Communication Network and Structures


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Communication is considered as a core part of an organization, dynamically differentiated as internal and external communications. Read on to understand the various ways of structuring communication for different hierarchies and networks.

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Communication Network and Structures

  1. 1. Communication Network and StructuresChapter 7
  2. 2. An organization is It collects and filters an information- information, process on it,processing system interprets it, modifies it and finally acts upon it The organization’s contribution comes from structured communication channels and the positions which individuals occupy Chapter 7
  3. 3. There are two dynamic systems of Communication Internal External The emphasis of internalcommunication is on presenting and interpreting facts, while The emphasis of external Communications is on promoting Goodwill and future business Chapter 7
  4. 4. Importance of Communication Communication is considered to bethe core of an organization; its structure, Scope and effectiveness dependEntirely on its communication techniques Chapter 7
  5. 5. Importance of CommunicationManagers spend 95% of their time on Communication, 75% being onFace-to-face oral communication with Peers, subordinates, superiors and customers Chapter 7
  6. 6. Factors determining Communication The size & the Heterogeneousness structure Diversity of Goals of its members of the organization Competetion & Internal support & Stability of internal & Conflicts with the Unity it has external environmentexternal environment Chapter 7
  7. 7. Channels of Internal Communication Chapter 7
  8. 8. Chapter 7
  9. 9. Message movesamong the persons of the same level Chapter 7
  10. 10. Message moves fromhigher to lower level Chapter 7
  11. 11. Message moves fromLower to higher level Chapter 7
  12. 12. Downward Communication includes: Information about Feedback Instructions the practices and about about a procedures followed by the organization performance specific task Procedures Job related Performance feedback instructions Organizational Information about the Rules ideology and the goals policies of the organization Chapter 7
  13. 13. Upward Communication In upward communication messages are usually information and reports. But many use it to understand the concerns of the subordinates Chapter 7
  14. 14. Upward Communication Fear and shyness of the subordinates and the impatience and arrogance of the superiors are the barriers to this communication Chapter 7
  15. 15. Upward Communication An open and effective upward communication minimizes the warnings, demands and complaints Chapter 7
  16. 16. Upward Communication are:Regular reporting conveying thefactual information to the managementPeriodical review meetings providingan opportunity to convey opinions,views and attitudes upwardSuggestion scheme, a formal system used formaking ideas move up from the lower level to themanagement and the decision makers Chapter 7
  17. 17. Upward Communication are:Open door policy, an informal channel givesevery employee an access to higher authoritypreventing distortion by avoiding the chain ofauthorityInformal gatherings, picnics or weekly teameetings bring together all the members of theorganization giving the opportunity for socializing andgetting to know one another closely Chapter 7
  18. 18. Upward Communication are:Standing Committees provide a channel for problems,unhappy feelings, troubles, complaints and grievances tobe made known to the upper level of the organizationwhere they can be given serious attention Exit interviews with the employees leaving the organization provide useful information about attitudes and the view of the employees Chapter 7
  19. 19. Horizontal Communication Messages exchanged between persons of equal status are called horizontal or lateral communication which is more interactive than the vertical communication Chapter 7
  20. 20. Horizontal Communication Horizontal communication networks refers to the connection between individuals at the same level of authority within an organizational group, department, or division Chapter 7
  21. 21. Horizontal Communication Functions of horizontal information include Coordinating planning andexecution of tasks, Providing for collective problem solving, Facilitating commonunderstanding, Resolving differences and Developing supportive and productive work relationships. Chapter 7
  22. 22. A general common understanding and agreement of opinion is achieved by open discussion; this is known as consensus An organization has to function as a unit, with all the groups pooling their efforts towards goal. Clashes, conflicts, disputes,disagreements are avoided through peaceful negotiations and understanding Chapter 7
  23. 23. Communication Network By a network, we mean the channels through whichmessages pass from one person to another Chapter 7
  24. 24. Communication Networks Communication Networks• Communication Networks – The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization. – Choice of communication network depends on: • The nature of the group’s tasks • The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals.
  25. 25. Communication Network Network Functions Organizations have their origins incommunication networks. The functions of communication networks include:• Providing the means for • Facilitating the exchangecoordinating the activities of of information within theindividuals, relationships, organization, andgroups and other subunitswithin the organization. • Ensuring the flow of information between the• Providing mechanisms for organization and thedirecting the activities of the external environment inorganization as a whole which it exists Chapter 7
  26. 26. Centralised Network Decentralised Network It gives the Participants a feeling It is effective for of self-determination and provides more simple problems Socio-emotional satisfaction Chapter 7
  27. 27. Communic ationNetworksin Groups and Teams
  28. 28. Centralised Network The ChainAll the information is Passed through aCentral position. There The Y are 3 types : The Wheel Chapter 7
  29. 29. Centralised Network The ChainIn the chain pattern, one person passes Informationto others down with the line of Hierarchy, who them pass it further down their own chain of authority. It allows only vertical Movement and is strictly hierarchical Chapter 7
  30. 30. The Chain Network Advantages Disadvantages There is a leader at the There is likely to be loss top of hierarchy, useful of information by editingfor tasks that have to be at every level. Persons atperformed within a given the bottom may feel time and without any isolated and less deviation motivated. Chapter 7
  31. 31. Centralised Network The Y NetworkIt is a variation of chain; messages move vertically, Between subordinate and supervisors in the hierarchy. It includes an example of formal Communication within a hierarchy. It is some- What less centralized than wheel, but more Centralized than some of the other patterns e.g. Police Service Chapter 7
  32. 32. Centralised Network The Wheel Network It is characterized by the centralised position of a clear leader, who is the only one who can send Messages to all members and the only one who canReceive messages from all members. Decisions can be Made quickly but group morale is low since others Do not take an active part in decision making. The Leader may feel very important and powerful. Chapter 7
  33. 33. Decentralised NetworkIt is effective when the task requiresthe group to perform numerous and The varied operations It is used in complex problem. The 2 types of Circledecentralized networks are the circle and all channels. It gives the participants a feeling of self0- determination and provides more The socio-emotional satisfaction. All Channels Chapter 7
  34. 34. Centralised Network The Circle NetworkThe circle has no leader; here there is total quality. Each member of the circle has exactly the sameAuthority or power to influence the group. The main problem is that information moves rather slowly, And might be distorted. However morale is high Because everyone takes part in decision making. Chapter 7
  35. 35. Centralised Network The All Channel NetworkThe all channel or star pattern is like the circle in that All members are equal and all have exactly the sameamount of power to influence others, except that each member in this pattern may communicate with any other member. This Pattern allows for the greatest Member participation. Communication through these networks occurs often but not always face-to-face. Messages may be written in informal Memos or in formal letters and reports. Chapter 7
  36. 36. The wheel pattern has Been found to be the most Efficient in arriving at good Situations. Computer-mediated communication is replacingmany of traditional forms of internal communication in many organization. A good deal of information which used to be limited and controlled and was a source of power is now freely available to the entire organization. Chapter 7
  37. 37. Informal Communication Channels It makes up the shortcomings To satisfy various in the formal network which is used in accomplishing the human needs of the organizational goal members of the organization, the informal channel is It serves the needs of developed. The two individuals, whether or notbasic purposes for this these needs are the same as are: goals of the organization Chapter 7
  38. 38. Grapevine messages is a type of serial communication but having some additional properties that merit itsseparate consideration and do not follow such formal lines. Often it is difficult to discover the source of the originalmessage, which is why it is so difficult toascertain the truth or falsity of grapevine information Chapter 7
  39. 39. I Heard It on the Grapevine• The grapevine is an informal communication network within an organization.• Research reflects that about 75 % of the communication in the grapevine is accurate.
  40. 40. The grapevine according to organizational theorist Keith Davis seems most likely to be used when a)there is great upheaval or change within the organization b) the information is new and no one likes to spread old and well-known information 3) face-to-face communication is physically easy Chapter 7
  41. 41. It cannot becrushed. It needs to be skillfully controlled. Chapter 7
  42. 42. Keith Davis observes and advocates that “a lively grapevine reflects the deep psychological need of people to talk about theirjobs and their company as a centrallife interest. Without it, the company would literally be sick”. Chapter 7
  43. 43. Communications – Did you know?• People remember: – 10 percent of what they read – 20 percent of what they hear – 30 percent of what they see – 50 percent of what they see and hear – 80 percent of what they say – 90 percent of what they say and do Chapter 7
  44. 44. Communications – did you know?• If you tell 100 people something without repetition: – After 24 hours, 25 percent have forgotten it – After 48 hours, 50 percent have forgotten it – After 72 hours, 75 percent have forgotten it – After one week, 96 percent have forgotten it Chapter 7