Gravitation

This is the NCERT CBSE syllabus ppt on the topic Gravitation. It will be helpful for students studying in that class and will enable them to understand better.

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Gravitation

• 2. Introduction • Force is required to change the speed or direction of motion of an object. • We observe that a  Object dropped from a height falls towards the earth  All the planets go around the Sun  The moon goes around the earth In all these cases there must be some force acting on the objects, the planets and the moon. Isaac Newton explained this as gravitational force. 2GRAVITATION
• 3. Newton’s theory • It is said that when Newton was sitting under a tree, an apple fell on him. The fall of the apple made Newton start thinking. He thought that: if the earth can attract an apple, can it not attract the moon? Is the force the same in both cases? He conjectured that the same type of force is responsible in both the cases. He argued that at each point of its orbit, the moon falls towards the earth, instead of going off in a straight line. So, it must be attracted by the earth. But we do not really see the moon falling towards the earth. 3GRAVITATION
• 4. Activity to understand moon’s motion • Take a piece of thread. Tie a small stone at one end. Hold the other end of the thread and whirl it round, as shown. Note the motion of the stone. Release the thread. Again, note the direction of motion of the stone. 4GRAVITATION
• 5. • Before the thread is released, the stone moves in a circular path with a certain speed and changes direction at every point. The change in direction involves change in velocity or acceleration. The force that causes this acceleration and keeps the body moving along the circular path is acting towards the centre. This force is called the centripetal (meaning ‘centre-seeking’) force. • In the absence of this force force, the stone flies off along a straight line. This straight line will be a tangent to the circular path. 5GRAVITATION
• 6. • The motion of the moon around the earth is due to the centripetal force. The centripetal force is provided by the force of attraction of the earth. If there were no such force, the moon would pursue a uniform straight line motion. 6GRAVITATION
• 7. Why earth does not move towards apple • According to the third law of motion, the apple does attract the earth. But according to the second law of motion, for a given force, acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of an object. The mass of an apple is negligibly small compared to that of the earth. So, we do not see the earth moving towards the apple. • Newton concluded that not only does the earth attract an apple and the moon, but all objects in the universe attract each other. This force of attraction between objects is called the gravitational force. 7GRAVITATION
• 8. UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION • Every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force is along the line joining the centres of two objects. 8GRAVITATION
• 9. • Let two objects A and B of masses M and m lie at a distance d from each other. Let the force of attraction between two objects be F. According to the universal law of gravitation, the force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses. • And the force between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ---- Combine 1 and 2. Here G is the constant of proportionality and is called the universal gravitation constant. ---- 2 ----1 9GRAVITATION
• 10. Value of “G” • The SI unit of G can be obtained by substituting the units of force, distance and mass in the above as N m2 kg–2. The value of G was found out by Henry Cavendish by using a sensitive balance. The accepted value of G is 6.673 × 10–11 N m2 kg–2. 10GRAVITATION
• 11. IMPORTANCE OF THE UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION • The universal law of gravitation successfully explained several phenomena:  the force that binds us to the earth  the motion of the moon around the earth  the motion of planets around the Sun; and  the tides due to the moon and the Sun. 11GRAVITATION
• 12. Free Fall • Take a stone. Throw it upwards. It reaches a certain height and then it starts falling down. • Whenever objects fall towards the earth under the gravitational force alone, we say that the objects are in free fall. • Any change in velocity involves acceleration. • This acceleration is called the acceleration due to the gravitational force of the earth (or acceleration due to gravity). It is denoted by g. The unit of g is the same as that of acceleration, that is, m s–2. 12GRAVITATION
• 13. • Let the mass of the stone in the above activity be m. And let acceleration due to gravity be g. • From the second law of motion that force is the product of mass and acceleration. Therefore F=mg • M is the mass of the earth, and d is the distance between the object and the earth. 13GRAVITATION
• 14. • When the object is on or near the surface of the earth. The distance d will be equal to R, the radius of the earth. Thus, for objects on or near the surface of the earth, 14GRAVITATION
• 15. Activity • Take a sheet of paper and a stone. Drop them simultaneously from the first floor of a building. Observe whether both of them reach the ground simultaneously. We see that paper reaches the ground little later than the stone. This happens because of air resistance. The air offers resistance due to friction to the motion of the falling objects. The resistance offered by air to the paper is more than the resistance offered to the stone. If we do the experiment in a glass jar from which air has been sucked out, the paper and the stone would fall at the same rate. 15GRAVITATION
• 16. • Acceleration experienced by an object is independent of its mass. This means that all objects hollow or solid, big or small, should fall at the same rate. • As g is constant near the earth, all the equations for the uniformly accelerated motion of objects become valid with acceleration a replaced by g. 16GRAVITATION
• 17. Mass • Mass of an object is the measure of its inertia. • The mass of an object is constant and does not change from place to place. 17GRAVITATION
• 18. Weight • The weight of an object is the force with which it is attracted towards the earth. • The SI unit of weight is the same as that of force, that is, newton (N). The weight is a force acting vertically downwards; it has both magnitude and direction. • Weight of the object on the moon = (1/6) × its weight on the earth. 18GRAVITATION
• 19. Activity • Take an empty plastic bottle. Close the mouth of the bottle with an airtight stopper. Put it in a bucket filled with water. You see that the bottle floats. Push the bottle into the water. You feel an upward push. This indicates that water exerts a force on the bottle in the upward direction. The upward force exerted by the water goes on increasing as the bottle is pushed deeper till it is completely immersed. Now, release the bottle. It bounces back to the surface. • When the bottle is immersed, the upward force exerted by the water on the bottle > than its weight. Therefore it rises up when released. 19GRAVITATION
• 20. BUOYANCY • The upward force exerted by the water on the bottle is known as upthrust or buoyant force. In fact, all objects experience a force of buoyancy when they are immersed in a fluid. • The magnitude of this buoyant force depends on the density of the fluid. 20GRAVITATION
• 21. Activity • Take a beaker filled with water. Take a piece of cork and an iron nail of equal mass. Place them on the surface of water. Observe what happens. 21GRAVITATION
• 22. • The cork floats, nail sinks. This happens because of the difference in their densities. The density of cork is less than the density of water. This means that the upthrust of water on the cork > weight of the cork. So it floats. • The density of an iron nail is more than the density of water. This means that the upthrust of water on the iron nail < the weight of the nail. So it sinks. • Therefore objects of density less than that of a liquid float on the liquid. The objects of density greater than that of a liquid sink in the liquid. 22GRAVITATION
• 23. Archimedes’ Principle • When a body is immersed fully or partially in a fluid, it experiences an upward force that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it. • Archimedes’ principle has many applications. It is used in designing ships and submarines. Lactometers, which are used to determine the purity of a sample of milk and hydrometers used for determining density of liquids, are based on this principle. 23GRAVITATION
• 25. Relative density • The density of a substance is defined as mass of a unit volume. The unit of density is kilogram per metre cube (kgm–3). The density of a given substance, under specified conditions, remains the same. • It is often convenient to express density of a substance in comparison with that of water. The relative density of a substance is the ratio of its density to that of water: • Since the relative density is a ratio of similar quantities, it has no unit. 25GRAVITATION
• 26. THANK YOU • BY, SWETHA Email: swetha.chandran304@gmail.com GRAVITATION 26
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