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Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme


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Luisa Natali's (UNICEF Innocenti) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme

  1. 1. unite for children Child work in the Karamoja Early Childhood Development cash or food transfer program Luisa Natali UNICEF Office of Research—Innocenti Transfer Project workshop Arusha, 3rd of April 2019
  2. 2. 2 Karamoja WFP food or cash transfers • Objectives: Food security & early childhood development • Targeting: households with young children (3-5) enrolled in ECD centres • Transfers: Unconditional, every 6 weeks: • Food or Cash • ~10% of pre-program average consumption per month • Recipient: woman in the household Districts: Kaabong, Kotido, Napak
  3. 3. 3 Evaluation design • Stratified cluster RCT, run by IFPRI • 98 ECD centres randomly allocated to one of three arms: • Food • Cash • Control • Baseline (2010, harvest season), Endline (18-months, lean season) • ~ 2,500 households • Existing evidence: • Significant impacts of the cash transfers on primary objectives • Overall lack of – or limited – impacts of food intervention
  4. 4. 4 Results Photo credit: Amber Peterman
  5. 5. 5 Positive impact of cash (not food) on adults’ engagement in agricultural work 93% 93% 79% 89% Control Cash Baseline Endline + 9 pp** impact …accompanied by 25% positive impact on time spent on income-earning activities
  6. 6. 6 Cash (not food) relaxes liquidity constraints related to agricultural activity Cash beneficiaries invest significantly more in land + 12 pp** impact
  7. 7. 7 Increase in (older) children’s agricultural work in cash arm 57% 52% 36% 65% Control Cash Baseline Endline + 29 pp** impact + 31% impact
  8. 8. 8 No impact on schooling (neither cash nor food) 61% 59% 59% Control Cash Food Currently enrolled at endline • Neither positive nor detrimental effect (school enrollment, attendance, education expenditures) • Findings suggest decrease in children’s leisure time Are there impacts on child labour? • No significant impact on long working hours • Lack of data on engagement in hazardous activities @ILO
  9. 9. 9 Q1: Is the overall impact of cash transfers for older children welfare improving or not? Cash Food ECD outcomes  ̶ HH food security  ̶ HH agricultural work & time on income-earning activities  ̶ HH investment in land  ̶ Child (agricultural) work  ̶ Schooling ̶ ̶ Long working hours ̶ ̶ Hazardous activities ? ? Broader indicators of child wellbeing ? ? Long-term implications ? ? Q2: How to better design programmes – apart from conditionalities or larger transfers – to encourage human capital investment overall for the household, without children engaging in hazardous labour? (Cash plus?)
  10. 10. 10 • Transfer Project website: • Briefs: • Facebook: • Twitter: @TransferProjct email: For more information Ghana, credit: Ivan Griffi Thank you! 
  11. 11. 11 References • Dammert, A.C., J. de Hoop, E. Mvukiyehe, and F.C. Rosati (2018). Effects of Public Policy on Child Labor: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Implications for Program Design. World Development, 110: 104-123. • Gilligan, D., A. Margolies, E. Quiñones, and S. Roy (2013). WFP/UNICEF/IFPRI Impact Evaluation of Cash and Food Transfers at Early Childhood Development Centers in Karamoja, Uganda: Final Impact Report. Submitted to: World Food Programme, Rome; World Food Programme, Kampala; and UNICEF, Kampala, May 2013. • Gilligan, D.O., M. Hidrobo, J. Hoddinott, S. Roy, and B. Schwab (2014). Much Ado about Modalities: Multicountry Experiments on the Effects of Cash and Food Transfers on Consumption Patterns. IFPRI Conference Paper, International Food Policy Research Institute. • Gilligan, D. O. and S. Roy (2015). Resources, Stimulation, and Cognition: How Transfer Programs and Preschool Shape Cognitive Development in Uganda, IFPRI Conference Paper, International Food Policy Research Institute. • De Hoop, J., Groppo, V., and S. Handa on behalf of the Malawi SCTP and Zambia MCTG study teams (2017) Household Micro-entrepreneurial Activity and Child Work: Evidence from Two African Unconditional Cash Transfer Programs, Presented at NEUDC 2017. • De Hoop, J., and F.C. Rosati (2014). Cash Transfers and Child Labor. The World Bank Research Observer, 29: 202–34.
  12. 12. 12 Food for thought • Importance of: • Local context / initial conditions • Level of transfer / regularity • Targeting / (Primary) objectives • Program duration • Lack of data on broader child wellbeing indicators • Need for long-term impact evaluations