Solvent extraction and separation tech. PPT.pptx

ONLINE VALUE BASED COURSE ON
“CHEMICAL HANDLING AND LABORATORY
SAFeTY”
FOR UG AND PG STUDENTS OF CHEMISTRY
Organized By
Department Of Chemistry
Shri Shivaji Science College Amravati
Lecture
On
“ SOLVENT EXTRACTION
AND
SEPERATION TECHNIQUES”
Presented By
Dr. Vandana B. Khobragade
Assistant Professor
CONTENT
 Introduction
 Solvent Extraction
 Types of Solvent Extraction
 Soxhlet Extractor
 Applications
 Separation techniques
 Classification of Separation Process
 Types of separation processes
 Novel separation techniques
Solvent Extraction
• Solvent Extraction , also known as liquid-liquid extraction ,
is a method to separate compound based on their relative
solubilities in two different immiscible liquids , usually water
and an organic solvent.
• Extraction involves the separation of medicinally active portions of
animal or plant tissues from the inactive components through the
use of selective solvents.
• The solvent extraction was first developed as a tool of
analytical chemistry.
• Every metallic element of the periodic table could be virtually
separated by this process.
• Back in 1940’s , S.E. was primarily used to separate nuclear and
rare earth elements.
• However, availability of inexpensive and effective reagents led to
the establishment of large scale S.E. processes for extraction of
non-ferrous metals from hydrometallurgical leach liquors.
• Solvent Extraction, consists of transferring one (or
more) solute(s) contained in a feed solution to
another immiscible liquid(solvent).
• The solvent that is enriched in solute(s)is called Extract &
the feed solution that is depleted of solute (s) is called
Raffinate
Types of Solvent Extraction
SOLVATING EXTRACTION
CATIONIC EXCHANGE
ANIONIC EXCHANGE
CHELATING EXTRACTION
1.SOLVATING EXTRACTION
• Solvent used
Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP)
Tri Octyl Phosphine Oxide(TOPO)
Methyl Iso Butyl Ketones(MIBK)
• Application:
Extraction/Separation of Lead , Zinc , Uranium, Iron ,
Cadmium, Hafnium , Zirconium & Plutonium.
2. CATIONIC EXCHANGE
• Solvents used
1)Di-2-ethylhexy Phosphoric Acid(D2EHPA)
2) Naphthenic Acid
3) Versatic Acid
• Application:
Extraction/Separation of Copper, Zinc,
Nickel, Cobalt, Silver
3. ANIONIC EXCHANGE
• Solvents used ,
1) Primary Amines(RNH2)
2) Secondary Amines(R2NH)
3) Tertiary Amines(R3N)
• Application:
Extraction/Separation of Uranium,
Thorium, Vanadium, Cobalt.
4.CHELATINGEXTRACTION
• Solvent used ,
1) Lix63 , Lix65
2) Kelex 100
• Application:
Extraction/Separation of Copper , Nickel, Cobalt.
SOXHLETAPPARATUS
• It was invented in 1879 by a scientist named Franz von
Soxhlet.
• ASoxhlet extractor is lab equipment designed for processing
certain kinds of solids.
• These devices allow for continuous treatment of a sample with a
solvent over a period of hours or days to extract compounds of
interest.
• Typically, a Soxhlet extraction is only required where the
desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the
impurity is insoluble in that solvent.
• It has been frequently used for the extraction of lipids in
agricultural chemistry.
SOXHLETAPPARATUS
1: Stirrer bar
2: Still pot (the still pot
should not be overfilled
and the volume of solvent
in the still pot should be
3 to 4 times the volume of
the soxhlet chamber)
3: Distillation path
4: Thimble
5: Solid
6: Siphon top
7: Siphon exit
8: Expansion adapter
9: Condenser
10:Cooling water in
11:Cooling water out
SOXHLETAPPARATUS
Selection of Organic Solvent
 High extraction capacity
 Selectivity
 Easily Stripped
 Immiscible in aqueous phase
 Sufficient density difference
with the aq. phase
 Low Viscosity
 Non toxic
 Non explosive
 Cheap
Generally used Solvents
Water
Ether
Chloroform
Aliphatic alcohols
Glycerine
Today the process of Solvent Extraction is widely applied in
miscellaneous fields of Science and Technology
Analytical Chemistry
Extraction of Rare-earths &PGM
Waste water treatment
Mineral oil treatment & dewaxing
Food industry(essential oilextraction)
Perfume industry(fragrance extraction)
Pharmaceutical industry
Application
INTRODUCTION of separation techniques
 Separation is simply the process of dividing material into its
component parts.
 Separation techniques are essentially methods of purification.
 Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures can
be separated into their components by several physical methods
 The choice of separation techniques is based on the type of
mixture and difference in the chemical properties of the
constituents of a mixture.
Based on the nature or physical mechanism of separation, various
separation processes can be classified into,
1)Mechanical separations: separations based on size and/or density
differences of different components in a mixture, for separation of
solid from liquid (e.g. filtration and centrifugation).
2)Diffusional separations (mass transfer operations): separations
based on molecular movement toward a favourable phase, for
separation of dissolved components (e.g. distillation, absorption,
extraction). (“Mass transfer is the transfer of solute molecules from
one point to anther or from one phase to another.”)
3)Membrane separations: use of a semipermeable membrane to
separate molecules with difference in size or some other properties.
CLASSIFICATION OF SEPARATION PROCESS
VARIOUS TYPES OF SEPARATION PROCESSES ARE:
 Separating Funnel
 Centrifugation
 Evaporation
 Crystallization
 Magnetic separation
 Filtration
 Sedimentation
 Distillation
 Membrane Separations
 Chromatography
Separating Funnel:
A separating funnel is used for the separation of components of a
mixture between two immiscible liquid phases. One phase is the
aqueous phase and the other phase is an organic solvent. This
separation is based on the differences in the densities of the
liquids. The liquid having more density forms the lower layer
and the liquid having less density forms the upper layer.
Applications:
 To separate a mixture of oil and water.
 To separate a mixture of kerosene oil
and water.
SEPARATING FUNNEL
Centrifugation:
centrifugation is the process of separation of insoluble materials
from a liquid where normal filtration does not work well. The
centrifugation is based on the size, shape, and density of the
particles, viscosity of the medium, and the speed of rotation. The
principle is that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and
the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly.
CENTRIFUGATION
The apparatus used for centrifugation is called a centrifuge. The
centrifuge consists of a centrifuge tube holder called rotor.
Classification of Centrifuge
1. Low speed Centrifuge
2.Hight Speed Centrifuge
3. Ultra Centrifuge
Evaporation :
The general definition of evaporation is the loss or disappearance
of a liquid due to vaporization. In the process industry,
evaporation process is to concentrate a solution (of a non-volatile
solute) or to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile solute,
by vaporizing and removing part of the solvent (mostly water). In
an evaporation process, the liquid solution is usually heated to
boiling by steam.
EVAPORATION
Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically
susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic
force. This separation technique can be useful in mining iron as it
is attracted to a magnet.
MAGNETIC SEPARATION
Filtration is the mechanical separation of solid particles from a
fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium,on which
the solids are deposited. The most common filtering medium is
fabric cloth with strong mechanical properties.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological
operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by
adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
FILTRATION
 Hot filtration method is mainly used to separate solids from a
hot solution.
 Cold Filtration method is the use of ice bath in order to rapidly
cool down the solution to be crystallized rather than leaving it
out to cool it down slowly in the room temperature
 Vacuum Filtration technique is most preferred for small batch
of solution in order to quickly dry out small crystals. This
method requires a Büchner funnel, filter paper of smaller
diameter than the funnel, Büchner flask, and rubber tubing to
connect to vacuum source.
Sedimentation
Sedimentation relies on gravity to separate suspended solids
from fluids. It is accomplished by decreasing the velocity of the
fluid being treated to a point below which the particles will no
longer remain in suspension. When the velocity no longer
supports the transport of the particles, gravity will remove them
from the flow.
SEDIMENTATION
DISTILLATION
• Distillation is a process of separating the component or
substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and
Condensation.
• The application of distillation can roughlybe divided in two
groups : laboratory scale, industrial distillation.
The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and
industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often
performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs
continuously.
Type of distillation
 Simple distillation.
 Fractional distillation.
 Steam distillation.
 Vacuum distillation.
Membrane Separations
Separation by the use of membranes has been increasingly used in
the chemical and bioprocess industry. In membrane separation, the
membrane acts as a semipermeable barrier which only allows for
certain molecules to pass through it
1. Ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration (UF) is used for the separation of macromolecules
(polymers) such as proteins, with molecular weights 1000-50,000.
It is a high-pressure membrane process, up to 145 psi (10 bar).
MEMBRANE SEPARATION
 Molecular weight of particles : 103
- 105 Pore size: 20 –
1000A0
 Pressure: 6 – 8 atm.
 Transport Mechanism: Convection (main) + diffusion
 Example: Filtration of protein, Red blood cells,
polymers, etc.
2. Reverse osmosis
Osmosis (as a natural phenomenon) is the flow (diffusion) of water
molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from low-solute
concentration side to high-solute concentration side of the
membrane.
Reverse osmosis is the use of high pressure to force the flow of
solvent (e.g., water) molecules in the reverse direction of osmotic
pressure. Applications of reverse osmosis include: water
purification, sterilization, dewatering and the separation of
components in a mixture
Solvent extraction and separation tech. PPT.pptx
The separation processes those are not conventional and routine
fall under this category. Therefore, some of the equilibrium and
rate governed separation processes are included this.
Some of the processes are identified as,
(i) Membrane based separation processes
(ii) Chromatographic separation processes
(iii) Supercritical Fluid Extraction
(iv) Electric field assisted separation processes
(v) Ion exchange processes, etc.
NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES
 Chromatographic Separation Processes:-
i. Chromatography is an extremely powerful analytical tool for
separating and analyzing complex mixture.
ii. Different types of chromatographic techniques such as column
chromatography, TLC, paper chromatography, and gas
chromatography.
Fig:- Chromatography Separation Technique
Applications:
 To separate colors in a dye.
 To separate pigments from natural colors.
 To separate drugs from blood.
 Paper chromatography is one of the important
chromatographic methods. Paper chromatography uses paper as the
stationary phase and a liquid solvent as the mobile phase. In paper
chromatography, the sample is placed on a spot on the paper and
the paper is carefully dipped into a solvent. The solvent rises up the
paper due to capillary action and the components of the mixture rise
up at different rates and thus are separated from one another.
Fig:- Paper Chromatography
Supercritical Fluid Extraction
 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating
one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix)
using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent. Extraction is
usually from a solid matrix, but can also be from liquids.
 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most used supercritical fluid,
sometimes modified by co-solvents such as ethanol or methanol.
Extraction conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide are above
the critical temperature of 31 °C and critical pressure of 74 bar.
 The system must contain a pump for the CO2, a pressure cell to
contain the sample, a means of maintaining pressure in the system
and a collecting vessel.
 The liquid is pumped to a heating zone, where it is heated to
supercritical conditions. It then passes into the extraction vessel,
where it rapidly diffuses into the solid matrix and dissolves the
material to be extracted. The dissolved material is swept from the
extraction cell into a separator at lower pressure, and the extracted
material settles out. The CO2 can then be cooled, re-compressed
and recycled, or discharged to atmosphere.
 Ion Exchange Chromatography
The most popular method for the purification of proteins. IEC can
be divided into two different sub types.
a. Cation exchange chromatography positively charged molecules
are attracted to a negatively charged.
b. Anion exchange chromatography, negatively charged molecules
are attracted to a positively charged.
After the molecule of interest has been adsorbed, the column
is washed to remove any residual unbound species from the solid
phase.
Application :
 Used for biopurification
 Used in downstream processing platforms.
THANK YOU
1 of 42

Recommended

Separation process by
Separation processSeparation process
Separation processYogesh Chauhan
19.3K views28 slides
Separation techniques - introduction by
Separation techniques - introductionSeparation techniques - introduction
Separation techniques - introductionSIVASWAROOP YARASI
32.8K views43 slides
separationtechniques-introduction-190810143855.pdf by
separationtechniques-introduction-190810143855.pdfseparationtechniques-introduction-190810143855.pdf
separationtechniques-introduction-190810143855.pdfUMAIRASHFAQ20
20 views43 slides
Solid liquid separation - unit operations by
Solid liquid separation - unit operationsSolid liquid separation - unit operations
Solid liquid separation - unit operationsVickyVicrun
2.3K views18 slides
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology by
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Kiran Kumar
21.5K views30 slides
Downstream process by
Downstream processDownstream process
Downstream processDilip22Morani
637 views31 slides

More Related Content

Similar to Solvent extraction and separation tech. PPT.pptx

Phase separation by
Phase separationPhase separation
Phase separationZobaerRony
2.1K views28 slides
Centrifuge.pptx by
Centrifuge.pptxCentrifuge.pptx
Centrifuge.pptxsaraso888
36 views26 slides
1957992 635169139917595000 by
1957992 6351691399175950001957992 635169139917595000
1957992 635169139917595000MANJU461988
2.4K views26 slides
Centrifugation Presentation.pptx by
Centrifugation Presentation.pptxCentrifugation Presentation.pptx
Centrifugation Presentation.pptxAnishaKazi
42 views21 slides
Centrifugation by
CentrifugationCentrifugation
CentrifugationRocking Seven
411 views4 slides
Principle of Centrifugation- Pharmaceutics by
Principle of Centrifugation- PharmaceuticsPrinciple of Centrifugation- Pharmaceutics
Principle of Centrifugation- PharmaceuticsSanchit Dhankhar
241 views37 slides

Similar to Solvent extraction and separation tech. PPT.pptx(20)

Phase separation by ZobaerRony
Phase separationPhase separation
Phase separation
ZobaerRony2.1K views
Centrifuge.pptx by saraso888
Centrifuge.pptxCentrifuge.pptx
Centrifuge.pptx
saraso88836 views
1957992 635169139917595000 by MANJU461988
1957992 6351691399175950001957992 635169139917595000
1957992 635169139917595000
MANJU4619882.4K views
Centrifugation Presentation.pptx by AnishaKazi
Centrifugation Presentation.pptxCentrifugation Presentation.pptx
Centrifugation Presentation.pptx
AnishaKazi42 views
Principle of Centrifugation- Pharmaceutics by Sanchit Dhankhar
Principle of Centrifugation- PharmaceuticsPrinciple of Centrifugation- Pharmaceutics
Principle of Centrifugation- Pharmaceutics
Sanchit Dhankhar241 views
Counter current Extraction Solid phase extraction Gel filtration by PHARMA WORLD
Counter current Extraction Solid phase extraction Gel filtrationCounter current Extraction Solid phase extraction Gel filtration
Counter current Extraction Solid phase extraction Gel filtration
PHARMA WORLD1.3K views
Centrifugation by Bibatsu
CentrifugationCentrifugation
Centrifugation
Bibatsu1.4K views
Downstream processing by Aftab Badshah
Downstream processingDownstream processing
Downstream processing
Aftab Badshah4.2K views
thin layer of chromatography by RakeshH21
thin layer of chromatographythin layer of chromatography
thin layer of chromatography
RakeshH2127 views
9 synthesis of reaction separation system lec 9 heterogenous separation by ayimsevenfold
9 synthesis of reaction separation system lec 9 heterogenous separation9 synthesis of reaction separation system lec 9 heterogenous separation
9 synthesis of reaction separation system lec 9 heterogenous separation
ayimsevenfold2.1K views
Extraction techniques(cell fraction filtration distellation soxhlet extractio... by Hafiz M Waseem
Extraction techniques(cell fraction filtration distellation soxhlet extractio...Extraction techniques(cell fraction filtration distellation soxhlet extractio...
Extraction techniques(cell fraction filtration distellation soxhlet extractio...
Hafiz M Waseem68 views
Downstream processing by Sailee Gurav
Downstream processing Downstream processing
Downstream processing
Sailee Gurav238.2K views
prvnppt-141230053156-conversion-gate02.pdf by DevPanda5
prvnppt-141230053156-conversion-gate02.pdfprvnppt-141230053156-conversion-gate02.pdf
prvnppt-141230053156-conversion-gate02.pdf
DevPanda53 views

Recently uploaded

POSTER IV LAWCN_ROVER_IUE.pdf by
POSTER IV LAWCN_ROVER_IUE.pdfPOSTER IV LAWCN_ROVER_IUE.pdf
POSTER IV LAWCN_ROVER_IUE.pdfSOCIEDAD JULIO GARAVITO
8 views1 slide
Chromatography ppt.pptx by
Chromatography ppt.pptxChromatography ppt.pptx
Chromatography ppt.pptxvarshachandgudesvpm
18 views1 slide
DEVELOPMENT OF FROG.pptx by
DEVELOPMENT OF FROG.pptxDEVELOPMENT OF FROG.pptx
DEVELOPMENT OF FROG.pptxsushant292556
5 views21 slides
Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptx by
Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptxPollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptx
Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptxMNAGAPRADHEESH
16 views9 slides
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl... by
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...GIFT KIISI NKIN
22 views31 slides
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdf by
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdfMetatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdf
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdfsamanehborji
16 views29 slides

Recently uploaded(20)

Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptx by MNAGAPRADHEESH
Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptxPollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptx
Pollination By Nagapradheesh.M.pptx
MNAGAPRADHEESH16 views
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl... by GIFT KIISI NKIN
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...
Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl...
GIFT KIISI NKIN22 views
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdf by samanehborji
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdfMetatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdf
Metatheoretical Panda-Samaneh Borji.pdf
samanehborji16 views
CSF -SHEEBA.D presentation.pptx by SheebaD7
CSF -SHEEBA.D presentation.pptxCSF -SHEEBA.D presentation.pptx
CSF -SHEEBA.D presentation.pptx
SheebaD711 views
A Ready-to-Analyze High-Plex Spatial Signature Development Workflow for Cance... by InsideScientific
A Ready-to-Analyze High-Plex Spatial Signature Development Workflow for Cance...A Ready-to-Analyze High-Plex Spatial Signature Development Workflow for Cance...
A Ready-to-Analyze High-Plex Spatial Signature Development Workflow for Cance...
InsideScientific49 views
Artificial Intelligence Helps in Drug Designing and Discovery.pptx by abhinashsahoo2001
Artificial Intelligence Helps in Drug Designing and Discovery.pptxArtificial Intelligence Helps in Drug Designing and Discovery.pptx
Artificial Intelligence Helps in Drug Designing and Discovery.pptx
abhinashsahoo2001126 views
MODULE-9-Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms, and Gene Therapy.pdf by KerryNuez1
MODULE-9-Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms, and Gene Therapy.pdfMODULE-9-Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms, and Gene Therapy.pdf
MODULE-9-Biotechnology, Genetically Modified Organisms, and Gene Therapy.pdf
KerryNuez124 views
Distinct distributions of elliptical and disk galaxies across the Local Super... by Sérgio Sacani
Distinct distributions of elliptical and disk galaxies across the Local Super...Distinct distributions of elliptical and disk galaxies across the Local Super...
Distinct distributions of elliptical and disk galaxies across the Local Super...
Sérgio Sacani31 views
Light Pollution for LVIS students by CWBarthlmew
Light Pollution for LVIS studentsLight Pollution for LVIS students
Light Pollution for LVIS students
CWBarthlmew6 views
RemeOs science and clinical evidence by PetrusViitanen1
RemeOs science and clinical evidenceRemeOs science and clinical evidence
RemeOs science and clinical evidence
PetrusViitanen136 views

Solvent extraction and separation tech. PPT.pptx

  • 1. ONLINE VALUE BASED COURSE ON “CHEMICAL HANDLING AND LABORATORY SAFeTY” FOR UG AND PG STUDENTS OF CHEMISTRY
  • 2. Organized By Department Of Chemistry Shri Shivaji Science College Amravati
  • 3. Lecture On “ SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SEPERATION TECHNIQUES” Presented By Dr. Vandana B. Khobragade Assistant Professor
  • 4. CONTENT  Introduction  Solvent Extraction  Types of Solvent Extraction  Soxhlet Extractor  Applications  Separation techniques  Classification of Separation Process  Types of separation processes  Novel separation techniques
  • 5. Solvent Extraction • Solvent Extraction , also known as liquid-liquid extraction , is a method to separate compound based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids , usually water and an organic solvent. • Extraction involves the separation of medicinally active portions of animal or plant tissues from the inactive components through the use of selective solvents. • The solvent extraction was first developed as a tool of analytical chemistry. • Every metallic element of the periodic table could be virtually separated by this process. • Back in 1940’s , S.E. was primarily used to separate nuclear and rare earth elements. • However, availability of inexpensive and effective reagents led to the establishment of large scale S.E. processes for extraction of non-ferrous metals from hydrometallurgical leach liquors.
  • 6. • Solvent Extraction, consists of transferring one (or more) solute(s) contained in a feed solution to another immiscible liquid(solvent). • The solvent that is enriched in solute(s)is called Extract & the feed solution that is depleted of solute (s) is called Raffinate
  • 7. Types of Solvent Extraction SOLVATING EXTRACTION CATIONIC EXCHANGE ANIONIC EXCHANGE CHELATING EXTRACTION
  • 8. 1.SOLVATING EXTRACTION • Solvent used Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP) Tri Octyl Phosphine Oxide(TOPO) Methyl Iso Butyl Ketones(MIBK) • Application: Extraction/Separation of Lead , Zinc , Uranium, Iron , Cadmium, Hafnium , Zirconium & Plutonium.
  • 9. 2. CATIONIC EXCHANGE • Solvents used 1)Di-2-ethylhexy Phosphoric Acid(D2EHPA) 2) Naphthenic Acid 3) Versatic Acid • Application: Extraction/Separation of Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt, Silver
  • 10. 3. ANIONIC EXCHANGE • Solvents used , 1) Primary Amines(RNH2) 2) Secondary Amines(R2NH) 3) Tertiary Amines(R3N) • Application: Extraction/Separation of Uranium, Thorium, Vanadium, Cobalt.
  • 11. 4.CHELATINGEXTRACTION • Solvent used , 1) Lix63 , Lix65 2) Kelex 100 • Application: Extraction/Separation of Copper , Nickel, Cobalt.
  • 12. SOXHLETAPPARATUS • It was invented in 1879 by a scientist named Franz von Soxhlet. • ASoxhlet extractor is lab equipment designed for processing certain kinds of solids. • These devices allow for continuous treatment of a sample with a solvent over a period of hours or days to extract compounds of interest. • Typically, a Soxhlet extraction is only required where the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. • It has been frequently used for the extraction of lipids in agricultural chemistry.
  • 13. SOXHLETAPPARATUS 1: Stirrer bar 2: Still pot (the still pot should not be overfilled and the volume of solvent in the still pot should be 3 to 4 times the volume of the soxhlet chamber) 3: Distillation path 4: Thimble 5: Solid 6: Siphon top 7: Siphon exit 8: Expansion adapter 9: Condenser 10:Cooling water in 11:Cooling water out
  • 15. Selection of Organic Solvent  High extraction capacity  Selectivity  Easily Stripped  Immiscible in aqueous phase  Sufficient density difference with the aq. phase  Low Viscosity  Non toxic  Non explosive  Cheap Generally used Solvents Water Ether Chloroform Aliphatic alcohols Glycerine
  • 16. Today the process of Solvent Extraction is widely applied in miscellaneous fields of Science and Technology Analytical Chemistry Extraction of Rare-earths &PGM Waste water treatment Mineral oil treatment & dewaxing Food industry(essential oilextraction) Perfume industry(fragrance extraction) Pharmaceutical industry Application
  • 17. INTRODUCTION of separation techniques  Separation is simply the process of dividing material into its component parts.  Separation techniques are essentially methods of purification.  Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures can be separated into their components by several physical methods  The choice of separation techniques is based on the type of mixture and difference in the chemical properties of the constituents of a mixture.
  • 18. Based on the nature or physical mechanism of separation, various separation processes can be classified into, 1)Mechanical separations: separations based on size and/or density differences of different components in a mixture, for separation of solid from liquid (e.g. filtration and centrifugation). 2)Diffusional separations (mass transfer operations): separations based on molecular movement toward a favourable phase, for separation of dissolved components (e.g. distillation, absorption, extraction). (“Mass transfer is the transfer of solute molecules from one point to anther or from one phase to another.”) 3)Membrane separations: use of a semipermeable membrane to separate molecules with difference in size or some other properties. CLASSIFICATION OF SEPARATION PROCESS
  • 19. VARIOUS TYPES OF SEPARATION PROCESSES ARE:  Separating Funnel  Centrifugation  Evaporation  Crystallization  Magnetic separation  Filtration  Sedimentation  Distillation  Membrane Separations  Chromatography
  • 20. Separating Funnel: A separating funnel is used for the separation of components of a mixture between two immiscible liquid phases. One phase is the aqueous phase and the other phase is an organic solvent. This separation is based on the differences in the densities of the liquids. The liquid having more density forms the lower layer and the liquid having less density forms the upper layer. Applications:  To separate a mixture of oil and water.  To separate a mixture of kerosene oil and water. SEPARATING FUNNEL
  • 21. Centrifugation: centrifugation is the process of separation of insoluble materials from a liquid where normal filtration does not work well. The centrifugation is based on the size, shape, and density of the particles, viscosity of the medium, and the speed of rotation. The principle is that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly. CENTRIFUGATION
  • 22. The apparatus used for centrifugation is called a centrifuge. The centrifuge consists of a centrifuge tube holder called rotor. Classification of Centrifuge 1. Low speed Centrifuge 2.Hight Speed Centrifuge 3. Ultra Centrifuge
  • 23. Evaporation : The general definition of evaporation is the loss or disappearance of a liquid due to vaporization. In the process industry, evaporation process is to concentrate a solution (of a non-volatile solute) or to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile solute, by vaporizing and removing part of the solvent (mostly water). In an evaporation process, the liquid solution is usually heated to boiling by steam. EVAPORATION
  • 24. Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force. This separation technique can be useful in mining iron as it is attracted to a magnet. MAGNETIC SEPARATION
  • 25. Filtration is the mechanical separation of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium,on which the solids are deposited. The most common filtering medium is fabric cloth with strong mechanical properties. Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. FILTRATION
  • 26.  Hot filtration method is mainly used to separate solids from a hot solution.  Cold Filtration method is the use of ice bath in order to rapidly cool down the solution to be crystallized rather than leaving it out to cool it down slowly in the room temperature  Vacuum Filtration technique is most preferred for small batch of solution in order to quickly dry out small crystals. This method requires a Büchner funnel, filter paper of smaller diameter than the funnel, Büchner flask, and rubber tubing to connect to vacuum source.
  • 27. Sedimentation Sedimentation relies on gravity to separate suspended solids from fluids. It is accomplished by decreasing the velocity of the fluid being treated to a point below which the particles will no longer remain in suspension. When the velocity no longer supports the transport of the particles, gravity will remove them from the flow. SEDIMENTATION
  • 28. DISTILLATION • Distillation is a process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and Condensation. • The application of distillation can roughlybe divided in two groups : laboratory scale, industrial distillation.
  • 29. The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs continuously. Type of distillation  Simple distillation.  Fractional distillation.  Steam distillation.  Vacuum distillation.
  • 30. Membrane Separations Separation by the use of membranes has been increasingly used in the chemical and bioprocess industry. In membrane separation, the membrane acts as a semipermeable barrier which only allows for certain molecules to pass through it 1. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is used for the separation of macromolecules (polymers) such as proteins, with molecular weights 1000-50,000. It is a high-pressure membrane process, up to 145 psi (10 bar). MEMBRANE SEPARATION
  • 31.  Molecular weight of particles : 103 - 105 Pore size: 20 – 1000A0  Pressure: 6 – 8 atm.  Transport Mechanism: Convection (main) + diffusion  Example: Filtration of protein, Red blood cells, polymers, etc.
  • 32. 2. Reverse osmosis Osmosis (as a natural phenomenon) is the flow (diffusion) of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from low-solute concentration side to high-solute concentration side of the membrane. Reverse osmosis is the use of high pressure to force the flow of solvent (e.g., water) molecules in the reverse direction of osmotic pressure. Applications of reverse osmosis include: water purification, sterilization, dewatering and the separation of components in a mixture
  • 34. The separation processes those are not conventional and routine fall under this category. Therefore, some of the equilibrium and rate governed separation processes are included this. Some of the processes are identified as, (i) Membrane based separation processes (ii) Chromatographic separation processes (iii) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (iv) Electric field assisted separation processes (v) Ion exchange processes, etc. NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • 35.  Chromatographic Separation Processes:- i. Chromatography is an extremely powerful analytical tool for separating and analyzing complex mixture. ii. Different types of chromatographic techniques such as column chromatography, TLC, paper chromatography, and gas chromatography. Fig:- Chromatography Separation Technique
  • 36. Applications:  To separate colors in a dye.  To separate pigments from natural colors.  To separate drugs from blood.
  • 37.  Paper chromatography is one of the important chromatographic methods. Paper chromatography uses paper as the stationary phase and a liquid solvent as the mobile phase. In paper chromatography, the sample is placed on a spot on the paper and the paper is carefully dipped into a solvent. The solvent rises up the paper due to capillary action and the components of the mixture rise up at different rates and thus are separated from one another. Fig:- Paper Chromatography
  • 38. Supercritical Fluid Extraction  Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent. Extraction is usually from a solid matrix, but can also be from liquids.  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most used supercritical fluid, sometimes modified by co-solvents such as ethanol or methanol. Extraction conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide are above the critical temperature of 31 °C and critical pressure of 74 bar.  The system must contain a pump for the CO2, a pressure cell to contain the sample, a means of maintaining pressure in the system and a collecting vessel.
  • 39.  The liquid is pumped to a heating zone, where it is heated to supercritical conditions. It then passes into the extraction vessel, where it rapidly diffuses into the solid matrix and dissolves the material to be extracted. The dissolved material is swept from the extraction cell into a separator at lower pressure, and the extracted material settles out. The CO2 can then be cooled, re-compressed and recycled, or discharged to atmosphere.
  • 40.  Ion Exchange Chromatography The most popular method for the purification of proteins. IEC can be divided into two different sub types. a. Cation exchange chromatography positively charged molecules are attracted to a negatively charged. b. Anion exchange chromatography, negatively charged molecules are attracted to a positively charged. After the molecule of interest has been adsorbed, the column is washed to remove any residual unbound species from the solid phase.
  • 41. Application :  Used for biopurification  Used in downstream processing platforms.