COMMUNICATION
Tuğçe AYDINTuğçe AYDIN
COMMUNICATION
Communication is the
process of sending and
receiving messages
between parties
Basic Model Of Communication
THE NATURE OF
COMMUNICATION
1-Senders and Receivers
2-Transmitters and Receptor
3-Messages and Channels
4-Decoding, Meanin...
Senders & Receivers
Each have goals and objectives
The sender may want to change the
receiver’s mind
The receiver may not ...
Transmitters and Receptors
is the equipment by which
information is sent
Information can be sent
verbally and nonverbally
Messages and Channels
are the vehicles by which information
is communicated.
direct expressions
symbolic representations
Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding
Decoding is the process of translating messages
from their symbolic form into interpretati...
Feedback
is the process by which the receiver
“reacts” to the sender’s message
It is necessary to let the sender know
that...
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
COMMUNICATION
It is impossible to avoid
communicating
Communication is largely nonverbal
Context affec...
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
COMMUNICATION (cont’d)
Communication is irreversible
Noise affects communication
Communication is circ...
VERBAL AND NONVERBAL
MESSAGES
Basic ways in which people send
and receive messages
Verbal Messages
Messages sent verbally are messsages
expressed in words
The science of semantics
Nonverbal Messages
About 65 percent of the meanings people
get from a communication
Voice
Physical Movements
Space
“your l...
ADAPTING MESSSAGES TO
PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE
increase the probabilty that
communication will be successful
Language
Format
S...
Language
Appropriate language is the language
that has been adapted to the
receiver while retaining a naturalness
with res...
Format
Depends on the
receiver (audience)
and on the
purpose.
Style
Formal/informal,
Simple/complex,
Natural/flamboyant
JOHARI WINDOW
Arena
Adjectives selected by both the
participant and his or her peers
Represents traits of the
participant of which both ...
Façade
Adjectives selected only by the
participant, but not by any of their
peers
Represents information about the
partici...
Blind Spot
Adjectives that are not selected by
the participant but only by their
peers
“we could be eating at a restaurant...
Unknown
Adjectives which were not selected
by either the participant or their
peers
“I may disclose a dream that I had,
an...
able
accepting
adaptabl
e
bold
brave
calm
caring
cheerful
clever
complex
confident
dependable
dignified
energetic
extrover...
BARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVEBARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION
Ayşe Bilge ÇAKIRAyşe Bilge ÇAKIR
Tangible DifferencesTangible Differences
GenderGender
AgeAge
RaceRace
National or CulturalNational or Cultural
OriginOrigi...
GENDERGENDER
Major influence on the way weMajor influence on the way we
communicate with others.communicate with others.
W...
AGEAGE
YYoung people and old people communicateoung people and old people communicate
in different waysin different ways.....
Their maturity, their educationalTheir maturity, their educational
backgrounds, and the different eras inbackgrounds, and ...
Intangible DifferencesIntangible Differences
PerceptionPerception
MotivationMotivation
Tunnel VisionTunnel Vision
EgoEgo
D...
PERCEPTIONPERCEPTION
Our physical limitations are a
screen through which we
perceive things that exist
in our environment....
Mother: Will you straighten up your
room?
Teenager: Why? What’s messy?
Selective PerceptionSelective Perception
 AAllows us not only to block out thingsllows us not only to block out things
th...
MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION
A Motive is aA Motive is a
Reason ForReason For
Action!Action!
The most strongest motivationsThe most...
TUNNEL VISIONTUNNEL VISION
AA closed way of thinking, especiallyclosed way of thinking, especially
aboutabout abstract top...
EGO DEFENSIVENESSEGO DEFENSIVENESS
AA response pattern in which a personresponse pattern in which a person
who follows thi...
NEGATIVE EMOTIONS
Almost always obstacles to good
communication!
Especially true if the emotion is
uncontrolled, unfocused...
DISTORTION BARRIERS
1.1. DDiistractstractiionsons
2.2. SemantSemantiic Problemsc Problems
3.3. AbsenAbsencce Of Feedbacke ...
DDiistractstractiionsons
It occursIt occurs where peoplewhere people
aarere cconstantlyonstantly comingcoming
in andin and...
Semantic Problems
DDistortion in communication comesistortion in communication comes
from semantics- the use of wordsfrom ...
Status And Power
DifferencesDifferences in
communications are
likely to parallel the
differences in power.
Imbalance or
as...
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
℘Be Exact
℘Use the word “is” carefully
℘Avoid Overgeneralization
℘Be sensitive to c...
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
℘Recognize that you don’t know all the
answers to all questions
℘Always remember th...
IMPROVING COMMUNICATIONIMPROVING COMMUNICATION
EFFECTIVENESS INEFFECTIVENESS IN
NEGOTIATIONNEGOTIATION
 ♣QUESTIONING
For ...
Ayşen ERKILIÇ
BUSINESS
COMMUNICATION
What is
“Business Communication”?
sending and
receiving of
messages in an
organization
Intentional
Unintentional
Characteristics of Business
Communication
 Complex,
 Competitive,
 Group oriented,
 Task oriented,
 Data based .
Carter and Huzan(1981), studied the
nature of a business
Telephone
People-to-people communication
Typing
People-to-paper c...
Employees Responsibility
They should serve as;
Interpreter
Humanizer
Promoter
Communication Skills
Listening
Writing
Interviewing
Group discussion
Interpersonal communication
Public speaking
Nonverbal...
Communication Ethics
Communication ethics is
the consideration of
the rightness of
wrongness of a given
communication act.
CEO
Vice-President,
Auxiliary
Services
Vice-President,
Research and
Development
Vice-President,
Manufacturing
Engineering
...
 Line networks normally involve
superior-subordinate relationships.
 Staff relationships between the
members of an organ...
Formal Networks
 Formal networks are legitimate and
often indicated by an organization
chart that displays who answers to...
Informal Networks
 Informal networks are unofficial
channels through which information
passes in an organization.
 Infor...
Span Of Control
The smaller the span of
control, the more
communication access
each employee will have
to the supervisor.
Grapevines
Conrad (1990);
 “Because using formal communication
networks takes so much time and effort,
people may have ch...
CEO
Division
Manager
Departme
nt Head
Departme
nt Head
Departme
nt Head
Departme
nt Head
Departme
nt Head
Departme
nt Head...
Information Flow in Business
Organizations
 Downward communication occurs when a
manager or supervisor sends a message to...
Information Flow in Business
Organizations
Organizational theorists Tannenbaum
and Schmidt, displays the range of
communic...
Instructing, explaining.Instructing, explaining.
Do not need yourDo not need your
audience’saudience’s
opinions.opinions.
...
Thanks For
Attendance…!!!
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
Business communication
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Business communication

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Business communication

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Tuğçe AYDINTuğçe AYDIN
  2. 2. COMMUNICATION Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties
  3. 3. Basic Model Of Communication
  4. 4. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels 4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding 5-Feedback
  5. 5. Senders & Receivers Each have goals and objectives The sender may want to change the receiver’s mind The receiver may not want to have his mind changed
  6. 6. Transmitters and Receptors is the equipment by which information is sent Information can be sent verbally and nonverbally
  7. 7. Messages and Channels are the vehicles by which information is communicated. direct expressions symbolic representations
  8. 8. Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding Decoding is the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into interpretations that can be understood. Meanings are the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin individuals, and act as a set of “filters” through which the decoded messages are interpreted. Encoding is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form
  9. 9. Feedback is the process by which the receiver “reacts” to the sender’s message It is necessary to let the sender know that the message was (a) actually received, (b) encoded, (c) ascribed with the same meaning that the sender intended
  10. 10. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION It is impossible to avoid communicating Communication is largely nonverbal Context affects communication Meanings are in people, not in words
  11. 11. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION (cont’d) Communication is irreversible Noise affects communication Communication is circular Creating common goal is essential Communication has effects
  12. 12. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL MESSAGES Basic ways in which people send and receive messages
  13. 13. Verbal Messages Messages sent verbally are messsages expressed in words The science of semantics
  14. 14. Nonverbal Messages About 65 percent of the meanings people get from a communication Voice Physical Movements Space “your lips tell me ‘no,no’ but there is ‘yes,yes’ in your eyes”
  15. 15. ADAPTING MESSSAGES TO PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE increase the probabilty that communication will be successful Language Format Style
  16. 16. Language Appropriate language is the language that has been adapted to the receiver while retaining a naturalness with respect to the sender
  17. 17. Format Depends on the receiver (audience) and on the purpose.
  18. 18. Style Formal/informal, Simple/complex, Natural/flamboyant
  19. 19. JOHARI WINDOW
  20. 20. Arena Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers Represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware. “I know my name, and so do you.”
  21. 21. Façade Adjectives selected only by the participant, but not by any of their peers Represents information about the participant of which their peers are unaware “I have not told you, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is.”
  22. 22. Blind Spot Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers “we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot.”
  23. 23. Unknown Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers “I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place.”
  24. 24. able accepting adaptabl e bold brave calm caring cheerful clever complex confident dependable dignified energetic extroverte d friendly giving happy helpful idealistic independen t intelligent introverted kind knowledgeabl e logical loving mature modest nervous observant organized patient powerful proud quiet reflective relaxed religious responsive searching self- assertive self- sensible sentimental shy silly spontaneous sympathetic tense trustworthy warm wise witty 55 adjectives used to describe the participant
  25. 25. BARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVEBARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION Ayşe Bilge ÇAKIRAyşe Bilge ÇAKIR
  26. 26. Tangible DifferencesTangible Differences GenderGender AgeAge RaceRace National or CulturalNational or Cultural OriginOrigin Socioeconomic ClassSocioeconomic Class Education LevelEducation Level Urban or RuralUrban or Rural ResidenceResidence
  27. 27. GENDERGENDER Major influence on the way weMajor influence on the way we communicate with others.communicate with others. When men and women work together inWhen men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertivea group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident.and self-confident. Women are more likely than men toWomen are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal howexpress their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.they feel about a situation.
  28. 28. AGEAGE YYoung people and old people communicateoung people and old people communicate in different waysin different ways.. WWe do tend to judge a statement bye do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know thedifferent standards if we know the speaker’s agespeaker’s age.. AA person’s age orperson’s age or gendergender is notis not important in judging the truth orimportant in judging the truth or wisdom of what that person sayswisdom of what that person says ..
  29. 29. Their maturity, their educationalTheir maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras inbackgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make awhich they grew up make a GGenerationeneration GGapap inevitableinevitable..
  30. 30. Intangible DifferencesIntangible Differences PerceptionPerception MotivationMotivation Tunnel VisionTunnel Vision EgoEgo DefensivenessDefensiveness NegativeNegative EmotionsEmotions
  31. 31. PERCEPTIONPERCEPTION Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment. Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed. Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called ““Selective PerceptionSelective Perception””
  32. 32. Mother: Will you straighten up your room? Teenager: Why? What’s messy?
  33. 33. Selective PerceptionSelective Perception  AAllows us not only to block out thingsllows us not only to block out things that are there, but also to see morethat are there, but also to see more things than are there.things than are there.  Leads us toLeads us to make our own reality!make our own reality!  MMost clearly seen in the humanost clearly seen in the human tendency to stereotype otherstendency to stereotype others..
  34. 34. MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION A Motive is aA Motive is a Reason ForReason For Action!Action! The most strongest motivationsThe most strongest motivations are those that are most personal.are those that are most personal. We are motivated by money, fame,We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill,power, love, status, security, skill, ambitionambition...etc...etc It can be both positive or negativeIt can be both positive or negative.
  35. 35. TUNNEL VISIONTUNNEL VISION AA closed way of thinking, especiallyclosed way of thinking, especially aboutabout abstract topics, such asabstract topics, such as religion andreligion and politicspolitics.  The person with tunnel vision is one whoThe person with tunnel vision is one who has firmly fixed ideashas firmly fixed ideas  The opposite side isThe opposite side is open-mindednessopen-mindedness  PersonPerson with tunnel visionwith tunnel vision hashas attitudeattitude seems to say; “I’ve already made up myseems to say; “I’ve already made up my mind, Don’t confuse me with the facts!!!”mind, Don’t confuse me with the facts!!!”
  36. 36. EGO DEFENSIVENESSEGO DEFENSIVENESS AA response pattern in which a personresponse pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees awho follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personaldisagreement as a personal attactattact .. A self-centered communication More than just being selfish
  37. 37. NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Almost always obstacles to good communication! Especially true if the emotion is uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.
  38. 38. DISTORTION BARRIERS 1.1. DDiistractstractiionsons 2.2. SemantSemantiic Problemsc Problems 3.3. AbsenAbsencce Of Feedbacke Of Feedback 4.4. ClCliimatemate 5.5. Status And Power DStatus And Power Diifferencesfferences
  39. 39. DDiistractstractiionsons It occursIt occurs where peoplewhere people aarere cconstantlyonstantly comingcoming in andin and leaving for oneleaving for one reason orreason or another, andanother, and eexperincedxperinced thethe frustration thatfrustration that isis created by thiscreated by this ddistractingistracting traffic flowtraffic flow.
  40. 40. Semantic Problems DDistortion in communication comesistortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of wordsfrom semantics- the use of words or expor expresressions which have asions which have a different meaning for the senderdifferent meaning for the sender or receiveror receiver. CCreated when communicators usereated when communicators use technical jargon- usage common totechnical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specializationa particular field or specialization..
  41. 41. Status And Power DifferencesDifferences in communications are likely to parallel the differences in power. Imbalance or asymmetry in negotiating power leads the high power party to perform significantly better than the low power party.
  42. 42. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ℘Be Exact ℘Use the word “is” carefully ℘Avoid Overgeneralization ℘Be sensitive to connotative meaning ℘Do not to overuse you or your ℘Count from 1 to 10
  43. 43. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ℘Recognize that you don’t know all the answers to all questions ℘Always remember that what others may not mean the way we think they mean it ℘Focus on common interests rather than differences ℘Think positive
  44. 44. IMPROVING COMMUNICATIONIMPROVING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS INEFFECTIVENESS IN NEGOTIATIONNEGOTIATION  ♣QUESTIONING For clarifying communications, and eliminating noise and distortion .  ♣ACTIVE LISTENING / REFLECTING  ♣ROLE REVERSAL Understand the other’s position by actively arguing his position to his satisfaction.
  45. 45. Ayşen ERKILIÇ BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
  46. 46. What is “Business Communication”? sending and receiving of messages in an organization
  47. 47. Intentional Unintentional
  48. 48. Characteristics of Business Communication  Complex,  Competitive,  Group oriented,  Task oriented,  Data based .
  49. 49. Carter and Huzan(1981), studied the nature of a business Telephone People-to-people communication Typing People-to-paper communication Copying Paper-to-paper transfer Storing Paper-to-file transfer Information retrieval Files-to-people transfer
  50. 50. Employees Responsibility They should serve as; Interpreter Humanizer Promoter
  51. 51. Communication Skills Listening Writing Interviewing Group discussion Interpersonal communication Public speaking Nonverbal communication Problem solving Telephone communication
  52. 52. Communication Ethics Communication ethics is the consideration of the rightness of wrongness of a given communication act.
  53. 53. CEO Vice-President, Auxiliary Services Vice-President, Research and Development Vice-President, Manufacturing Engineering Vice-President, Sales Marketing Vice-President, Services Technical Assistance Maintenance Supplies Production development Product refinement Personal computers XT computers AT Computers CRX 1000 PC CRX 2000 XT CRX 3000 AT Individual customers Business applications Communication Networks
  54. 54.  Line networks normally involve superior-subordinate relationships.  Staff relationships between the members of an organization are most often advisory in nature. Communication Networks (cont’d)
  55. 55. Formal Networks  Formal networks are legitimate and often indicated by an organization chart that displays who answers to whom.  Formal networks indicate a unity of command.  Formal communication networks contain more of the written, predictable, and routine communications CEO Vice-President, Auxiliary Services Vice-President, Research and Development Vice-President, Manufacturing Engineering Vice-President, Sales Marketing Vice-President, Services Technical Assistance Maintenance Supplies Production development Product refinement Personal computers XT computers AT Computers CRX 1000 PC CRX 2000 XT CRX 3000 AT Individual customers Business applications
  56. 56. Informal Networks  Informal networks are unofficial channels through which information passes in an organization.  Informal networks are faster, richer, and often more accurate, and communication is more likely to be face-to-face.
  57. 57. Span Of Control The smaller the span of control, the more communication access each employee will have to the supervisor.
  58. 58. Grapevines Conrad (1990);  “Because using formal communication networks takes so much time and effort, people may have choose to not communicate at all if they have no formal channels available.  Even ‘gossip’ and ‘rumors’ usually provide accurate information”. Such networks are called grapevines.
  59. 59. CEO Division Manager Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Departme nt Head Division Manager Division Manager (a) CEO Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er Manag er (b) (a) Tall Organization structure (b) Flat Organization structure Information Flow in Business Organizations
  60. 60. Information Flow in Business Organizations  Downward communication occurs when a manager or supervisor sends a message to one or more subordinates.  Upward communication occurs when messages flow from subordinates to managers or from supervisors to executives.  Horizontal communication occurs between people at the same level, or between people at corresponding levels in different divisions.
  61. 61. Information Flow in Business Organizations Organizational theorists Tannenbaum and Schmidt, displays the range of communication styles  The more you control, the less you involve;  The more you involve, the less you control.
  62. 62. Instructing, explaining.Instructing, explaining. Do not need yourDo not need your audience’saudience’s opinions.opinions. persuadingpersuading You want your audienceYou want your audience to do somethingto do something differentdifferent Conferring, you want toConferring, you want to learn from them yetlearn from them yet the control thethe control the interactioninteraction somewhatsomewhat Collaborating,you andCollaborating,you and your audience areyour audience are working together toworking together to come up with thecome up with the contentcontent
  63. 63. Thanks For Attendance…!!!

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