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B.ed, 2nd Islamic system of education ppt


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Islamic system of education

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B.ed, 2nd Islamic system of education ppt

  1. 1. 1 In The Name Of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful Islamic System Of Education
  2. 2. • Meaning of Islamic education • System of Islamic education • Old and modern concept of education • Islamic education in the light of Quran and hadith • Significance of Islamic education • Islamic and secular education 2 Outlines
  3. 3. Meaning The word education is made by educere it means to bring out We have two type of systems are runing in Pakistan. 1.Islamic system of education 2.Secular system of education 3
  4. 4. Islamic system of education • Islamic system of education is based on religion (Islam) • it is natural system of eduation. • Its content of education is based on shareeah. • Curriculum is based on Wohi . • Formal and informal education equally necessary for this system. 4
  5. 5. 5 Importance of Education – Allah says: 78( – Here the faculties mean the use of hearing (collecting info), seeing (observation), and thinking (deriving new results). – Whichever group excels in using it becomes the leader, especially when Muslims do not follow Islam.
  6. 6. 6 Importance of Education Difference between a Muslim and a non-Muslim and/or Kafir is in two areas: – Knowledge – Action
  7. 7. 7 Knowledge – attribute of Allah. (‘Aleem) – –
  8. 8. 8 The only source – Allah (ayatal-Kursi)
  9. 9. 9 Importance in Islam 1( 2(3)4()5( 5 words (on learning) in the first 5 verses Revealed in an age which was not information age In a society of Ummiy-yoon where extremely few knew how to read and write The Prophet himself was Ummi
  10. 10. 10 Importance of knowledge in Islam – Allah has taught the Prophet pbuh, the supplication: O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge.
  11. 11. 11 Prophet As A Teacher The Prophet pbuh said: (I am sent as a teacher.) Allah says:
  12. 12. 12 The Comprehensive Education The verse mentions 4 roles: • Recite (read)the verses • Do Tazkiah(training): Purify their lives (from negatives) and enhance good qualities • Teach (knowledge) them the Book • Teach (conciousness) them the Hikmah The above 4 are the real areas of education in Islam. It is not just delivering information.
  13. 13. 13 Information or knowledge – Our condition: – “We are drowning in information and starving for knowledge.” – Hikmah is an abundant and huge gift of Allah. It shows us how to use the knowledge. –
  14. 14. 14 Types of (knowledge) There are only 2 types of knowledge in Islam: 1. Beneficial; and 2. Not beneficial Note the supplications of the Prophet pbuh: – (O Allah! I ask you for the beneficial knowledge). – (O Allah! I take refuge in You from useless knowledge).
  15. 15. 15 Classification of (knowledge) in Islam according to Importance 1. () (Obligatory )(compulsary) 2. (Optional) 3. (Desirable) 4. (permissible) 5. (detested) 6. (prohibited)
  16. 16. 16 1. Obligatory Knowledge On every Muslim; so that he can live Islamically. He should know the basics of: – Beliefs – Worships – Dealings – Prohibitions which lead to punishments – Etiquettes of life – Purification of heart
  17. 17. 17 2. Farz e Kifayah (optional) In every locality, there has to be a group which knows these areas otherwise the whole society will be a sinner. These are of Two types. Those which are: – Means to know obligatory knowledge (Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh, Arabic, ..). If we know Qur’an, we can know our belief… – Essential for a human society to excel others (Science, Technology, Economics, Business, Administration, Media…). Note: Our focus is on 2nd one, missing the first one!!!
  18. 18. 18 Goal of Education in Islam – Understand the objective of human creation – – Not learn just for the sake of getting information make it useful – Personality building – Spreading education, knowledge, information – Great management of human resources – To protect, practice, and promote the knowledge.
  19. 19. 19 The Islamic Objectives (Contd.) – To help in knowing Allah and the ways to please Him using latest means at his disposal (as a Khalifah). – To develop morals by following the Prophet pbuh (Ta’leem + Tazkiah + Himkmah) – Live a balanced life (spiritual vs material; self vs society; spending vs saving; avoiding extremes) – To be expert in one’s own field – To have a vision and a mission along with discipline … within the limits given by Allah.
  20. 20. 20 Allama Iqbal says: – Knowledge gives power. This power should be under Deen. Otherwise it is pure Satanic. A Muslim must Islamize his knowledge.
  21. 21. 21 Developing the Educational System – No nation can survive by copying the Educational system of others – Russians had developed their own after communist revolution. – Even in science, there are facts and interpretations – Interpretation depends upon culture (Ex: Water; Species)
  22. 22. Organisation of education • Since acquiring knowledge was religious obligation. The rulers helped in spread of education. They built educational universities and institutions. • There was two systems of education :- Primary and Higher education. 22
  23. 23. Primary Education • Education centre:- Main centre for primary education was Maktabs. Maktab was an elementary school which was usually attached to a mosque. • ‘Maktab’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘kutab’ which means ‘writing’.Thus it was a place where writing was taught or it was a place of books. • Teaching was done by ‘Maulvi’ or ‘Maulana’ • Here only muslim children were taught. 23
  24. 24. Curriculum • In Maktabs students were taught 3 R’s i.e Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. • At first they had taught the letters of alphabet. • Students had to learn by heart those portions of Quran . • It was not essential to understand the meanigs but correct pronunciation and memorisation were emphasised. • Students were taught grammar ,Persian ,Arabic .Urdu. Special attention was paid to good handwriting. 24
  25. 25. Cont……….. • Arithmetic, conversation .poetry.good manners were included in the curriculum. • Gulistan and Sadi’s famous book Bostan was prescribed as text books for moral education. • Children of rich people get education from home tutor.(mantor) 25
  26. 26. TEACHING METHOD • In Maktabs teaching method was direct and oral. • Memorisation and rote- learning was main factor of teaching method. • Children used wooden piece for writing initially and after practice they write on papers.
  27. 27. HIGHER EDUCATION • The centre for higher education is called Madrasa. The word Madrasa is derived from an Arabic word ‘Dars’ which means ‘lecture’. Thus it was a place where lecture is given. • A Madrasa was an educational institution which imparted higher education especially Islamic.
  28. 28. Contd. • After completing primary education students used to go Madrasa. • Centers for higher learning were spread all over the country. Among them Agra, Delhi,Lahore,Multan, Ajmer,Lahore, Syalkot, Murshidabad were famous. • Students from other muslim countries also studied here. • Institutions of higher learning were established in principle cities because specialised scholars in good numbers being available there only.
  29. 29. CURRICULUM • Curriculum was both religious and secular. • The period of higher education was 10 to 12 years. • The curriculum was divided into two parts: • 1) Religious education- It includes deep study of Quran, • Islamic law and • Sufism. • 2)Worldly education- It includes study of Literature, Logic, History, Geography ,Astronomy ,Arithmetic ,Agriculture and Medicine.
  30. 30. Contd. • All subjects were not taught in all madrasas. • Generally only two subjects are taught in each Madrasa. For e.g. Poetry and music were taught in Delhi, mathematics and astronmy in Syalkot etc. • Some Madrasas had hostels attached to them which provided free boarding and lodging. • In some big towns like Gopuram, Oudh, Agra Lahore ,Multan, Delhi etc there were arrangements for studying advanced subjects.
  31. 31. Method of teaching • The method of teaching was oral in higher education .Teachers used lecture method. • There was Monitorial –System in the class. • The inductive and deductive methods were used for teaching Religion,Philosophy ,Logic and Political Science. • There was proper arrangement of practical teaching for Music,Handicraft, Drawing and Medical Science.
  32. 32. Contd. • Students were encouraged for self- study • Their problems were solved by teachers. • Writing was more preffered than reading. • The medium of instruction was Persian because this was the court language. • Knowledge of Persian was essential for getting Royal job. • Arabic was compulsory for muslims. • Hindus could study their religious books.
  33. 33. Examinations and degrees • There were no definite system of examinations. • Teachers gave right to higher education by evaluation. • All students were not given degrees but students with extra ordinary caliber were given degrees like- • QABIL for literature • AALIM for religion • FAZIL for philosophy and logic.
  34. 34. Other aspects of education Women’s education • Small girls were allowed to get education in Maktabs. • There was no facility for higher education for women because state had not established separate institution for women. • Lower class women had to miss education. • Rich class women’s education were arranged either at home or they go to Maktabs or Madrasas run by women. • They learn religion ,literature , and fine arts.
  35. 35. Vocational education • Muslim rulers were interested in vocational education in one way or the other, therefore, vocational education was developed. They were- • Military education- The aim of all Muslim rulers was to make their kingdom strong and permanent, so they stressed on military education. This education was different for ordinary people and princes. • Soldiers were trained to use arrow, • fighting sitting on horses and elephants and fortifying
  36. 36. Contd. • They were also trained for shooting. • Princes were trained to co-ordinate, organise and to lead the military along with above mentioned training. This education was provided by experienced military men.
  37. 37. Contd. • Medical education – In order to provide proper education Sanskrit books were translated into Persian. Medical education was provided in Madrasa or special institutions of Agra and Rampur. • Education in handicraft- Most of muslim rulers spend the life of luxury which led to huge development of life related handicrafts like embroidery, wooden and elephant’s tusk work ,silk ,malmal, curtains,jewellery etc. • There were thousand of workshops where boys were trained in particular art and craft.
  38. 38. Contd. • Education in fine arts- All muslim rulers had wonderful aesthetic sense. • They were excited to increase the beauties of their castles which led to development of fine arts. Music ,Drawing and Dance were taught by experts.
  39. 39. 39 Secular / School Education – Has no link with Islamic education. – A subject (on Islamic Studies) is there but it is confined mostly to beliefs, worship, and morals. – Nothing to do with the concept of knowledge. Nothing to relate oneself with other subjects.
  40. 40. 40 Secular Education – Students are taught Science, maths, social studiens, politics, history, law, management, economics, etc. etc. but no where do you see any Islamic perspective. – The one who has money and positions is the successful one (Media, culture) – Result: The whole life is built along non- Islamic lines.
  41. 41. 41 95% of our Students Study in Schools – Do they have a goal of life? It is not a philosophical question. – After spending 15, 20 years in education, if a Muslim does not know his goal, it is a disaster!!! – Not just eat, live, and produce children (just as animals do)
  42. 42. 42 Secular Education Prepares Atheists & Materialistic Persons! Examples: – Science: Anomalous expansion of water. Not taught: The One Who created sea creatures created water. This is not automatic. – History: Egyptology, the most imp. subject. Not taught: Why Moosa (A) is mentioned most in the Qur’an. – Economics: Not taught: You don’t have to rely on interest.
  43. 43. 43 A Muslim’s Goal is Ibadah (in the full sense of the term) 162(
  44. 44. 44 Important Features Islamic Education - 1 – No division between religious and secular. – Up to high school, same syllabus for everyone – All essential subjects will be taught. – Supporting subjects (Maths, Sciences, etc.) will be taught in the spirit of Islam. – A student will look at this world with Islamic vision.
  45. 45. 45 Important Features Islamic Education - 2 After high school, education for Specialists in – Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh, History – Tarbiyah, Dawah, – Islamic Social sciences – Islamic Philosophies – Comparative religion – Islamic Economists