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Kingdom animalia


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Kingdom animalia

  1. 1. Systematics- studies diversity of lifeIt is the study and classification oforganisms with the goal ofreconstructing their evolutionary history Taxonomy- the field of science that classifies life into groups.
  2. 2. Biological Kingdoms Five (5) Kingdoms 1. Kingdom Monera 2. Kingdom Protista 3. Kingdom Fungi. 4. Kingdom Plantae 5. Kingdom Animalia
  3. 3. Classification: Six kingdom system : Eubacteria ArchaebacteriaMonera E. coli Cyanobacteria Protista Paramecium Diatom Slime mold Plantae Fungi Animalia
  4. 4. Carolus Linnaeus (Father ofclassification) Swedish doctor Professor of Medicine & Natural History Wrote 14 books in 3 years Fish book: 3,000 pages
  5. 5. Carolus Linnaeus 1753: published book describing World’s plants(Species plantarum) Started naming process (Binomial Nomenclature)
  6. 6. Binomial NomenclatureSystem of assigning names to Organisms where an organism was given two names (genus + species) Loxodonta africanas Loxodonta africanas
  7. 7. Tiger = Panthera tigrisLeopard = Panthera pardusLion = Panthera leo
  8. 8. Panda Bear = Ailuropoda melanoleucaBlack Bear = Ursus americanusPolar Bear = Ursus maritimus
  9. 9. Linnaean HierarchyKingdomPhylum (or Division)ClassOrder Plantae & Fungi Plantae & FungiFamilyGenusSpecies
  10. 10. Linnaean Hierarchy“King Philip came over fromGermany stoned.”
  11. 11. Disadvantages of using CommonNames; 1. Confusing 2. Ambiguous
  12. 12. Advantages of using Scienfificnames: 1. Agreed upon system – One organism is assigned one scientific name the world.2. Names are given using highlytechnical process.
  13. 13. Biological SpeciesOrganisms that are geneticallysimilar, and have ability tointerbreed and produce viable,fertile offspring
  14. 14. mule donkeyhorse
  15. 15. Kingdom Monera Kingdom made of microscopic eukaryotic organisms. Two main Divisions 1. Eubacteria (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria) 2. Archaebacteria
  16. 16. Kingdom Monera They are:- Chemoautotrophic- Purple sulfur bacteria Photoautotrophic- cyanobacteria Heterotrophic- Escherechia coli Some with cell walls, but cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, not cellulose (as in higher plants). Asexual reproduction
  17. 17. Kingdom Monera
  18. 18. Eubacteriapneumoniapneumonia cyanobacteria cyanobacteria anthrax anthrax
  19. 19. ArchaebacteriaPurple sulfurbacteria
  20. 20. Kingdom ProtistaGeneral characteristics:1. They are Eukaryotic2. Generally single-celled; if multicellular, cells not organized into tissues3. Heterotrophic & autotrophic forms4. There are three (3) informal groups:- Plant-like (algal) protists  Animal-like protists  Fungus-like protists
  21. 21. PHYLUM - KINGDOM PROTISTA1. Phylum Rhizopoda (Euglenophyta)2. Phylum Zoomastigna (Trypanosoma)3. Phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium)4. Phylum Euglenophyta (Euglena)5. Phylum Oomycota (Phytophora)6. Phylum Chlorophyta( Spirogyra)
  22. 22. Chlorophyta: Green Algae Halimeda opuntiaCodium edule Caulerpa sertularioides Dictyosphaeria Caulerpa racemosa cavernosa
  23. 23. Phaeophyta: Brown Algae Hydroclathrus Padina japonica clathratus Turbinaria ornataSargassum Sargassumpolyphyllum echinocarpum
  24. 24. Rhodophyta: Red Algae Ahnfeltia concinna Acanthophora spicifera AsparagopsisGalaxaura Hypnea taxiformisfastigiata chordacea
  25. 25. Animal-like Protists Amoeba Cilliates FlagellatesTRYPANOSOMES PARAMECIUM
  26. 26. Fungus-like ProtistsMildewWater moldsBlights Downey mildew Slime molds
  27. 27. Kingdom PlantaeGeneral characteristics: Eukaryotic1. Multicellular organisms2. True tissues.3. Photoautotrophic nutrition.4.5.Most adapted for a terrestrialexistence and possessing vasculartissues.
  28. 28. Kingdom Plantae6. Cells with chloroplasts andcellulose cell walls.7. Includes mosses, ferns, pinetrees, cycads, ginkgos, andflowering plants.
  29. 29. Kingdom Plantae Sea grassesHalophilia hawaiiana- only form of seagrass in Hawaii
  30. 30. Mangroves
  31. 31. Kingdom FungiGeneral characteristics1. Eukaryotic2. Generally multicellular, organisms (a few species, e.g., yeast are unicellular).3. Nutrition: Heterotrophic  Saprophytic (absorptive)
  32. 32. Kingdom Fungi4. Most with cell walls (usually composed of chitin) and complex life histories.5. Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms, marine fungi
  33. 33. Toad stool Shelf fungus Rhizopus Yeast
  34. 34. Fungus infection in fish
  35. 35. Kingdom AnimaliaGeneral characteristic:1. Eukaryotic2. Multicellular organisms3. True tissues.4. Heterotrophic nutrition
  36. 36. Kingdom Animalia5. Most exhibit significant capacity for locomotion.6. Cells not surrounded by cell walls.7. Includes sponges, sea anemones, snails, insects, sea stars, fish, reptiles, birds, and human beings.
  37. 37. Phylum of Kingdom ANIMALIA1.Phylum Aschelimnthes(Roundworms = Nematoda)2.Phylum Platyhelimnthes(Flatworms)3.Phylum Annelida4.Phylum Arthropoda5.Phylum Chordata.
  38. 38. Phylum Nematoda
  39. 39. Phylum Nematoda General characteristics: 1. Roundworms ~ cylinrical body with tapering ends. 2. They have Primitive body cavity (Acoelomate) 3. They have Gut only one opening which is Mouth& Anus. 4. They have No circulatory system
  40. 40. 4. Nervous system5. Very successful- well adapted to every ecosystem6. Many are parasites
  41. 41. Phylum Platyhelminthes
  42. 42. Phylum PlatyhelminthesPlaty~Flat and Heliminthes ~wormGeneral characteristics:1. Consists of Flatworms ribbon like worms.2. Blind digestive cavity3. Bilaterally symmetrical4. Thin, simple circulation5. Sensory organs at front6. Many parasitic
  43. 43. flatwormnudibranch
  44. 44. Phylum Annelida Class Class ClassOligochaeta Polychaeta Hirudineaearthworms marine worms leaches
  45. 45. Economic importance of Annelids:1.Earthwom (Lumbricus terresteris ) playsimportant role in soil formation,it is found in dampyor humid soil rich in decaying leaves and organicmatters.2.Leach of class Hirudinea is an acquatic bloodfeeder may play part in transmission of bloodborne diseases eg Hepatitis C.3.Marine worms form part of marine animals suchas fish e,t,c
  46. 46. Phylum ArthropodaGeneral characteristics:1. Insects, crabs, spiders, barnacles2. Most species; 80% are insects3. They have Hard chitinous exoskeleton ( which must shed to allow grow)
  47. 47. Characteristics…..cont…4. Have Open Circulatory system withblood, heart5. Have special gas exchange system6. Have developed sensory organincluding antennae and true eyes.7. They have body segments andappendeges.
  48. 48. CLASSES OF THE PHYLUMARTHROPODA1.Class Arachnida2.Class Crustacea3.Class Insecta4.Class Diplopoda5.Class Chilopoda
  49. 49. Class Arachnida (Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks & Mites)Characteristics.1.Very diverse class2.Most species parasitic or predatory.3.Many possess book lungs for gas exchange.4.Spiders are able to produce a strong polymer – silk.
  50. 50. Class Arachnida. (arachnids, horseshoe crabs & sea spiders)5. Body divided into 2 regions – Abdomen – Cephalothorax (fused head & thorax)6. Lack jaws (Do not have jaws)7. Have 6 appendages & no antennae – First appendages form chilicerae (frequently fangs)
  51. 51. Class Arachnids• Spiders• Scorpions ??Economic importance:1. They sting producing very painful stimulus2. They can play part in biological control3. They produce silk polymer which is important raw material in textile industries.
  52. 52. Scorpions
  53. 53. Class Crustacea
  54. 54. Class CrustaceaCharacteristics:1.Includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, & barnacles2.Appendages are often highly specialized3.Gas exchange is usually through gills4.Many species taste delicious in butter ( They are source of food across culture)
  55. 55. Some Crustaceans CrayfishMarine Maine Lobster
  56. 56. Crabs
  57. 57. Barnacles
  58. 58. Crustacea… Economic importance: 1. They are source of food across culture. 2. They are ornamental05 Nov. 2009 Arthropoda.ppt 59
  59. 59. Crustaceabrine shrimp ostracod copepods mantis shrimps barnacles
  60. 60. Class DiplopodaCentipede:1. Segmented body2. Each segment with one pair of legs3. The first legs modified to fangs (poisonous claws) 4.They are Carnivorous
  61. 61. Class Diplopoda Millipedes: 1. Cylindrical segmented body. 2. Each segment carries two pair of walking legs 3. They are herbivorous & Decomposers.4. They do not have poisonous claws
  62. 62. Class Insecta– Class Insects:1. Body divided into three parts (tagma) • Head, thorax, abdomen • Majority of all arthropods are found in this class.
  63. 63. Tagmosis• Head (~ 4-6 segments) feeding, sensation• Head appendages – mandibles, – maxillae, – maxillipeds, – chelicerae – antennae
  64. 64. Tagmosis Thorax is divided into three portion each of which carries one pair of walking legs.• Thorax (~ 3-6 These portions are:- prothorax,mesothoax segments) and metathorax. – locomotion, grasping.• Thoracic appendages – walking legs, – wings – chelipeds 65
  65. 65. Class Insecta (the insects)2. Far & away the most diverse of animal groups – More types of insects alone than all other animal groups combined 3. Inhabit all terrestrial & freshwater ecosystems. Success largely attributed to coevolution with flowering plants.
  66. 66. Insect Body Plan4. Insects have 6 legs ( three pairs)• 5. Body divided in to three parts namely:- – Head – Thorax – Abdomen6. Most insects have wings, however in many species these are vestigal (wings are found on the second or second and 3rd abdominal segment.
  67. 67. Characteristics cont…7. Have advanced excretory system composed of malphygian tubules8. Exchange gasses through a complex tracheal system (there are spiracles on some of the body segment)
  68. 68. Vision9. Have complex compound eye which is usually extremely sensitive to motion and allows 3600 vision• Most insects see well into the UV spectrum
  69. 69. Feeding / Mouthparts10. Insects usually have specialized jaws/mouthparts suited to their ecological niche11. They have only one pair of antennae.
  70. 70. Metamorphosis• Most insects undergo a process of metamorphosis - 2 types• Incomplete metamorphosis – Larva similar to adult, with differing body proportions – Undergoes a series of molts resulting in adult phenotype
  71. 71. Complete Metamorphosis• Larva is very unlike adult phenotype• Envelopes self in a coccoon or chrysalis where body breaks-down and reforms into adult form.
  72. 72. Economic importances of insects:1. Some insects such as Grasshopper they sources of food.2. Insect larvae e.g. Army worms and Adult grasshoppers can destruct crops,3. Vectors of diseases e.g. cockroach and housefly may be mechanical vector of gastro enteric fever4. Termites destroy properties e.g. timbers at the same times they are edible.5. Moth and butterflies are ornamental6. Spider produces silk polymer which is very useful in textiles industries,
  73. 73. Phylum Chordata
  74. 74. Chordate Characteristics
  75. 75. Class Chondrichthyes Characteristics Sharks, skates, rays, chimera• Posses jaws with teeth, cartilaginous skeleton, paired fins• Scales (denticles) have same origin and composition as teeth• Possesses 5-7 gills• Spiral valve intestine• Ureoosmotic strategy• Lateral line• No swim bladder• Heterocercal tail• Relatively unchanged (480 mybp)
  76. 76. Subphylum VertebrataClass Chondrichthyes
  77. 77. Class Osteichthyes Characteristics1. Posses jaws with teeth and bony skeleton.2. They have paired fins that are equipped with muscles and endoskeleton.3. They breathe by mean of gills and have 4 paired gill arches covered by operculum3. Intestine- simple, no spiral valve4.They posses Swim bladder (air sacs)5. Lateral line
  78. 78. 6. Homocercal tail7. Body covered with dermal scales (cycloid, ctenoid sccales)
  79. 79. Class Osteichthyes680 species of fish in the islands waters.About 30% of these fish are endemic to the area .
  80. 80. Domino damsel Trigger (Humu) White mouthed Porcupine Dwarf morayAchilles tang trumpetfish
  81. 81. Class AmphibiaCharacteristics • Cold blooded • Returns to water to breed • Metamorphosis • Some toxic • Estivation-dry and hot • Hibernation- cold
  82. 82. Class AmphibiaRana cancrivora
  83. 83. Class Reptilia Characteristics• Cold blooded• Have scales• Amniotic egg• Dry skin• 3 chambered heart (except crocks)
  84. 84. Class Reptilia Saltwater crocodileMarine iguana Marine turtle Sea snake
  85. 85. Class AvesCharacteristics • Warm blooded • Feathers and wings • Hollow bones • Horny bill • Lungs have air sacks • Hard egg shell
  86. 86. Class Aves
  87. 87. Class MammaliaCharacteristics • Warm blooded • Have fur or hair • Suckle young • 3 middle ear bones
  88. 88. Class Mammalia Whales & DolphinsPolar bearSea otter Seals & sealions manatee Dugong
  89. 89. STUDY QUESTIONS1. What is the difference between a prokaryote and eukaryote?2. Which kingdoms are prokaryote and which are eukaryote?3. Define a species.4. How do fungus feed?5. What are some key characteristics of mammals?