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Can we hack open source #cloud platforms to help reduce emissions?

Tom Raftery
Tom Raftery
Tom RafteryGlobal Internet of Things Evangelist at SAP

Cloud computing is changing our lives but this change comes with a cost - pollution. Can we hack open source cloud platforms to make them report their energy and (more importantly) their emissions, so we can choose the cleanest cloud? Video of this talk is now online at http://redmonk.com/tv/2012/10/24/can-we-hack-open-source-cloud-platforms-to-help-reduce-emissions/

Can we hack open source #cloud platforms to help reduce emissions?

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Can we hack open
source #cloud platforms
    to help reduce
      emissions?

                 Tom Raftery
      #Monktoberfest 2012, Portland Maine



                       1
Tom Raftery
                                                             • Lead analyst, energy and
                                                                 sustainability practice,
                                                                 RedMonk

                                                             • CIX, Chip & Zenith
                                                             • GreenMonk.net
                                                             • twitter.com/tomraftery
                                                             • tom@redmonk.com
                                                             • +34 677 695 468
                                                             • SlideShare.net/TomRaftery
                                                  2

CIX, Chip & Zenith - involvement with Cloud, going back to late 90’s
Garret FitzGerald 1926-2011




                                                    3

Unlikely politician - highly intelligent academic, unimpeachable integrity, head in the clouds(!)
Garret FitzGerald




                                     Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/caribb/5391899550/

                                                              4

Before he became a politician -
In 1949 analyzed the earliest published Aeroflot timetables, and produced one of the first accurate
estimations of the size of Russia's airliner fleet - previously a closely guarded secret
Garret FitzGerald




                                      Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/steve_brace/2568478072/

                                                                  5

KGB thought he was a spy!

And look an image with KGB logo - and a sleeping cat!

Proving there’s no such thing as security by obscurity & the internet rocks!
Cloud problem



No transparency



       6
Ad

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Can we hack open source #cloud platforms to help reduce emissions?

  • 1. Can we hack open source #cloud platforms to help reduce emissions? Tom Raftery #Monktoberfest 2012, Portland Maine 1
  • 2. Tom Raftery • Lead analyst, energy and sustainability practice, RedMonk • CIX, Chip & Zenith • GreenMonk.net • twitter.com/tomraftery • tom@redmonk.com • +34 677 695 468 • SlideShare.net/TomRaftery 2 CIX, Chip & Zenith - involvement with Cloud, going back to late 90’s
  • 3. Garret FitzGerald 1926-2011 3 Unlikely politician - highly intelligent academic, unimpeachable integrity, head in the clouds(!)
  • 4. Garret FitzGerald Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/caribb/5391899550/ 4 Before he became a politician - In 1949 analyzed the earliest published Aeroflot timetables, and produced one of the first accurate estimations of the size of Russia's airliner fleet - previously a closely guarded secret
  • 5. Garret FitzGerald Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/steve_brace/2568478072/ 5 KGB thought he was a spy! And look an image with KGB logo - and a sleeping cat! Proving there’s no such thing as security by obscurity & the internet rocks!
  • 7. Problem http://greenmonk.net/2011/07/21/carbon-disclosure-projects-emissions-reduction-claims-for-cloud-computing-are-flawed/ 7 Something I have been blogging about for quite a while
  • 8. Problem http://greenmonk.net/2012/01/09/is-cloud-computing-green/ 8 And giving conference talks about it as well
  • 9. Problem http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/23/technology/data-centers-waste-vast-amounts-of-energy-belying-industry-image.html 9 Data centers use vast amounts of electricity Typically only 6-12% of the electricity powering their servers goes to perform computations - McKinsey & Co. Rest used to keep servers idling and ready in case of a surge in activity - dynamic provisioning - i.e. the elastic in ec2!
  • 10. Energy ≠ Emissions 10 NYT article was good but concentrated on energy Bear in mind that energy use and emissions are not necessarily related Energy is not a proxy for emissions
  • 11. Facebook Photo http://www.facebook.com/album.php?id=193287527693&aid=183026 11 A practical example of this is... Prineville site Open Compute - open sourced the design of DC & hardware!
  • 12. Energy “As of the end of Q3 2011, the Prineville data center had a power usage effectiveness (PUE) of 1.08... much lower than the industry standard of 1.5. Facebook’s energy consumption per unit of computing power has declined by 38%” http://opencompute.org/about/energy-efficiency/ 12
  • 13. Emissions http://www.pacificorp.com/es/mining.html 13 58% of its energy from coal 12% from gas => over 70% from fossil fuel directly. 22.5% is purchased from other suppliers so could also be fossil fuel.
  • 14. Dublin http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2011/08/07/lightning-in-dublin-knocks-amazon-microsoft-data-centers-offline/ 14 Microsoft Amazon Google IBM SunGard Digital Realty Trust All have significant DC’s in Dublin
  • 15. Emissions Ireland sources 84% of electricity from fossil fuels http://www.eirgrid.com/operations/systemperformancedata/electricitystatistics/ 15
  • 16. Emissions UK sources >90% of its electricity from fossil fuels https://restats.decc.gov.uk/cms/national-renewables-statistics/ 16 “Renewables contribution to UK electricity generation was 9.4% in 2011”
  • 17. Emissions http://www.pacificorp.com/es/mining.html 17 The carbon intensity of a data center’s electricity is more important than it’s efficiency!
  • 18. Cloud providers 18 Partial list of cloud companies
  • 19. Clean cloud providers 19 Rackspace’s UK data center runs on 100% renewable power Google have large renewable investments and their operations are carbon neutral
  • 20. Clean cloud providers 20 Greenqloud are based in Iceland where elec is 100% renewable
  • 21. Clean cloud providers http://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/sustainable-energy/ 21 Amazon claim 0 carbon for two of their regions
  • 22. Clean cloud providers https://twitter.com/jeffbarr/status/251306461836222464 22 but demur when asked to back up the claim How can we verify it is true? *Sound of crickets chirping*
  • 24. Cloud emissions data 24 Partial list of cloud companies
  • 25. Cloud emissions data providers http://www.sapsustainabilityreport.com/greenhouse-gas-footprint 25 This is as granular as the data gets!
  • 26. Cloud emissions data providers http://www.salesforce.com/company/sustainability/impact.jsp 26 Reports 2 weeks late Gives data for carbon saved, not carbon emitted
  • 27. Cloud emissions data providers http://www.salesforce.com/company/sustainability/savings.jsp 27 Completely inaccurate depending on where in EU on premise is being hosted If hosted in France or Spain with low carbon intensity - move to Salesforce could increase emissions Wothout Salesforce emissions data, how do we know?
  • 28. Why don’t they? Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/pahudson/7742561802/ 28 Competitive intelligence
  • 29. Why don’t they? Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/nathanmarciniak/2207977707/ 29 Hide their emissions
  • 30. Why don’t they? Photo http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomasfisherlibrary/6887173879/ 30 Lack of reporting standards This being Monktoberfest, I had to get in a gratuitous beer shot
  • 31. Outcome “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it” 31 Lack of focus on emissions => increased emissions
  • 32. Reminder A quick recap of 2012 so far... 32
  • 33. Recap 33 In  the  third  quarter  alone,  crop  produc2on  dropped  $12  billion  “due  to  this  summer’s  severe  heat  and  drought.”     Drop  in  US  farm  inventories  was  so  sharp  in  the  last  quarter  that  it  wiped  0.2%  off  of  U.S.  GDP  in  the  latest  revision. In  Texas,  the  drought  has  killed  more  than  300  million  trees.   Nearly  98%  of  Nebraska  is  in  extreme  to  excep2onal  drought  —  3  months  ago,  none  of  it  was! hSp://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/09/30/929381/epic-­‐dust-­‐bowl-­‐of-­‐2012-­‐con2nues/
  • 34. Recap http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/27/us-usa-wildfires-idUSBRE85L1DD20120627 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19433715 34 One of the worst wildfire seasons on record Wildfires in US and EU
  • 35. Recap http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/29/world/asia/pakistan-floods/index.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19767627 35 Serious floods
  • 36. Recap http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/02/us-usa-weather-records-idUSBRE8611EL20120702 36 From June 25th - July 1st 2012 in US 2,171 US records broken or matched In June 2012 that number is 3,215
  • 37. Recap http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2012/09/arctic-sea-ice-extent-settles-at-record-seasonal-minimum/ 37 Huge issues of ice loss in the arctic
  • 38. Recap http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2012/09/arctic-sea-ice-extent-settles-at-record-seasonal-minimum/ 38 Lack of focus on emissions => increased emissions
  • 39. Recap http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2012/09/arctic-sea-ice-extent-settles-at-record-seasonal-minimum/ 39 Minimum was 760,000 square kilometers (293,000 square miles) below previous record minimum extent in the satellite record, which occurred on September 18, 2007. This is an area about the size of the state of Texas. 3.29 million square kilometers (1.27 million square miles) below the 1979 to 2000 average minimum, representing an area nearly twice the size of the state of Alaska 18% below 2007 and 49% below the 1979 to 2000 average
  • 40. Recap http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YegdEOSQotE 40 That’s not to mention the issue of arctic methane - what its effects will be are, as yet, unknown (but they won’t be good!)
  • 41. Cloud? Cloud computing’s emissions don’t directly cause all these issues. But they do play a significant part. 41
  • 42. Solution? Open Source 42 Here’s where we can help
  • 43. Solution? 43
  • 44. Solution? http://www.flickr.com/photos/viamoi/3465644425/ 44 Why not fork open source cloud platforms?
  • 45. Solution? http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/5369447689/ 45 Add in emissions metrics & reporting tools
  • 46. Solution? http://www.amee.com/products/ 46 Companies like AMEE already provide API’s for this kind of info
  • 47. Solution? http://www.flickr.com/photos/dixieroadrash/3769522479/ 47 Get the update accepted back into the core
  • 48. Solution? http://www.eucalyptus.com/about/customers 48 And thus distributed with next update
  • 49. Solution? http://www.cloudstack.org/users.html 49 And thus distributed with next update
  • 50. Solution? http://www.openstack.org/foundation/companies/ 50 And thus distributed with next update
  • 51. btw https://www.mastodonc.com/dashboard 51 The Mastodon C dashboard gives stats on emissions from various cloud providers - in case you’re interested in keeping your cloud emissions down. Lot of it is guestimated data - need real data.
  • 52. Conclusion Adding emissions metrics & reporting to cloud computing will help reduce emissions. Question is - is anyone up for it? 52
  • 53. Thanks! Contact information: Tom Raftery Principal Analyst, Energy & Sustainability, RedMonk Tom@redmonk.com, GreenMonk.net, Twitter.com/tomraftery +34 677 695 468 53