# Gravitation

For educational Purpose

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### Gravitation

• 2. • Definition for Gravitation • Acceleration Due to Gravity • Variation Of “G” With Respect to Height And Depth • Escape Velocity • Orbital Velocity • Gravitational Potential • Time period of a Satellite • Height of Satellite • Binding Energy • Various Types of Satellite • Kepler’s Law of Planetary motion
• 5. • The rotation of the earth around the sun or that of the moon around earth is explained on the basis of this law. • The tide are formed in ocean due to the gravitational force of attraction between earth and the moon. • The value of g can be used to predict the orbits and time period of an satellite. Attraction Force between two bodies
• 6. • The Gravitation force between two masses is independent of the intervening medium. • The mutual gravitational forces between two bodies are equal and opposite i.e. Gravitational Forces obey Newton’s third law of motion. • The gravitational force is an conservative force. • The law of gravitation holds only for point masses. • The gravitational force between two point masses is a central force. Its magnitude depends only on r and has no angular dependence . • The Gravitational force between two bodies is independent of the presence of other bodies.
• 7. • Consider an Elevator freely falling from North pole to South pole through the center of earth. Describe its motion?? • For answer Press Enter ..
• 13.  The Variation of g with respect to Depth and Height (graph).  The Variation of g with respect to height will never be zero. It will increase after certain height.  The Variation of g with respect to depth will be zero when the body is placed at the center of earth.
• 15. Gravitational field • Gravitational field . Two bodies attract each other by the gravitational force even if they are not in direct contact. This interaction is called action at a distance. It can best explained in terms of concept of field. According to the field concept. – Every mass modifies the space around it . This modified space is called gravitational field – When any other mass is placed in this field , it feels a gravitational force of attraction due to its interaction with the gravitational field • The space surrounding a material body within which its gravitational force of attraction can be experiences a force of attraction towards the centre of earth
• 16. Gravitational Potential Energy A dx B P x r R O
• 18. • If we throw a ball into air , it rises to a certain height and falls back. If we throw it with a greater velocity , it will rise higher before falling down. If we throw with sufficient velocity , it will never come back . i.e. It will escape from the gravitational pul of the earth. • The minimum velocity required to do so is called escape velocity. • Consider the earth to be a sphere of mass M and radius R with centre O.
• 21. • Can you tell why moon has no atmosphere ?? • For answer press enter • Due to the small value of g. The escape velocity in the moon is 2.38 km/s . The air molecules have thermal velocity is greater than the escape velocity and therefore air molecules escape.
• 22. Satellite Artificial Natural Geostationary Polar
• 23. • Satellite is an body which continuously revolves on it own around and a much larger body in a stable orbit. • Natural satellites : A satellite created by nature is called natural satellite . example : moon. • Artificial satellite : A man made satellite is called an artificial satellite. Example Chandrayaan . • World’s Frist satellite was SPUTNIK-1.
• 24. • Principle for launching a satellite : Consider a high tower with its top projecting outside the earth’s atmosphere. • Lets throw a body horizontally from the top of the tower with different velocities. • As we increase the velocity of horizontal projection , the body will hit the ground at point farther and farther from the foot of the tower. • At certain velocity the body will not hit the ground , but always be in a state of free fall under the influence of the gravity. • Then the body will follow a stable circular orbit . And that body is called satellite.
• 25. Click on the video
• 26. • Orbital velocity is the velocity required to put the satellite into its orbit around earth
• 27. Vo R R+h h
• 30. A satellite which revolves around the earth in tis equatorial plane with the same angular speed and in the same direction as the earth rotates about its own axis is called a geostationary or synchronous satellite.
• 31. It should revolve in an orbit concentric and coplanar with the equatorial plane of the earth. • Its sense of rotation should be same as that of the earth , i.e From west to east. • Its period of revolution around the earth should be exactly same as that of the earth about its own axis , i.e 24 hours • It should revolve at a height of exactly 35930 km.
• 32. In communicating radio,T.V and telephone signals across the world. • In studying the upper regions of the atmosphere. • In Forecasting weather. • In studying meteorites. • In studying solar radiation and cosmic rays. • And used in GPS (Global positioning System).
• 33. A satellite that revolves in a planar orbit is called a polar satellite. Eg IERS (Indian earth resources satellites) • Uses of Polar satellite – Polar satellites are used in weather and environment monitoring. – Spying – Study topography of other celestial bodies
• 36. Law of orbits (first law) : Each planet revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun situated at the one of the two foci.
• 37. Law of areas (second law) : The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time i.e the areal velocity ( area covered per unit time) of a planet around the sun is constant.
• 38. P’ planet sun
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