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Cash Transfers, Productive Investment,
and Child Work
Jacobus de Hoop
UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti & Transfer Project
April, 2019: Transfer Project Workshop
Malawi, Zambia quantitative findings: With Sudhanshu Handa, Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation teams
Malawi qualitative findings: With Susannah Zietz and Sudhanshu Handa
Tanzania quantitative findings: With Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation team
Tanzania qualitative findings: With Margaret Gichane and Stephanie Zuilkowski
2
As we have seen, households invest cash transfers in
productive activities. What are the implications for children?
Do children support these activities? What does this mean
for their development and wellbeing?
This presentation:
1. Quantitative RCT evidence: Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia
2. Qualitative photovoice evidence: Malawi, Tanzania
3
Children support expansion in household
entrepreneurial activities
Bars represent percentage point impacts. Children up to the age of 17 at endline.
33.9***
17.5***
26.9***
0
10
20
30
40
Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP
Household owns livestock
6.8***
3.8*** 3.9***
0
2
4
6
8
Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP
Child cares for livestock
4
Similar patterns, but less pronounced, may be observed for
non-livestock agricultural activities and non-agricultural
business.
Adults too, increase work for the household enterprise.
Children may compensate by taking over their household
chores.
There can be offsetting effects. In some instances, children
reduce engagement in work outside the household for pay.
5
Exposure to work-related hazards and participation in
work below the minimum working age may increase
Bars represent percentage point impacts. Hazards measured in line with UNICEF
MICS and Dayıoğlu (2012). Minimum working age set at 12, in line with ICLS
recommendations.
4.4**
0.009
0
2
4
6
Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN
Hazardous work
1.8
4.6**
4.9*
0
2
4
6
Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP
Work below min. working age
6
Other child wellbeing
indicators improve.
• Strong improvements in
education outcomes and
children’s material wellbeing
• No deterioration in health
outcomes
Malawi.
Photo of youth carrying bricks.
7
Caregivers and children express nuanced views in
qualitative interviews.
Yes, economic needs can force children to work and drop
out of school. But...
• Cash transfers address these economic needs
• Caregivers express feelings of guilt and regret when this happens
Hazards and (in work outside the household) exposure to
poor treatment are commonly mentioned
8
Tanzania.
It is important to learn because without education it is hard to understand things in life.
9
Tanzania. I took this picture at home to show you that I usually fetch water at home and
this is girls’ activity in our household.
10
Question to the audience: how do you interpret these
findings?
11
Asante
Merci
Obrigado
Thank you
Zikomo
12
Works cited
Jacobus de Hoop, Valeria Groppo and Sudhanshu Handa. (Forthcoming).
“Cash Transfers, Microentrepreneurial Activity, and Child Work: Evidence
from Malawi and Zambia”. World Bank Economic Review.
Jacobus de Hoop, Margaret W. Gichane, Valeria Groppo, and Stephanie
Zuilkowski. (2019). Cash Transfers, Public Works, and Child Activities:
Mixed Methods Evidence from Tanzania. Mimeo.
Susannah Zietz, Jacobus de Hoop and Sudhanshu Handa. (2018). “The
Role of Productive Activities in the Lives of Adolescents: Photovoice
Evidence from Malawi” Children and Youth Services Review, 86: 246-255.

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Cash Transfers, Productive Investment & Child Work

  • 1. unite for children Cash Transfers, Productive Investment, and Child Work Jacobus de Hoop UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti & Transfer Project April, 2019: Transfer Project Workshop Malawi, Zambia quantitative findings: With Sudhanshu Handa, Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation teams Malawi qualitative findings: With Susannah Zietz and Sudhanshu Handa Tanzania quantitative findings: With Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation team Tanzania qualitative findings: With Margaret Gichane and Stephanie Zuilkowski
  • 2. 2 As we have seen, households invest cash transfers in productive activities. What are the implications for children? Do children support these activities? What does this mean for their development and wellbeing? This presentation: 1. Quantitative RCT evidence: Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia 2. Qualitative photovoice evidence: Malawi, Tanzania
  • 3. 3 Children support expansion in household entrepreneurial activities Bars represent percentage point impacts. Children up to the age of 17 at endline. 33.9*** 17.5*** 26.9*** 0 10 20 30 40 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Household owns livestock 6.8*** 3.8*** 3.9*** 0 2 4 6 8 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Child cares for livestock
  • 4. 4 Similar patterns, but less pronounced, may be observed for non-livestock agricultural activities and non-agricultural business. Adults too, increase work for the household enterprise. Children may compensate by taking over their household chores. There can be offsetting effects. In some instances, children reduce engagement in work outside the household for pay.
  • 5. 5 Exposure to work-related hazards and participation in work below the minimum working age may increase Bars represent percentage point impacts. Hazards measured in line with UNICEF MICS and Dayıoğlu (2012). Minimum working age set at 12, in line with ICLS recommendations. 4.4** 0.009 0 2 4 6 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Hazardous work 1.8 4.6** 4.9* 0 2 4 6 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Work below min. working age
  • 6. 6 Other child wellbeing indicators improve. • Strong improvements in education outcomes and children’s material wellbeing • No deterioration in health outcomes Malawi. Photo of youth carrying bricks.
  • 7. 7 Caregivers and children express nuanced views in qualitative interviews. Yes, economic needs can force children to work and drop out of school. But... • Cash transfers address these economic needs • Caregivers express feelings of guilt and regret when this happens Hazards and (in work outside the household) exposure to poor treatment are commonly mentioned
  • 8. 8 Tanzania. It is important to learn because without education it is hard to understand things in life.
  • 9. 9 Tanzania. I took this picture at home to show you that I usually fetch water at home and this is girls’ activity in our household.
  • 10. 10 Question to the audience: how do you interpret these findings?
  • 12. 12 Works cited Jacobus de Hoop, Valeria Groppo and Sudhanshu Handa. (Forthcoming). “Cash Transfers, Microentrepreneurial Activity, and Child Work: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia”. World Bank Economic Review. Jacobus de Hoop, Margaret W. Gichane, Valeria Groppo, and Stephanie Zuilkowski. (2019). Cash Transfers, Public Works, and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from Tanzania. Mimeo. Susannah Zietz, Jacobus de Hoop and Sudhanshu Handa. (2018). “The Role of Productive Activities in the Lives of Adolescents: Photovoice Evidence from Malawi” Children and Youth Services Review, 86: 246-255.

Editor's Notes

  1. During qualitative interviews, caregivers and children commonly mention that child work and education may conflict. Caregivers, indicate that work at the expense of school comes with feelings of guild and regret. 46 year old caregiver Tanzania: “There is a time when household activities are too demanding that I need support from children” Caregiver focus group participant Tanzania: “When parents own a big number of cows children are forced either to drop from school or not to attend school for some days so that they help to look after cattle” Grandmother caregiver Malawi: “In my heart when I think deep I feel hurt that they are not supposed to do this.” 60-year old caregiver Tanzania: “I feel bad when children engage in production activities because instead of them working in wage labor or charcoal production they are supposed to be in school studying for the benefit of their future. I allow my children to participate in productive activities because of poverty.”
  2. Hazards are common: Female youth, Tanzania: “I am scared during harvesting season especially when harvesting maize because many snakes hide in the leaves of maize and you cannot see them easily so you may be injured unexpectedly” Caregiver, Malawi: “Harvesting the sweet potatoes involves the digging of the ridges that to get to the tuber crop. This make the dust and cause him to get sick with a cough.” Child focus group participant, Tanzania: “I have seen children abused by landlords when engaged in casual works in the farms example during weeding activities, the land lord abuses children and sometimes refuse to pay them their money after they have completed the work”