Mary Ann Springs, Dissertation Proposal

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Mary Ann Springs, Dissertation Proposal

  1. 1. LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF FOUR AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS AT A HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY IN TEXAS A Proposal Defense by Mary Ann Springs William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – Dissertation Chair 1
  2. 2. I. Purpose of the Study II. Research Questions III. Significance of the Study IV. Review of Literature V. Research Design VI. Data Analysis 2
  3. 3. The purpose of this study will be to give voice to four African American male educational leaders, by conducting a phenomenological research study that will examine the emergence of educational leadership as perceived, experienced and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas 3
  4. 4. 1. What critical moments in history have impacted the educational leadership style(s) of four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 2. How has leadership style(s) evolved over the past three decades for four African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 4
  5. 5. 3. Which leaders from the past have left an impression on four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 4. In the face of social, political, and racial adversities, what influenced the decisions for four African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 5
  6. 6. 5. How has the leadership influence of four senior leaders helped in the mentoring of African American male students? 6. How has the leadership of four senior African American male educational leaders influenced the need for mentorship programs, policies that would promote African American leadership, and the recruitment of more African American male leaders in the future? 6
  7. 7.  To foster the meaningful paternal relationships from senior educational leaders to succeeding generations  To teach and share leadership characteristics with young male youth of all backgrounds  To encourage African American males to complete graduation  To inspire and motivate African American males aspiring leadership positions in public and higher education 7
  8. 8.  Critical Race Theory  Resilience Theory  A Historical Perspective of Black Education/HBCU’s  Critical Moments in African American History  African American Leadership from the Past  Black Faculty and Administrators in Higher Education  The Significance of Mentorship for African American Males  Risk Factors that Threaten African American Male Youth 8
  9. 9. 9  CRT seeks to expose racial and discriminatory practices that negatively impact marginalized groups (Bell, 1995 & Delgado, 1999)  Delgado’s Centrality of Race- examines the impact of racism (Lee, 2008)
  10. 10. 10  Seeks to identify factors that contribute to the rise and success of individuals experiencing oppression (Zimmerman, Ramaires-Valles, & Maton, 1999)  The utilization of skills, abilities, knowledge, and insight that develops over a period of time, as people struggle to surmount adversity to meet challenges (Reivich & Shatte, 2002; Van Breda, 2001)  The Protective Stabilizing model involves protective factors that help neutralize the risk of negative outcomes (Zimmerman, et al).
  11. 11.  Grew-out of the aftermath of slavery and used as a tool to transition young black youth from slavery to mainstream society (Slavery and the Civil War, 2009)  Viewed as the key for social, political, and economical mobility for Blacks (DuBois, 1903/2003)  Placed under the jurisdiction of the state and local government (Woolfork, 1986)  Funded by the government, White Philanthropists, and the Black community (DuBois, 1903/2003; Jackson, 2007; & Woolfork, 1986) 11
  12. 12.  Valued/supported by the African American community, who believed they served as the path to overcoming political, social, and economic inequality (Jackson, 2007; Woolfork, 1986)  HBCU’s contribute a significant number of African American graduates and professionals (Bennett & Yu Xie, 2003)  Recruit, nurture, and retain a reasonable amount of their graduates and provide an educational environment that promotes trust and security (Bennett & Yu Xie, 2003)  Have greater success in promoting race pride, African American history, and social interactions (Bennett & Yu Xie, 2003) 12
  13. 13.  Black leaders rose to power out of duty to their race; they were undermined politically and had little or no protection under the law; the Jim Crow Laws perpetuated racism and discrimination especially in the South (DuBois, 1903/2003).  Black Power/The Civil Rights Movements were the reprise to political, social, and economical injustice. The movements were organized by African American male leaders (Berry, 2001; Biographical profiles, 2010; Herton, 2006). 13
  14. 14.  During slavery, many African American families were separated, therefore, leaving single mothers with the burden of leadership in a paternalistic society (DuBois, 1903/2003).  The Black family and community became strong social networks that promoted spirituality and protection through the church (DuBois , 1903/2003; Woodson, 1933/2005). 14
  15. 15.  According to Biographical Profiles, African American male national leaders approached leadership from two dominant perspectives in how they would lead the African American community:  Activism through non-violence /accommodation, while exposing the horrors of racism/inequality (Fredrick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.) 15
  16. 16.  Nationalism (building race pride/self- sufficiency among one’s race) and fighting for equality through violence, if necessary: Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. DuBois, and Malcolm X ( Biographical Profiles, 2010; DuBois, 1903/2003; Kritsonis, 2002)  While national African American male leaders focused on how to best overcome negative barriers to success, leaders of HBCU’s were challenged with funding, legislature, and moving the school toward the mission of education and service to the community (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986) 16
  17. 17. African American faculty are underrepresented across the board among most U.S. colleges and universities. Allen’s data confirmed that African American faculty was systematically and significantly disadvantaged in measures such as opportunity structure, resources, appointed positions, and advancement opportunities (Allen, 2000). 17
  18. 18.  According to Foster (2005), mentorship was a strong predictor of success for African American males in Public and Higher education.  Foster’s study also revealed that Public White Institutions (PWI’s) rated poorly with African American male faculty, who felt PWI’s were not developing strong. mentor/mentee programs to help buffer isolation and racism among African American male students.  While Foster’s study had a positive impact on a small group of inner-city African American male youth, the overall effectiveness of mentorship programs remain questionable (Bashi, 1991). 18
  19. 19.  High drop-out rates in Public schools and low scores on standardized tests  Overrepresentation in the areas of Special Education  High frequency of discipline referrals and expulsion  Drug and Gang violence  Homicide and incarceration (Children’s Aid Society ,2006,: Roderick, 2003) 19
  20. 20.  Research Methodology  Subjects of Study  Instrumentation  Validity and Reliability of the Study 20
  21. 21.  Qualitative Study  Phenomenological  Hermeneutic 21
  22. 22.  Four Participants  Criterion Sampling  African American Male  Educational Leaders/Teachers  30 or more years of service  Currently serving at a Southwestern HBCU  Anonymity - lettering 22
  23. 23.  Demographic Information Instrument  In-Depth Phenomenological Interviews  Observations 23
  24. 24. Demographic Information Instrument  3 Sections:  Familial  Educational  Occupational  30 Questions  Distributed during the initial meeting with each participant. 24
  25. 25. In-Depth Phenomenological Interviews  Three Face-to-Face In-Depth interviews  Historical  Reconstructive  Reflective  Open-Ended  Semi-Structured  Audio/video-taped 25
  26. 26. Observations  One thirty-minute observation  To capture dialogue from an artifact 26
  27. 27.  Participants will review and provide feedback on the interview questions to check for ambiguity, repetition, or relevancy of the questions  Triangulation will include: observation field notes, demographic information, artifacts, and vitas 27
  28. 28.  Researcher and participants collaborate interactively in shaping emerging themes (Creswell, 2007).  Data Analysis Steps: 1. The researcher brackets/suspends personal bias. 2. The researcher will read, memo, and horizontalize (highlighting significant statements) the interview data will answer the research questions. 3. The researcher/participants develop emerging themes based upon “textural and structural” descriptions. 28
  29. 29.  Data Analysis Steps, continued: 4. Textual and Structural descriptions will be detailed in paragraph form in order to capture the “essence” of the phenomenon. 5. Triangulation will help validate the study through observation field notes, demographic information, and artifacts will be scanned to help embellish key concepts for emerging themes. 6. After the data has been analyzed, the results will be reported through a combination of narration and tables. 29
  30. 30. 30 “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.” – Martin Luther King, Jr.

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