Rhodena Townsell, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Rhodena Townsell, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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Rhodena Townsell, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

  1. 1. RURAL AFRICAN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATOR CAREER TRAJECTORIES A Dissertation Proposal by Rhodena Townsell William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – Dissertation Chair Presented to Whitlowe Radcliffe Green College of Education  Ph.D. Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M In partial requirement of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY June 2008
  2. 2. Chapter I Introduction <ul><li>African Americans administrators are actively recruited </li></ul><ul><li>and groomed to fill leadership positions in some urban </li></ul><ul><li>and inner city schools (McCray & Beachum, 2004; </li></ul><ul><li>Buxton, 2007; Gewertz, 2006; Scott, 1980). </li></ul><ul><li>Studies reveal that some African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators prefer to work with the students in those </li></ul><ul><li>schools (Bates, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>However, that is not true for all African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators (Laub, 2007). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter I Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Literature related to educational </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership does not adequately reflect </li></ul><ul><li>the work of rural African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter I Purpose of the Study <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that influence the career trajectories of rural African </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American administrators. These administrators are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role models to many individuals (Nganga & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kambutu, 2005). Literature suggests that aspiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school leaders may gain insight from the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiences of others that will result in a better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of the diverse career pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toward successful school leadership (Crenshaw, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Research Questions <ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career pathways taken by rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What encouragements found in the work place and in the surrounding community influence the career pathways of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers found in the workplace and in the surrounding community influence the career pathways of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of rural African American administrators appear to influence their career pathways? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The conceptual framework for this research </li></ul><ul><li>study will be based The Career </li></ul><ul><li>Choice Model of Betz and Fitzgerald (Manuel & </li></ul><ul><li>Slate, 2003), portions of Thedore Kowalski’s </li></ul><ul><li>research on minority administrators (2003), and </li></ul><ul><li>Premises from Critical Race Theory (Delgado & </li></ul><ul><li>Stefanic,2000). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The Career Choice Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences and Encouragements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theodore Kowalski – Minority Administrators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers and Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Race Theory (CRT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism in America is normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stories, words and silence construct beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. A. Success is cultivated and tolerated for a price </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Traditional models in leadership are developed by using mostly Caucasian males and should not be generalized for other groups of individuals (Kezar & Moriarty, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Other individuals experience the social world in their own unique way (Valverde & Brown cited in Kowalski, 2003). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Significance of the Study <ul><li>Data gathered in this study will add information to the body of knowledge in educational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The data may be informative to teachers who desire to become rural administrators </li></ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework of this study may be used to study similar populations </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Before Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) 82,000 African American teachers were employed to teach approximately eight million African American students (Toppo, 2004) </li></ul>African Americans and Public Schools
  11. 11. African Americans and Public Schools <ul><li>After Brown v. the Board of Education approximately 38,000 African American teachers and administrators in many Southeastern states lost their jobs (Echols, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 90% of African American principals were dismissed (Toppo, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 5000 uncertified Caucasian teachers were hired in Texas (Toppo, 2004). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>High poverty rate (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate building features (NEA, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Rural schools receive fewer federal, state, and local funds than other schools (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>School boards </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Social, Cultural and Professional Isolation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>Rural educators may have to work as teachers in their school districts for many years before an administrative opportunity becomes available (Townsell & Kritsonis, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Rural administrators may have to wear “many hats” (Benson, 2006). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Experiences (Academic and Work) <ul><li>Most held undergraduate degrees at HBCUs and graduate degrees from Colleges or Universities predominately attended by Caucasian students (Echols, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Memories (Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Department Chairs (Kezar & Moriarty , 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Default, tenure, or mentor suggestion (Turner, 2004) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Encouragements <ul><li>Family Members (Bush, et al, 2005; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors (Manuel & Slate, 2003; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Themselves (Manuel and Slate, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues (Manuel and Slate, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>God (Echols, 2007; Turner, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just a Matter of Luck” (Bush, et al, 2005). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Barriers <ul><li>School Board Agendas (Bates, 2007; Laub, 2007 Kowalski, 2003; Ortiz, 2000; Willie & Willie, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Politics (Adell, 2004; Kerka, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs of Society (Delgado & Stefanic, 2000; Kerka, 1998; Kowalski, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination (Bush, et al, 2005; Delgado & Stefanic, 2000; Echols, 2007; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Mentoring and Role Models (Kerka, 1998; Turner, 2004 ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristics (Bush, et al, 2005) <ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Personal determination, courage, confidence, and hard work (Kowalski, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to understand and respect other cultures and to build positive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The professionalism to maintain composure and keep control in adverse situations. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Themes from the Literature (Adell, 2004; Benson, 2006) <ul><li>Personal Motivation (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodal Communication (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst for Knowledge (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring Relationships (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Support (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Politics (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking New Ground (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Size (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Expertise (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Outsider versus Insider </li></ul><ul><li>Job Preparation (Benson) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Design <ul><li>This will be a qualitative descriptive study </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be collected in the form of structured personal interviews from rural African American administrators </li></ul><ul><li>The interview scripts will be coded for the emerging and contrasting themes </li></ul><ul><li>The review of literature will be used as a basis for preliminary theme identification </li></ul>
  21. 21. Population & Sample <ul><li>The target population for this study will be African </li></ul><ul><li>American administrators working at Texas public </li></ul><ul><li>schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Why Texas? More children attend rural schools in Texas than in any other state (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling will be utilized to obtain the participation of six African American administrators. These administrators will be nominated by the officials of the 20 Texas Education Service Centers. and the officers of the Texas Alliance of Black School Educators (TABSE) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Instrumentation and Pilot Study <ul><li>Permission was obtained from Dr. Dorothy Benson to </li></ul><ul><li>use the questionnaire from her dissertation entitled, </li></ul><ul><li>Small Missouri Public School Female Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Career Stories: An Exploration of Guiding Compasses </li></ul><ul><li>(2006). </li></ul><ul><li>A pilot study will be performed to determine if </li></ul><ul><li>the modifications made to the questionnaire are </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate for this study. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Data Collection <ul><li>Collection Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants will be given the opportunity to review their responses to the interview questions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question One </li></ul><ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career </li></ul><ul><li>pathways taken by rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Questions 1-2: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Would you tell me about your educational background? </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Themes- 1.1 Personal motivation, 1.2 Thirst for </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, 1.3 Ground Breaking, 1.4 Job Preparation, and 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Size of School </li></ul><ul><li>2. How long have you been in the education field? How long as an administrator? Literature Themes- 2.1 Areas of Expertise and 2.2 Multimodal Communicators </li></ul>
  25. 25. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Two </li></ul><ul><li>What encouragements found in the workplace and in </li></ul><ul><li>the surrounding community influence the career paths </li></ul><ul><li>of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Questions 3-4: </li></ul><ul><li>3. What motivated you to want to become an administrator? Literature Theme- 3.1 Personal motivation </li></ul><ul><li>4. What pathways or guiding compasses did you take to obtain your position? Literature Themes- 4.1 Sponsorship and Support </li></ul>
  26. 26. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Three </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers found in the workplace and in the </li></ul><ul><li>surrounding community influence the career paths of </li></ul><ul><li>rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Question 5: </li></ul><ul><li>5. In seeking an administrative position, do you think there were or are race specific career pathways or guiding compasses? Literature Themes- 5.1 Understanding Politics and 5.2 Outsider Versus Insider </li></ul>
  27. 27. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Four </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of rural African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators appear to influence their career </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Question 6-7: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Do you have any recommendations for aspiring rural African American administrators about the career pathways or guiding compasses they need to take to obtain an administrative position in a rural Texas public school? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Is there any other information that you would like to add? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe the career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trajectories of rural African American administrators. Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describing the influences that affect their career pathways will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be collected, analyzed and coded for recurring themes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of the study will add information to the body of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge in educational leadership about a population of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals that has not received enough attention in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This study may benefit African Americans enrolled in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership training programs to better prepare for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative positions in rural area schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework may be used to study similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>populations. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. My Encouragement for Your Questions <ul><li>“ I’m wide awake and full of fun, scared to </li></ul><ul><li>death but I won’t run! (Grandpa Ethridge </li></ul><ul><li>Townsell)” </li></ul>

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