Using Social Network Analysisfor Organisational andPersonal Improvement<br />‘Whatever a central management imposes, infor...
Presentation Structure<br />Some Theory<br />Lexicon.<br />Typical measures.<br />Organisation dynamics.<br />Brokerage ro...
Some Theory<br />‘He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards a ship without a rudder and compass, ...
Lexicon<br />A node is the smallest unit in the network. It is also known as a vertex or entity.<br />A tie is a line betw...
Typical Measures<br />Copyright © 2011:  HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />5<br />Ties (links):  in ties and out ties represent the n...
Organisation Dynamics<br />Providers and Seekers<br />degree centrality<br />Transmitters and Receivers<br />closeness cen...
may be in an advantaged position in the network.
are usually less dependent on other individuals.
are often a deal maker or broker.</li></ul>Highlights people with the shortest paths to other people, thus allowing them t...
Organisation Dynamics(continued)<br />Brokers and Gatekeepers<br />betweenness centrality<br />Influencers<br />eigenvecto...
hold a favoured or powerful position in the network.
have great influence over what is communicated through the network.
act as intermediaries</li></ul>Identifies the bridgeswithin the network. They may act as the true gatekeeper deciding what...
Brokerage Roles(B is the Broker)<br />B<br />C<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Coordinator - a person who b...
Law of Emergence<br /><ul><li>Relationships are unimpeded by      pre-ordained formal structures.</li></ul>Law of Propinqu...
The probability of two people communicating is inversely  proportional by a factor of 2 to the distance between them. </li...
Social strata fulfilling particular functions tend to become isolated    over time.</li></ul>Law of Links<br /><ul><li>The...
An Example<br />‘In all businesses there are two organisations: one that is shown on the formal organisation chart and ano...
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Using SNA for organisational and personal improvement

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Presentation made by Graham Durant-Law from HyperEdge on the use of SNA within an organisational context at the 2011 actKM Conference in Melbourne.

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Using SNA for organisational and personal improvement

  1. 1. Using Social Network Analysisfor Organisational andPersonal Improvement<br />‘Whatever a central management imposes, informal networks develop in ways that shape how an organisation works. These multiple networks involve information-flow, knowledge transfer, work cooperation, support, friendship and antagonisms. They are crucial to organisational functioning’. <br />Professor Garry Robins, Network Scientist, 2006 <br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />
  2. 2. Presentation Structure<br />Some Theory<br />Lexicon.<br />Typical measures.<br />Organisation dynamics.<br />Brokerage roles.<br />Personal influence spheres.<br />An Example<br />A logical and compelling decision?<br />How work really gets done!<br />Branch C organisational dynamics.<br />McDuff (Branch C) personal dynamic.<br />Conclusion and Questions<br />Cautions<br />Conclusion<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Some Theory<br />‘He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards a ship without a rudder and compass, and never knows where he may cast.’<br />Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance Scholar, 1452-1519.<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Lexicon<br />A node is the smallest unit in the network. It is also known as a vertex or entity.<br />A tie is a line between two nodes indicating there is a relationship between them. It is also known as an edge or link.<br />A graph is a set of nodes and a set of ties between pairs of nodes.<br />A network consists of a graph and additional information on the nodes or the ties of the graph. It is also known as a map.<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Typical Measures<br />Copyright © 2011: HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />5<br />Ties (links): in ties and out ties represent the number of connections to and from a node.<br />Density: the percentage of connections that exist out of the total possible that could exist.<br />Distance: degrees of separation or the diameter of a network.<br />Reciprocity: the number of bi-directional links expressed as a percentage.<br />Centrality: the extent to which a network is organised around one or more central nodes.<br />
  6. 6. Organisation Dynamics<br />Providers and Seekers<br />degree centrality<br />Transmitters and Receivers<br />closeness centrality<br />Reveals how much activity is going on and who are the most active members by counting the number of direct links each person has to others in the network. <br />Does not necessarily describe power or influence.<br />People at the centre of the network:<br /><ul><li>are the connector or hub of the network,
  7. 7. may be in an advantaged position in the network.
  8. 8. are usually less dependent on other individuals.
  9. 9. are often a deal maker or broker.</li></ul>Highlights people with the shortest paths to other people, thus allowing them to directly pass on and receive communications quicker than others in the organisation.<br />Is strongly correlated with organisational influence if the individual is a skilled communicator.<br />These individuals are often network brokers. They are often the ‘pulse-takers’ of the organisation.<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />
  10. 10. Organisation Dynamics(continued)<br />Brokers and Gatekeepers<br />betweenness centrality<br />Influencers<br />eigenvector centrality<br />Reveals individuals who:<br /><ul><li>connect disparate groups within the network.
  11. 11. hold a favoured or powerful position in the network.
  12. 12. have great influence over what is communicated through the network.
  13. 13. act as intermediaries</li></ul>Identifies the bridgeswithin the network. They may act as the true gatekeeper deciding what does or does not get passed through the network, or as the “third who benefits” by passing information to others to secure advantage.<br />.<br />Measures how well connected a person is and how much direct influence they may have over the most active people in the network<br />Measures how close a person is to other highly connected people in terms of the global or overall makeup of the network<br />Is a reasonable measure of “network positional advantage” and/or perceived power.<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />
  14. 14. Brokerage Roles(B is the Broker)<br />B<br />C<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Coordinator - a person who brokers connections within the same group or team. <br />A<br />Gatekeeper- a person who transmits information and other resources to the same group or team from sources external to that group or team. <br />C<br />A<br />Consultant - a person who intermittently takes the central lead by connecting others in the same group or team, but who belongs to another group or team.<br />A<br />C<br />Representative- a person who transmits information and other resources from their group or team to an external group or team. <br />A<br />C<br />Liaison - a person who transmits information and other resources from one group or team to another group or team, whilst themselves belonging to a different group or team. <br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />8<br />
  15. 15. Law of Emergence<br /><ul><li>Relationships are unimpeded by pre-ordained formal structures.</li></ul>Law of Propinquity<br /><ul><li>Those close by form a tie.
  16. 16. The probability of two people communicating is inversely proportional by a factor of 2 to the distance between them. </li></ul>Law of Oligarchy<br /><ul><li>Birds of a feather flock together.
  17. 17. Social strata fulfilling particular functions tend to become isolated over time.</li></ul>Law of Links<br /><ul><li>The number of possible links in a social system = N(N-1) or sometimes N(N-1)/2.</li></ul>Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />9<br />
  18. 18. An Example<br />‘In all businesses there are two organisations: one that is shown on the formal organisation chart and another that exists in reality. The latter is made up of not job titles or formal lines of authority, but rather influencers and other individuals.’<br />Neil Farmer, Network Scholar and Author, 2008 <br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />10<br />
  19. 19. A logical and compelling decision?<br /><ul><li>N = 99
  20. 20. 33 per Branch
  21. 21. 15 per Directorate,
  22. 22. except for E, which has 30.</li></ul>from this<br /><ul><li>N = 99
  23. 23. 33 Branch 1
  24. 24. 66 Branch 2
  25. 25. 15 per Directorate in Branch 1.
  26. 26. 20 per Directorate in Branch 2.</li></ul>to this<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />11<br />
  27. 27. Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />12<br />How work really gets done!Formal versus shadow organisation<br />N = 99<br />Links = 715 of 9,720<br />Density = 0.073<br />Average Degree = 4.370<br />Reciprocity = 0.397<br />Mean Distance = 3.136<br /><ul><li>How does the organisation really work?
  28. 28. What is the gap between the formal and shadoworganisation?
  29. 29. What is the optimum structure?
  30. 30. How do people interact across branches, and between directorates?
  31. 31. Who are the informal leaders?
  32. 32. Who must be engaged to effect change?
  33. 33. Is it sufficient to map one network?</li></li></ul><li>Organisational DynamicsBranch C – identified for amalgamation<br />The Branch communication dynamic is Provider/Seeker and Receiver/Transmitter.<br />Note the brokerage roles are Gatekeeper, Consultant, and Liaison, and the scores are low.<br />Authority is low, yet responsibility and accountability are high!<br />Awareness and engagement are low.<br />Is it a good idea to amalgamate this branch with another?<br />If we are going to amalgamate this branch who should be part of the “guiding coalition”?<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />13<br />RAAAKEERS™ analysis<br />
  34. 34. Personal Dynamics(people coloured for position level)<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />14<br />McDuff (Branch C) Ego Network (n = 11)<br />Department Eigenvector Centrality (Influence) <br />close group (n = 41)<br />McDuff (Branch C) Personal Dynamics<br />
  35. 35. Conclusion and Questions<br />‘The real questions refuse to be placated. … They are the questions asked most frequently and answered most inadequately, the ones that reveal their true natures slowly, reluctantly, most often against your will’. <br />Ingrid Bengis, Author, 1973 <br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />15<br />
  36. 36. Cautions<br />Must clearly define the ‘unit of analysis’ – that is what are nodes, what are ties, and what are attributes.<br />Observations are usually regarded as the population of interest rather than a sample of some larger population of possible observations. Must define the population, and then cover the whole population to get meaningful network statistics.<br />The mathematical algorithms in the software treat the data as ‘deterministic’. That is, measurements are viewed as an accurate reflection of the ‘real’ or ‘final’ or ‘equilibrium’ state of the network. Clearly they are not!<br />Maps can be misleading or misinterpreted if “near network nirvana” is not achieved. Network Nirvana is only achieved when:<br />every node is visible;<br />every node’s degree is countable, that is the number and direction of ties;<br />every tie can be followed from source to destination; and<br />clusters and outliers are identifiable.<br />Some measures can only applied legitimately in closed or bounded networks: for example, closeness centrality. <br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd <br />16<br />
  37. 37. Conclusion<br />Social network analysis, done properly, provides:<br />a powerful quantitative, qualitative, and visual diagnostic,<br />empirical information on the “real or shadow” structures and relationships in an organisation,<br />a means to reach shared understanding and common meaning,<br />a baseline for organisational and personal improvement.<br />The key is “done properly”! Use the right tool and presentation for the job, and remember visualisation is not analysis.<br />Above all else you must understand your organisation, the data, the resultant network, and the assumptions you are making.<br />Copyright © 2011 – HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />17<br />
  38. 38. Copyright © 2011– HyperEdge Pty Ltd<br />18<br />

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