships of the individual in the light of his sincerity and dedication to work.
  53. 53. DRAFT COPYONLY 52 It should encourage understanding rather than memorization; it should adopt content and methodology of Holy Qur’an. and, It should achieve the declaration of Holy Quran that is Muslims are the best generation that was raised unto humanity; Allah (S.W.T) only awards this titled to pious Muslim. These features according to Dawud ( ) can be grouped to correspond to the three learning domains of affective (feeling, ihsan), cognition (knowing, iman) and kinesthetic/psychomotor (doing, Islam). The integration of these three dimensions into the curriculum is guaranteed by the structure and components of the curriculum as provided by the Tarbiyah project. These structure and components are presented below. Spiritual Literacy God Consciousness: Wholeness, Holiness & Systems � Awe & Wonder: Discovering God's Wonder � Wholeness & Worldview: God, the World & Me � Faith & Piety: Building on Faith Moral Literacy Noble Character: Force & Causation � Values & Identity: Knowing Yourself � Conscience & Conviction: A Heart of Gold � Character & Conduct: Actions Speak Louder
  54. 54. DRAFT COPYONLY 53 Intellectual Literacy Useful Knowledge: Space, Connection, Relation, Structure � Learning & Literacy: Learning to Learn � Useful Knowledge: Love of Learning � Problem Solving: Finding Solutions Physical Literacy Healthy Living: Form & Proportion � Health & Wellness: The Sacred Vessel � Fitness & Exercise: Keeping in Shape � Recreation & Enrichment: Renewing Ourselves Interpersonal Literacy Human Relations: Motion & Interaction � Communications & Understanding: Understanding & Being Understood � Relationships & Cooperation: Getting Along With Others � Community & Belonging: A Sense of Belonging Cultural Literacy Daily Living: Time, Pattern, Change � Culture & Confidence: Drawing Strength from the Past � Lifestyle & Modern Living: Islam a Way of Living
  55. 55. DRAFT COPYONLY 54 � Change & Challenges: Facing the Challenge, Facing the Future Social Literacy Public Service: Function, Purpose & Outcome � Justice & Peace: Caring for Allah's Creation � Service & Stewardship: Making a Difference � Example ship: Leading by Example The above presents a vivid picture of the structure and components of an integrated curriculum using the Tarbiyah model. The components, which are the contents of the curriculum, are built around powerful themes (structure). The themes are ordered hierarchically to indicate priority of focus and emphasis. Thus, it is easy for subject teachers to plan their lessons by selecting suitable materials that reflect the ideas contained in each component under the appropriate structure and theme. Hence, subject teachers are expected to not only be intelligent, but also creative, as a requisite for effective transmission of education. 4.2.7 An Overview of Current Developments in Islamic Curricula It is a well known fact among Islamic scholars and curriculum developers that one of the most challenging issues in the Integrated Islamic Education is how to develop an appropriate curriculum that would effectively and efficiently combine both revealed and acquired knowledge in a manner that would make its use age simple but yet ideal. Freda shamma (2011) present a comprehensive review of curriculum development among Islamic schools and organizations. She noted that;-
  56. 56. DRAFT COPYONLY 55 “Curriculum writers usually take one of two approaches. The older approach, used by IQRA among others, is to attempt to put all Islamic knowledge/thinking into one Islamic Studies class, while the remainder of the curriculum remains secular. The second approach is to attempt to rewrite the curriculum of every subject so that Islamic knowledge/thinking is integrated into every subject. The limited curriculum approach is both more traditional and, for the time being, more practical than the integrated curriculum approach. Advocates of this curriculum approach point out that Islamic schools have to have curricula and textbooks NOW, and the integrated curriculum is years away from having any such thing (lessons, not texts, are currently being developed). In order to have something to teach, it is more practical to aim at developing a curriculum for one subject, Islamic Studies, and assume that Muslim teachers in the other subjects will do a reasonably good job of Islamizing the secular curriculum. “To that end, IQRA has spent years and years of concentrated, dedicated work to write such a curriculum and develop textbooks to accompany it. In terms of how the material is presented to the students, this traditional approach stresses the importance of the student knowing certain amounts of information very well. To take for example, the basic facts of the life of Prophet Muhammad will be taught in the first/second grade. That same material will be taught again within one – two years, with some additional facts added, and then several years later, the same material will be taught again with still more material added. This is the approach in IQRA series of books, elementary, junior, and senior levels”. The advantage of this approach she said “is that the students receive the same material many times, and, therefore, it is more likely that they will remember at least its salient points by the
  57. 57. DRAFT COPYONLY 56 end of the school year. There are two major disadvantages of this approach however. If most materials are taught in multiple years, then other material, which may be equally important, might not get taught at all. To continue with seerah as our example, if the life of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is taught in its traditional way, the students will read about the battles of the early Muslims at least three times, but may never study the Prophet as a father or as a husband. There is a great deal that students need to learn about Islam, if everything has to be taught in one subject, and the taught material is repeated several years, then some extremely important aspects of Islam are missing or minimized. The other disadvantage to this traditional approach is BOREDOM. Too many of our students dislike the Islamic studies classes because they get the same thing every year, and the material is designed to memorize instead of engage. Rather than learn the material well, they simply ‘turn off’ their hearing as soon as the repeated material is introduced. Shemma (2011) acknowledged that the two most developed curricula of this traditional approach are IQRA and IBERR. Yahya Emerick’s books, aimed at middle school, also seems to follow this approach. Quite a number of Islamic schools are also attempting to develop their own curriculum along these lines. The main reason for following this curriculum for these schools is that they feel the need to develop a curriculum according to the books that are available. Since these are mainly IQRA’s books, then obviously it will follow in IQRA’s footsteps. However “another approach that is still in the developing phase. This we may term the entire curriculum approach. Proponents of this approach argue that Islamic studies should be an integral part of every subject, not related to just one Islamic studies class. Instead of studying
  58. 58. DRAFT COPYONLY 57 the seerah of the Prophet in the religion class, for example, this approach would have it taught as an integral part of the history class. And the history class would not focus on American/Canadian history as it does in the secular books, but would focus on world history with an emphasis on the history of Muslims. Because Islamic knowledge would be integral throughout the subjects, much more can be included. Taking history, biographies of the prophet’s companions and famous Muslim scientists and mathematicians out of the religion class, obviously frees up time for other matters in the religion class. Perhaps the best known of this entire curriculum approach is the Tarbiyah Project created by Br. Dawud Tauhidi. He has developed a comprehensive values-based curriculum that has Tauhid (God-centeredness in all its aspects) as its core content and approach. He has integrated all subject areas around significant themes (Powerful Ideas) that are to be taught through authentic instructional models, which then lead to more effective learning and life experiences for our children in the 21st century. Teaching and learning, in this Tarbiyah Project, must inspire and transform students so that they may positively effect and transform our world. In addition to the Islamic base, the Tarbiyah Project has incorporated national core curricula and brain based research. Therefore, subject matter fits the ability of the child to comprehend and attach to it so that the learning becomes meaningful rather than rote. This project, have been completed and it cover almost all subjects. In fact, Shemma has fully developed the framework for its implementation, and a number of Islamic schools have begun it use. Another project dealing with the entire curriculum approach is FADEL’s (Foundation for the Advancement and Development of Education and Learning) Integrated Islamic Curriculum.
  59. 59. DRAFT COPYONLY 58 This project was started in l995 under the aegis of the International Islamic University. With the aid of up to 25 professors from many countries, a list of Qur’anic concepts was developed that represent the most important aspects of Islam that students should be familiar with. Then specialists were sought in each academic field – history, English, Arabic language, and religious studies – to prepare the philosophical background for the subjects. Unfortunately, except for the areas mentioned and art, specialists were not available for all subjects. Nevertheless, curricula were developed for history, English/Language Arts, visual arts, and religious studies. Developing the details of each of these and integrating them with the curricula of the other subjects is in progress. Concurrently, work is progressing on several history and literature textbooks to match the curriculum. The curriculum for the Religious Studies (or Islamic Studies) is the least developed, as it is the one requiring the most input by religious scholars. Unfortunately, since the curriculum work was moved out of the Islamic University and into a small foundation in Cincinnati Ohio, religious scholars, who have the time for this work have been difficult to find. Conclusively, schools wanting the more traditional and more limited (to one class) approach to Islamic studies, IQRA Curriculum books, where the entire outline of material is given. Individual schools can then modify this curriculum to suit their students, and buy books from IQRA and other places as meet the needs of the modified curriculum. IBERR’s curriculum is not explained as well as IQRA’s, but they will soon have very detailed, very attractive textbooks to go with their curriculum. For schools interested in a more widespread, integrated approach, I suggest volunteering at least one grade level to field test developed ideas of the Tarbiyah Project or FADEL Integrated
  60. 60. DRAFT COPYONLY 59 Islamic Curriculum. The Tarbiyah Project would prefer, of course, to have an entire school try out their ideas. For the schools that participate in either of these curriculum approaches, it is extremely important to get back to the initiators of the curriculum to report what the teachers did with the curriculum and how the students reacted towards it. If you want a curriculum that fits your needs, you need to let the curriculum developers know how well their curriculum does fit your needs, and what else should be done or changed. The development of an integrated Islamic curriculum will not happen unless Islamic schools commit some of their time and effort to work with the developers of the projects. Schools cannot do it on their own, neither can curriculum specialists; the two must work together, fisabili-llah” In sum, these diverse perceptions and approaches to having ideal curriculum is an indication of the complex nature of the task. It requires concerted effort from all stakeholders to mobilize subject specialists in sufficient numbers, and adequate resources to facilitate the completion. A curriculum is dynamic as it changes with changing educational needs. It is therefore a work-in-progress and only concerted efforts can ensure it completion.
  61. 61. DRAFT COPYONLY 60 Chapter Five 5.0 Implication of the Concept of Integrated Curriculum for Muslim Ummah in Northern Nigeria The modern Islamic schools that sprang up from Traditional Qur’anic Schools (TQS) have been facing serious challenges of lack of coherent curriculum and internal efficiency. The situation is further worsened by the proliferation of Islamic schools that neither have the basic infrastructures, suitable text books nor qualified teacher. This has made Islamic schools no better than the public secular schools, in the sense that most modern Islamic schools use similar curriculum with public schools given them a confused combination of national and religious curriculum. These hybrids of secular and religious education are not truly integrated nor do they have adequate time to allot for the effective coverage of the syllabus. For this reason several implications of the Concept of Integrated Curriculum are hereby postulated;- 1. An Obligation on the Northern Muslim Scholars to key-into the struggle towards Islamization of Knowledge For too long Nigerian Muslim intellectuals especially from the Northern extraction have remained aloof and indifferent to the deplorable condition of the education of their kits and kin especially in the rural areas. The continuous neglect and abdication by scholars of the responsibility of Islamic education in the hands of the Ulamas, who lacks the basic knowledge in acquired sciences or education management skills. And despite the fact that they have being divinely endowed with inert ability to lead the struggle for the Islamization of knowledge is simply unforgivable. They have the divine obligation to connect with their

×