Structural System


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  • An axial force is a force along the length of the member.
  • Structural System

    1. 1. Structural System
    2. 2. What’s structure •Structure is the performance of pattern! . •The structure could be for everything life, system of being. •Social, economical, musical, biological, and chemical. •Relationship between the matter and the space.
    3. 3. Architectural Structure
    4. 4. Architectural Structure •orbodya structure is aArchitectural structure: assemblage of bodies in space to form a .loadssystem capable of supporting •It’s a system or sub-system, means holding the components of a certain system and transfer the load through the members of a structure to provide stability and durability.
    5. 5. •, including:Common CharacteristicsMost systems share .1.structureSystems have .2, which involves inputs, processing andbehaviorSystems have outputs of material, energy, information, or data; .3: the various parts of a system haveinterconnectivitySystems have functional as well as structural relationships to each other. .4or groups of functionshave some functionsSystems may
    6. 6. Loads on structure •Static forces: -Dead load. -Live load. -Settlement load. -Ground pressure. -Water pressure. -Thermal stresses. •Dynamic forces: -Wind load. -Earthquake load.
    7. 7. The action of External Forces on a structure .1force will cause a member of structure to beA compression / compressive .squashed .stretchedforce cause a member of structure to beA tension / tensile.2 twisted.force cause a member to betorsionalA torsion /.3 .a sideforce cause a member to slide/tilt toA shear.4 of a memberbowingforce is a complex force state associated with theA Bending.5 one face of the member to elongate andonsuch as beam. it causes fiber hence be in tension and fibers on the opposite face to compress
    8. 8. SYNTHESIS OF ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL FORM •In these cases structure defines architectural form and often functions, at least partially, as the building envelope
    9. 9. Shell Structure > Definition. > History vs. Nowadays. > Materials. > Application.
    10. 10. > Definition. -shell elements.They are light weight constructions using -Shell structures achieve the most pure synthesis of architectural and structural forms. Also known as ‘surface structures’, shells resist and transfer loads within their minimal thicknesses. They rely upon their three-dimensional curved geometry and correct orientation and place-ment of supports for their adequate structural performance. -Advantage: -Allowing wide areas to be spanned without the use of internal supports, giving an open, unobstructed interior.
    11. 11. -Span thickness ratio of 400-500 • Ex: 8cm Thickness.....30-38m Span No bending moment in shell structures. Shell structures are suited to carrying distributed loads not concentrated loads. Loads applied to shell surfaces are carried to the ground by the tensile, shear, compressive forces
    12. 12. > Materials. •Shell structures can be made of such materials as; Reinforced thin-shell concrete, Glass Steel Glass & Steel Plastic
    13. 13. Tent and membrane Structure > Definition. > History vs. Nowadays. > Materials. > Types. > Application.
    14. 14. that carries loadsflexible surface,thinembrane is aMA- tension forces.primarily through the development of - Holding a stress tension force. -Provide strong lighting features. -Desert architecture identity, inspired from ten design and geometry. et structures are conceptually similar; expect that theirN(( .))made from cable net meshessurfaces are >Defi
    15. 15. •a membrane or net surface:stabilizingThere are several ways of .1framework.rigid supportinginnerAn .2the surface by:Prestressing a. external force (Tents) b. internal pressurization (Pneumatic structure).
    16. 16. •The traditional tents structure . > History vs. Nowa
    17. 17. •erminal, Jeddah, SaudiTajjH Arabia, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
    18. 18. Jeddah Sports Hall, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Frei Otto -Net structure.
    19. 19. .I:structurecables •Cables can be of mild steel, high strength steel (drawn carbon steel), stainless steel, polyester . •Structural cables are made of a series of small strands twisted or bound together to form a much larger cable >T
    20. 20. 2. Tents -A membrane structure pre- stressed by externally applied forces so that it is held completely taut under all anticipated load conditions. -The purpose of a tent structure is to provide a means of shelter that is lightweight, portable, and quick to install. >T
    21. 21. 3. Pneumatic structure -A class of membranes that obtain its internalstability through .pressurization •- There are two primary classes of pneumatic structure : .1Air supported structures topressurizationdegree ofLess- achieve stability spanGreater- 2. Air inflated structures degree of pressurization toHigher- achieve stability spanLess- >T
    22. 22. Truss Structure > Definition. > History vs. Nowadays. > Materials. > Types. > Application.
    23. 23. •Trusses are composed of straight members connected at their ends by hinged connections to form a stable configuration. •Because of their light weight and high strength, are among the most commonly used to span long lengths in the place of solid •Trusses provide complete flexibility in exterior cladding. >Difi
    24. 24. •Timber trusses started by Romans 500 B.C > History vs. Nowa Andrea Palladio illustration for triangulated truss
    25. 25. •Main uses: Roof Structures & Bridges. •Modern use new formation and materials for members result in a new structure shapes. Steel structural members. > History vs. Nowa
    26. 26. Trusses comprising one or more (tetrahedonal, cubical, octahedronal,.. ) units, constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints. Span: 123 feet (37.5 meters).
    27. 27. > Mat Steel is most commonly used. Span: 123 feet (37.5 meters). Precast Trusses -Span:12m-20m- Wood Trusses -Span:10m-17m-
    28. 28. 1. Planar Truss Two Main Types 2.Space Frame Truss The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle. A planar truss lies in a single plane. An optimum depth of the truss will maximize the efficiency. It is a three-dimensional framework A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, Large planar structures may be composed from tetrahedrons with common edges
    29. 29. •Warren truss used in pombidue building.
    30. 30. > T 1.Pratt Truss The design uses vertical members for compression and horizontal members to respond to te 2.Bowstring Truss Used for arched truss bridges,
    31. 31. .Town's Lattice Truss4 Members arranged diagonally with short spaces in between them. 5.Vierendeel Truss The members are not triangulated but form rectangular openings, 3.King Post Truss Consists of two angled supports leaning into a common vertical support.
    32. 32. > Applic The Hong Kong Bank of China Tower has an externally visible truss structure. A space truss carrying a floor in The Woodlands Mall.
    33. 33. Arches > Definition. > History vs. Nowadays. > Materials. > Types. > Application.
    34. 34. >Difi • A structure, forming the curved, pointed, or flat upper edge of an open space and supporting the weight above it, as in a bridge or doorway.
    35. 35. The main advantage of an arch is that it can be supported without any tensi  Suitable for long term use (longer than say 500 years (e.g. cathedrals) arches are probably essential. In stone arches, the last stone to be placed at the top is called the ke KEYSTONE It provides a structure which eliminates tensile stresses in spanning a great amount of open space. All the forces are resolved into compressive stresses. By using the arch configuration, significant spans can be achieved. This is because all the compressive forces hold it together in a state of equilibrium
    36. 36. Cylindrical shells and vaults •Barrel vault. •Groin vault. •Rib vault (intersecting between two barrel vaults).
    37. 37. > Materials Common structural materials are •Iron Wrought iron Cast iron Steel Stainless steel •Concrete Reinforced concrete Prestressed concrete •Aluminium •Composite materials •Alloy •Masonry •Timber
    38. 38. Quadror Structure > Definition. > Application.
    39. 39. > Defin It is a space truss geometry system inspired by versatility and structural integrity of interlocking members. :Concept The simple geometry of four identical L-shaped pieces, results in a trestle structure allowing for a very flexible and versatile design.
    40. 40. > Applica These building blocks allow for rapid assembly 1.Road Barriers 2.Structural Frames
    41. 41. 3.Interior Partitions 4.Interior Columns
    42. 42. Types of structure •Post and beam structure. Span: 7-8 meters.
    43. 43. Types of structure •Shear wall Span: 7-8 meters.
    44. 44. Cantilever Beam A special type of beam that is supported only at one end The top fibers of the cantilever are in tension; the bottom fibers are in compression
    45. 45. Column A vertical structural element that carries an axial force in compression. COLUMN