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Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Solanaceous Fruit Vegetables.pdf

In recent times, the concept of integrated nutrient management (INM) system or integrated plant nutrient supply (IPNS) has been receiving increasing attention worldwide. The main principle of INM is to maximize the use of organic inputs while minimizing nutrient losses and to make supplementary use of chemical fertilizers. Good practices for INM often involve a combination of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients. Solanaceous vegetables (tomato, eggplant, hot and bell peppers) require large quantities of nutrients to yield well. The majority of the nutrients in fruits are absorbed after flowering occurs. Because vegetative and reproductive stages overlap in these crops and because the plants need nutrients even up to fruit ripening, fertigation, split application of fertilizers, slow-release N fertilizers and integrated use of inorganic and organic nutrient sources promote nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity.

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CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Agriculture is supreme wealth
Swagat Ranjan Behera
2021A132M
2nd Year, M. Sc. Vegetable Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT
MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF
SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES
MASTER’S SEMINAR (VSC 591)
CCS
Haryana
Agricultural
University,
Hisar
Agriculture
is
supreme
wealth
❖Solanaceous fruit vegetables
❖Production scenario of solanaceous fruit vegetables
❖Nutrient requirements of solanaceous fruit vegetables
❖What is Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)?
❖Why INM matters?
❖Principles of INM
❖Components of INM
❖Advantages of INM
❖Research findings
❖Constraints of INM
❖Conclusion
❖Future development of INM
T CONTENTS
CCS
Haryana
Agricultural
University,
Hisar
Agriculture
is
supreme
wealth
This group includes important vegetables, namely:
xss
SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES
Tomato
(Solanum lycopersicum)
Brinjal
(Solanum melongena)
Chilli
(Capsicum annuum var. longum)
Capsicum
(Capsicum annuum var. grossum)
1
CCS
Haryana
Agricultural
University,
Hisar
Agriculture
is
supreme
wealth
xss PRODUCTION SCENARIO OF
SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES (2021-22)
Solanaceous
fruit vegetables
India Haryana
Area
(‘000 ha)
Production
(‘000 MT)
Area
(‘000 ha)
Production
(‘000 MT)
Tomato 840.33 20331.43 18.91 397.00
Brinjal 752.79 13023.23 8.63 146.15
Chilli 417.82 4504.94 11.06 114.46
Capsicum 37.55 556.30 3.74 44.99
Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, GoI
2
CCS
Haryana
Agricultural
University,
Hisar
Agriculture
is
supreme
wealth
• Solanaceous fruit vegetables (tomato, eggplant, hot and bell peppers) require large
quantities of nutrients to yield well.
• To produce a tonne of fresh fruit, the crops need to absorb, on average, 2.5 to 3 kg N, 0.2 to
0.3 kg P and 3 to 3.5 kg K in tomato; 3 to 3.5 kg N, 0.2 to 0.3 kg P and 2.5 to 3 kg K in
eggplant; and 3 to 3.5 kg N, 0.8 to 1 kg P and 5 to 6 kg K in hot and bell peppers.
• Fruits and fruiting parts in this group of vegetables contain 45 to 60% of the total N, 50 to
60% of the total P and 55 to 70% of the total K absorbed by the plants.
• The major proportion of the nutrients in fruits are absorbed after flowering occurs.
• Tomato and peppers use only a small proportion of the N available from inorganic sources.
Eggplant, however, is very effective in making use of plant nutrients already available in the
soil.
• Because vegetative and reproductive stages overlap in these crops, and because the
plants need nutrients even up to fruit ripening, fertigation, split application of fertilizers, slow
release N fertilizers and integrated use of inorganic and organic nutrient sources
promote nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity.
T NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SOLANACEOUS FRUIT
VEGETABLES
Hegde, 1997
3
CCS
Haryana
Agricultural
University,
Hisar
Agriculture
is
supreme
wealth
• Integrated nutrient management (INM) is defined as “maintenance or adjustment of
soil fertility and supply of plant nutrient to an optimum level for sustaining the
desired crop productivity through optimization of benefit from all possible resources
of plant nutrients in an integrated manner”.
• Primarily, INM refers to combining old and modern methods of nutrient
management into ecologically sound and economically optimal farming system that
uses the benefits from all possible sources of organic, inorganic and biological
components/substances in a judicious, efficient and integrated manner.
• INM involves the use of manures, chemical fertilizers and biological agents to achieve
sustainable crop production and improved soil health.
TWHAT IS INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
(INM)?
Roy and Ange, 1991
Janssen, 1993
4

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Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Solanaceous Fruit Vegetables.pdf

  • 1. CCS Haryana Agricultural University Agriculture is supreme wealth Swagat Ranjan Behera 2021A132M 2nd Year, M. Sc. Vegetable Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES MASTER’S SEMINAR (VSC 591)
  • 2. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth ❖Solanaceous fruit vegetables ❖Production scenario of solanaceous fruit vegetables ❖Nutrient requirements of solanaceous fruit vegetables ❖What is Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)? ❖Why INM matters? ❖Principles of INM ❖Components of INM ❖Advantages of INM ❖Research findings ❖Constraints of INM ❖Conclusion ❖Future development of INM T CONTENTS
  • 3. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth This group includes important vegetables, namely: xss SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Brinjal (Solanum melongena) Chilli (Capsicum annuum var. longum) Capsicum (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) 1
  • 4. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss PRODUCTION SCENARIO OF SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES (2021-22) Solanaceous fruit vegetables India Haryana Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 MT) Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 MT) Tomato 840.33 20331.43 18.91 397.00 Brinjal 752.79 13023.23 8.63 146.15 Chilli 417.82 4504.94 11.06 114.46 Capsicum 37.55 556.30 3.74 44.99 Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, GoI 2
  • 5. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Solanaceous fruit vegetables (tomato, eggplant, hot and bell peppers) require large quantities of nutrients to yield well. • To produce a tonne of fresh fruit, the crops need to absorb, on average, 2.5 to 3 kg N, 0.2 to 0.3 kg P and 3 to 3.5 kg K in tomato; 3 to 3.5 kg N, 0.2 to 0.3 kg P and 2.5 to 3 kg K in eggplant; and 3 to 3.5 kg N, 0.8 to 1 kg P and 5 to 6 kg K in hot and bell peppers. • Fruits and fruiting parts in this group of vegetables contain 45 to 60% of the total N, 50 to 60% of the total P and 55 to 70% of the total K absorbed by the plants. • The major proportion of the nutrients in fruits are absorbed after flowering occurs. • Tomato and peppers use only a small proportion of the N available from inorganic sources. Eggplant, however, is very effective in making use of plant nutrients already available in the soil. • Because vegetative and reproductive stages overlap in these crops, and because the plants need nutrients even up to fruit ripening, fertigation, split application of fertilizers, slow release N fertilizers and integrated use of inorganic and organic nutrient sources promote nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity. T NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SOLANACEOUS FRUIT VEGETABLES Hegde, 1997 3
  • 6. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Integrated nutrient management (INM) is defined as “maintenance or adjustment of soil fertility and supply of plant nutrient to an optimum level for sustaining the desired crop productivity through optimization of benefit from all possible resources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner”. • Primarily, INM refers to combining old and modern methods of nutrient management into ecologically sound and economically optimal farming system that uses the benefits from all possible sources of organic, inorganic and biological components/substances in a judicious, efficient and integrated manner. • INM involves the use of manures, chemical fertilizers and biological agents to achieve sustainable crop production and improved soil health. TWHAT IS INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT (INM)? Roy and Ange, 1991 Janssen, 1993 4
  • 7. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth DATA STORY: State of India’s soil DATA STORY: State of India’s soil T WHY INM MATTERS? Increasing population and reduction in available land Intensive agriculture Reduced soil fertility Negative nutrient balance Declining productivity and sustainability Need for INM Over-use of chemical fertilizers Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) 5
  • 8. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth The concept of nutrient management has assumed greater significance in the recent years because of two reasons: • First, the need for continued increase in agricultural production and productivity requires growing application of nutrients, and the present level of fertilizer production in India is not enough to meet the entire plant nutrient requirement. • Second, a large number of experiments on INM, particularly long-term experiments (LTEs) conducted in India or elsewhere reveal that neither the fertilizers nor the organic sources in isolation can achieve sustained production under intensive cropping. T WHY INM MATTERS? Hegde and Dwivedi, 1993 6
  • 9. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth PRINCIPLES OF INM Using all possible sources of nutrients to optimize their input Reducing N losses, while improving the crop yield. Matching the soil nutrient supply with crop demand spatially and temporally 7
  • 10. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss COMPONENTS OF INM 8 INM Chemical fertilizers Organic manures Legumes and green manure Bio- fertilizers Crop residues
  • 11. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss COMPONENTS OF INM 1. Chemical fertilizers Fertilizers Straight fertilizers Mixed fertilizers Complex fertilizers Nitrogenous, e.g., Urea (46% N) Phosphatic, e.g., SSP (16% P2O5) Potassic, e.g., MOP (60% K2O) Complete, e.g., IFFCO (10-26-26) Incomplete, e.g., DAP (18-46-0) 9
  • 12. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Fertilizers continue to be the most important ingredient of INM and the dependence on fertilizers has been increasing constantly. • Nonetheless, fertilizer consumption is not only inadequate but also imbalanced. The N:P2O5:K2O use ratio is quite wide whereas application of K, S and micronutrients is often ignored. • Domestic fertilizer production is inadequate to meet the requirements and the situation is not likely to improve in the near future. • Utilization of fertilizer nutrients by the crops vary from 30-50% in case of N, 15- 20% in case of P and less than 5% in case of micronutrients. Thus, substantial amount of applied nutrients is lost through various pathways. • Enhancing nutrient use efficiency should, therefore, be a prioritized area of research for restoration and improvement of soil health and minimizing the cost of crop production. xss COMPONENTS OF INM 1. Chemical fertilizers 10
  • 13. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Compost and FYM have traditionally been the important manures for maintaining soil fertility and ensuring yield stability. Other potential organic sources of nutrients are non-edible oil cakes, animal wastes and animal meals. • These nutrient sources are bulky in nature with low nutrient content and short in supply; hence, have lost their relative importance over time in crop production. • Organic manures not only supply macro and micronutrients, but also help improving the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soils. These manures, besides supplying nutrients to the first crop, also leave substantial residual effect on succeeding crops in the system. • As fertilizer use in most areas is sub-optimal, organic resources can supplement available fertilizer supplies. • About 25% nutrient needs of Indian agriculture can be met by utilizing various organic sources. xss COMPONENTS OF INM 2. Organic manures 11
  • 14. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss COMPONENTS OF INM 2. Organic manures Farmyard manure Poultry manure Goat manure Vermicompost Paper mill sludge Neem cake Mustard cake Bone meal Fish meal 12
  • 15. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Legumes can fix atmospheric N to the extent of 50-500 kg N ha-1 before the plant starts flowering (about 40-60 days growth). • The residues of legumes after harvest of grain contain 25-100 kg N ha-1, which is released at a steady rate when incorporated because of optimum lignin content. • Nitrogen fixation by natural means cuts down on the use of fertilizers. This not only saves money but helps to prevent many problems brought about by excessive use of N fertilizers. • The deep rooted legumes also have the potential to recycle subsoil nutrients to the benefit of the succeeding crops in the cropping system. • Green manuring with legumes enriches soil N due to fixation of atmospheric N. • Sunnhemp (Crotolaria juncea) and dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) are the most important common green manure crops. xss COMPONENTS OF INM 3. Legumes and green manure 13
  • 16. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Bio-fertilizers are the ready-to-use formulations containing living or latent cells of agriculturally beneficial microorganisms that play an important role in improving soil fertility and crop productivity. • Bacterial cultures like Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Azotobacter have the ability to fix atmospheric N which in turn increases N supply to the crops. • Bacterial cultures of Pseudomonas and Bacillus species and fungal culture of Aspergillus species help to convert insoluble P into plant-usable forms and, thus, improve phosphate availability to the crops. Similarly, fungi like vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) increase nutrient uptake particularly that of P due to increased contact of roots with larger soil volume. xss COMPONENTS OF INM 4. Bio-fertilizers 14
  • 17. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss COMPONENTS OF INM 4. Bio-fertilizers Methods of application of bio-fertilizers Seed treatment Seedling root treatment Sett/Cutting treatment Soil treatment Application on standing crop 15
  • 18. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • Crop residue is that material left after harvesting the crop and processing the crop into usable resources. • Crop residues have several competitive uses and may not be always available as an ingredient of INM, yet in the regions like North-West India where mechanical harvesting is practiced, a sizeable quantity of residues is left in the field, which can form a part of nutrient supply. • Recycling of these residues back to fields helps to build stable organic matter in the soil, as also to sustain crop yield levels. • There is, however, need to evolve appropriate management practices to make use of the stubbles, residues and other on-farm and off-farm biomass. xss COMPONENTS OF INM 5. Crop residues 16
  • 19. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth xss COMPONENTS OF INM 5. Crop residues Crop residue Field residue Processed residue 17
  • 20. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth ADVANTAGES OF INM Restoration and sustenance of soil fertility and crop productivity Prevention of secondary and micronutrient deficiencies Economizing in fertilizer use and improvement in nutrient use efficiency Favourable effect on the physical, chemical and biological health of soils 18
  • 22. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 1: Effect of integrated nutrient management on several growth and yield parameters of tomato cv. Arka Rakshak CUTM, Paralakhemundi, Odisha Charishma et al., 2022 Crop Research Treatments Plant height (cm) (30 DAT) No. of primary branches Days to first flowering from date of transplanting Days to first fruit set from date of transplanting Days to first harvest No. of fruits per plant Fruit length (cm) Fruit diameter (mm) Fruit weight (g) Total fruit yield (t ha-1) T1: 100% RDN 78.00 4.60 25.00 31.33 82.33 58.33 6.04 5.13 102.09 25.03 T2: 75% RDN + 25% N through vermicompost (VC) 73.40 3.33 30.00 36.00 85.66 43.33 5.64 4.76 84.02 22.42 T3: 75% RDN + 25% N through farmyard manure (FYM) 73.46 3.51 29.00 36.00 85.00 46.00 5.69 4.86 87.54 23.16 T4: 50% RDN + 50% N through VC 74.03 3.66 27.33 34.66 84.66 49.66 5.84 4.95 90.73 23.43 T5: 50% RDN + 50% N through FYM 75.36 3.80 26.42 33.66 84.33 52.00 5.86 5.00 91.51 24.40 T6: 50% RDN + 50% N through VC + BFs (Biofertilizers, i.e., Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 77.73 4.14 25.84 32.66 83.00 54.00 5.91 5.03 98.94 24.89 T7: 50% RDN + 50% N Through FYM + BFs 77.96 4.77 23.66 30.66 83.00 58.66 6.09 5.09 104.09 26.73 T8: 50% RDN + 25% N Through VC + 25% N through FYM 79.80 5.06 23.00 30.33 78.33 60.66 6.13 5.16 106.64 28.70 T9: Control 66.33 2.66 31.33 37.26 86.33 41.00 5.51 4.68 74.64 20.68 C.D. (p=0.05) 5.76 - 2.38 3.31 4.56 4.50 0.13 0.22 5.34 1.07 19
  • 23. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 2: Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of tomato cv. Pusa Ruby Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Kumar et al., 2017 Plant Archives Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches per plant No. of days to first flowering No. of flowers per plant No. of fruits per plant Fruit diameter (mm) Fruit weight (g) Fruit yield (q ha-1) T0: Control 25.52 4.75 37.72 24.64 10.69 41.94 41.87 301.58 T1: RDF 100% 25.33 5.55 36.77 29.10 12.87 45.40 46.79 306.04 T2: FYM 100% 26.09 5.16 36.52 31.05 11.85 44.96 43.69 361.91 T3: Azotobacter 100% 26.22 5.85 36.62 32.13 12.14 47.18 50.93 373.01 T4: Azospirillum 100% 25.54 5.74 36.43 34.56 12.00 48.28 51.30 419.40 T5: RDF 50% + FYM 50% 26.97 5.24 36.32 29.66 12.33 47.98 51.69 426.78 T6: RDF 50% + Azotobacter 50% 26.03 5.55 36.55 28.02 11.91 47.94 50.78 401.41 T7: RDF 50% + Azospirillum 50% 26.11 6.06 37.03 35.44 11.34 52.95 56.74 469.92 T8: FYM 50% + Azospirillum 50% 27.79 5.75 36.82 36.73 12.37 53.51 57.46 402.85 T9: FYM 50% + Azotobacter 50% 28.90 6.07 36.61 35.65 11.48 56.61 58.29 383.81 T10: Azotobacter 50%+ Azospirillum 50% 27.98 5.88 36.27 36.33 11.92 58.76 66.92 365.54 T11: RDF 25% + FYM 25% + Azotobacter 25% + Azospirillum 25% 30.53 7.04 32.44 39.34 12.95 60.69 68.28 482.47 C.D. at 5% 2.638 0.737 2.146 4.631 0.902 5.306 5.285 84.456 20
  • 24. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 3: Effect of different treatments of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on morphological characters and yield parameters of tomato cv. NS2535 Treatments Plant height (cm) (90 DAT) Days to 50% flowering No. of flowers per plant Days to first fruiting No. of fruits per cluster Fruit length (cm) Fruit diameter (cm) Weight of fruit (g) Fruit yield (q ha-1) T1: Neem cake (50%) + Vermicompost (50%) + PSB + Azospirillum 120.35 48.68 35.57 51.83 8.74 6.13 18.20 89.20 261.97 T2: Neem cake (50%) + FYM (50%) + PSB + Azospirillum 115.60 54.47 32.33 56.47 7.03 4.94 14.13 63.67 225.69 T3: Neem cake (50%) + Poultry manure (50%) + PSB + Azospirillum 125.34 50.70 45.20 53.87 9.20 5.03 15.77 69.27 323.30 T4: Neem cake (25%) + Vermicompost (25%) + FYM (25%) + Poultry manure (25%) + PSB + Azospirillum 130.60 52.93 42.60 55.69 8.27 4.78 14.07 58.80 274.81 T5: 75% RDF + 25% of RDF T4 142.35 44.75 53.77 47.76 10.20 6.07 17.27 84.10 359.95 T6: 50% RDF + 50% of RDF T4 135.43 46.67 46.53 49.77 9.03 5.77 17.03 79.13 297.76 T7: 100 % RDF (180:100:60 NPK) 144.10 43.53 52.13 45.73 10.23 5.67 15.70 74.20 348.85 T8: Control 110.63 56.90 29.33 59.80 6.97 4.67 13.27 54.17 170.29 C.D. at 5% 1.86 1.23 1.72 1.60 1.50 0.65 1.31 0.67 2.11 Indore, Madhya Pradesh Parmar et al., 2019 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Photochemistry 21
  • 25. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 4: Effect of different treatment combinations of INM on growth and yield attributes of spiny brinjal cv. VRM (Br)-1 Vellore, Tamil Nadu Kumar et al., 2021 International Journal of Environment and Climate Change Treatments Plant height (cm) Stem girth (cm) No. of primary branches No. of flowers per plant No. of fruits per plant Fruit girth (cm) Fruit weight (g) Fruit yield (t/ha) T1: RDF of NPK (100:50:30 kg/ha) (Control) 84.77 4.01 4.63 42.33 19.53 12.56 4.48 34.16 T2: FYM (25 t/ha) 77.66 3.10 3.86 42.03 19.11 12.52 4.47 33.28 T3: Humic acid (20 kg/ha) 87.71 4.12 4.73 42.43 19.48 12.64 4.53 34.60 T4: RDF of NPK + FYM 85.88 4.85 5.66 48.03 21.66 17.76 5.87 40.99 T5: Humic acid + RDF of NPK 88.75 4.41 6.29 48.06 21.73 17.80 5.96 41.26 T6: Azospirillum (2 kg/ha) 84.96 4.37 5.19 42.29 20.79 14.86 4.88 37.42 T7: Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha) 84.87 4.30 5.23 42.29 20.63 14.84 4.92 37.39 T8: Azospirillum + Phosphobacteria 88.61 6.97 6.59 45.33 20.95 16.93 5.11 38.57 T9: 75% RDF of N + 100% RDF of P & K + Azospirillum 91.95 8.35 9.26 50.20 22.31 18.65 6.62 41.41 T10: 75% RDF of P + 100% RDF of N & K + Phosphobacteria 91.69 7.30 8.96 50.36 22.28 18.62 6.46 41.33 T11: 75% RDF of N & P + 100% RDF of K + Azospirillum + Phosphobacteria 99.36 8.02 11.93 53.33 23.60 18.68 6.70 43.98 C.D. at 5% 1.95 0.23 0.38 1.49 0.448 0.73 0.19 1.08 22
  • 26. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 5: Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of brinjal cv. Bandhtivare BSKKV, Dapoli, Maharashtra Raut et al., 2018 International Journal of Chemical Studies Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of leaves No. of branches Fresh weight (g) Yield (t/ha) 60 DAT 90 DAT After harvest 60 DAT 90 DAT After harvest 60 DAT 90 DAT After harvest 60 DAT 90 DAT After harvest T1: Control (No NPK) 37.53 57.33 77.45 26.7 41.6 73.9 1.80 3.00 6.07 108.67 136.00 190.10 13.34 T2: 100% RDN through FYM 45.07 69.33 88.12 33.7 49.3 84.2 3.40 5.13 8.27 132.00 176.00 222.20 19.05 T3: 100% RDN through VC 49.33 70.53 91.65 36.9 52.2 87.7 3.47 5.60 9.20 134.00 186.67 237.03 21.43 T4: 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizers 53.00 70.07 93.19 43.7 57.4 95.3 4.67 5.33 7.67 159.33 183.33 266.13 17.29 T5: 80% RDF through inorganic fertilizers 52.67 67.83 87.62 33.5 48.4 92.3 3.13 4.67 7.53 130.67 169.33 239.17 15.24 T6: 25%RDF + 75% RDN through FYM 58.33 84.67 102.12 49.3 72.7 100.2 4.27 6.13 10.17 172.67 234.00 323.23 24.68 T7: 50% RDF + 50% RDN through FYM 53.60 80.00 97.45 43.9 64.9 95.9 3.53 5.73 9.67 143.33 215.33 310.77 23.46 T8: 75% RDF + 25% RDN through FYM 51.73 71.00 89.79 37.8 57.5 92.3 3.20 5.27 9.00 135.33 204.67 286.87 20.92 T9: 25% RDF + 75% RDN through VC 61.53 85.40 104.19 51.0 73.9 103.9 4.87 6.40 10.73 184.67 236.00 329.05 26.83 T10: 50% RDF + 50% RDN through VC 58.33 83.27 99.39 44.9 67.9 99.2 4.33 5.87 9.73 169.33 221.67 315.73 24.66 T11: 75% RDF + 25% RDN through VC 50.93 76.27 96.72 39.6 61.1 92.9 3.60 5.03 9.13 150.67 217.33 309.60 22.58 C.D. (p=0.05) 7.73 8.27 10.96 6.07 16.13 11.07 1.1 1.00 1.40 26.23 19.88 14.66 2.14 23
  • 27. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 6: Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield of brinjal Balaghat, M.P. Paswan et al., 2022 International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Treatments No. of fruits per plant Length of fruit (cm) Diameter of fruit (cm) Weight of fruit (g) Fruit yield per hectare (q) T1: 100% NPK ( Recommended dose, i.e., 100:60:30 NPK/ha) 19.08 9.30 8.69 141.63 380.00 T2: 75 % NPK + 25 % N through FYM 18.04 8.22 7.64 135.48 330.00 T3: 75 % NPK + 25 % N through Vermicompost (VC) 18.64 8.90 8.24 138.60 379.00 T4: 50 % NPK + 50 % N through FYM + Azotobacter + PSB 16.51 7.00 6.84 133.00 266.00 T5: 50% NPK + 50 % N through VC + Azotobacter + PSB 17.49 7.54 7.04 134.47 329.00 T6: 100% NPK + 25 % N through VC 20.52 10.80 9.49 146.19 478.00 T7: 100% NPK + 25 % N through FYM 19.78 10.15 9.14 143.00 421.00 T8: Local control 16.05 6.87 6.25 130.75 181.00 C.D. (5%) 2.83 1.51 1.55 9.71 62.02 24
  • 28. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 7: Effect of different combination source of nitrogen on growth and yield attributing characters of chilli cv. Arka Harita Treatments First flowering (days) First fruiting (days) Plant height (cm) Primary branches (no.) No. of fruits (plant-1) Fruit length (cm) Yield (kg ha-1) T1: Control 57.00 60.00 47.33 3 39.00 7.03 6204.9 T2: RDF (NPK) 100% 54.00 58.00 60.67 5 72.00 8.45 13390.9 T3: 50% RDF + 50% N through FYM 54.00 58.00 60.18 5 70.00 8.15 11958.4 T4: 25% RDF + 75% N through FYM 55.00 59.00 58.89 4 67.00 8.62 11285.0 T5: 50% RDF + 50% N through vermicompost (VC) 53.00 58.00 63.33 7 74.00 9.21 14511.4 T6: 25% RDF + 75% N through VC 55.00 58.00 60.07 4 71.00 8.80 11561.3 T7: 100% N through FYM 56.00 60.00 51.38 5 61.00 7.90 9253.7 T8: 100% N through VC 56.00 60.00 55.11 6 62.00 8.13 10214.4 C.D. (p=0.05) 1.35 4.85 6.99 0.99 - 1.04 1377.703 CHES, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Behera et al., 2020 International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 25
  • 29. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 8: Mean effect of integrated nutrient management on vegetative growth, flowering and yield of chilli var. Beladanga Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches per plant Days taken for first flowering No. of flowers per plant No. of fruits per plant Fruit weight (g) Fruit yield (q/ha) T1: 25% N (CM) + 75% N (IN) 61.78 9.72 44.50 180.60 99.00 4.60 113.85 T2: 50% N (CM) + 50% N (IN) 61.77 10.23 50.00 162.20 85.00 4.80 102.00 T3: 75% N (CM) + 25% N (IN) 60.11 9.97 47.00 160.00 80.00 4.20 84.00 T4: 25% N (NC) + 75% N (IN) 61.19 9.92 47.00 200.00 116.0 5.20 150.80 T5: 50% N (NC) + 50% N (IN) 61.77 10.20 44.00 205.60 120.0 5.60 168.00 T6: 75% N (NC) + 25% N (IN) 62.87 10.04 45.50 198.60 119.0 5.10 151.72 T7: 25% N (PM) + 75% N (IN) 59.32 10.28 47.50 182.60 93.00 4.20 97.65 T8: 50% N (PM) + 50% N (IN) 60.86 12.75 46.50 178.60 93.00 4.40 102.30 T9: 75% N (PM) + 25% N (IN) 61.73 11.50 44.50 172.20 79.00 4.10 80.97 T10: 25% N (VC) + 75% N (IN) 61.43 11.56 44.00 250.20 150.0 6.80 227.50 T11: 50% N (VC) + 50% N (IN) 63.86 12.98 46.00 260.20 161.0 7.00 250.75 T12: 75% N (VC) + 25% N (IN) 62.89 12.40 46.50 256.40 148.0 6.80 245.50 T13: 25% N (PC) + 75% N (IN) 59.87 10.65 43.50 120.60 57.00 5.20 74.10 T14: 50% N (PC) + 50% N (IN) 59.34 11.10 50.00 130.20 59.00 5.80 85.55 T15: 75% N (PC) + 25% N (IN) 60.85 10.78 46.00 142.20 64.00 6.00 96.00 T16: 25% N (MC) + 75% N (IN) 61.02 11.08 44.50 166.80 106.0 5.60 148.25 T17: 50% N (MC) + 50% N (IN) 62.00 11.35 45.50 176.80 116.0 5.20 150.75 T18: 75% N (MC) + 25% N (IN) 59.03 11.16 44.50 172.20 115.0 5.40 155.25 T19: Control 58.72 9.72 46.00 150.40 78.00 4.00 48.00 C.D. (p=0.05) 1.040 0.550 2.085 4.190 5.945 0.470 10.30 Purba Medinipur, W.B. Karak et al., 2019 International Journal of Chemical Studies CM: Cow dung manure, NC: Neem cake, PM: Poultry manure, VC: Vermicompost, PC: Phosphocompost, MC: Mustard Cake, IN: Inorganic Nitrogen (Urea) 26
  • 30. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 9: Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield attributes of chilli cv. Kashi Anmol Treatments No. of fruits per plant Fruit length (cm) Fruit girth (cm) Average fruit weight (g) Yield (q/ha) T1: FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Azotobacter 61.96 7.11 2.74 2.42 60.17 T2: Vermicompost @ 2 t/ha + Azotobacter 65.33 7.20 2.78 2.46 66.50 T3: Recommended NPK + Vermicompost @ 2 t/ha + Azotobacter 75.83 8.58 3.28 3.80 106.63 T4: Recommended NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ ha + Azotobacter 71.23 7.99 3.18 3.54 101.50 T5: 50% NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 2 t/ha + Azotobacter 73.10 7.84 3.02 3.42 105.40 T6: 50% NPK + Azotobacter 64.33 6.48 2.81 2.55 65.78 T7: 50% NPK + Vermicompost @ 2 t/ha + Azotobacter 70.00 7.90 3.11 2.94 89.11 T8: 50% NPK + FYM @ 12.5 t/ha + Azotobacter 66.00 7.56 2.97 2.79 67.13 T9: FYM @ 25 t/ha 57.27 6.84 2.56 2.31 49.22 T10: Azotobacter (500 g/ha) 50.68 6.12 2.51 2.18 42.21 T11: Recommended NPK (62.5:30:30) kg/ha 70.33 7.98 3.16 3.20 85.25 T12: Vermicompost @ 4 t/ha 62.17 7.09 2.73 2.38 62.72 T13: Control 50.33 5.63 2.47 1.94 41.56 C.D. (p=0.05) 3.26 1.13 0.18 0.42 7.10 CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana Yugvinder et al., 2021 The Pharma Innovation Journal 27
  • 31. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 10: Effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the morphological and yield parameters of chilli cv. Shandar Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches per plant No. of flowers per plant No. of fruits per plant Fruit length (cm) Fresh weight of fruit (g) Yield (t ha-1) T0: 100% RDF on the basis of soil test 37.00 d 7.33 e 15.33 d 12.00 e 6.66 e 22.00 d 4.66 e T1: 100% cow dung (15 t/ha) 34.66 e 6.00 e 13.33 e 10.00 f 5.83 f 19.00 e 4.25 f T2: 100% cow dung vermicompost (VC) (6 t/ha) 39.00 d 9.00 d 16.66 d 13.66 d 7.33 d 24.33 c 5.00 d T3: 100% vermi-tea (VT) 41.33 c 11.00 c 18.33 c 15.33 c 8.00 c 25.66 c 5.25 c T4: 33% cow dung + 33% VC + 34% VT 44.00 b 13.00 b 22.00 b 17.66 b 8.83 b 27.33 b 5.58 b T5: 25% RDF+ 25% VC + 25% cow dung + 25% VT 46.33 a 14.66 a 24.00 a 19.33 a 10.00 a 30.33 a 6.20 a LSD @ 0.05 2.14 1.52 1.43 1.44 0.56 1.51 0.22 Faisalabad, Pakistan Aslam et al., 2022 Pakistan Journal of Botany 28
  • 32. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth Table 11: Effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on growth and yield attributes of capsicum cv. California Wonder Treatments Plant height (cm) Plant spread (cm) Days to 50% flowering Days to first picking Avg. fruit weight (g) Fruit length (cm) Fruit diameter (cm) Number of fruits per plant Fruit yield (q ha-1) T1: 100% RDF 51.93 36.2 49.93 81.13 84.33 8.49 5.78 9.07 283.2 T2: 50% RDF + Azotobacter 45.18 30.99 54.93 87.73 74.32 7.42 4.44 7.93 223.9 T3: 75% RDF + Azotobacter 46.02 31.02 53.87 87.27 75.72 7.61 4.93 8.2 229.95 T4: 50% RDF + Vermicompost 46.15 31.31 52.73 86.2 77.91 8.1 5.19 8.4 242.41 T5: 75% RDF + Vermicompost 51.54 35.56 51.07 82.33 80.66 8.22 5.32 8.6 258.84 T6: 50% RDF + Azotobacter + Vermicompost 47.42 33.01 51.73 83.93 86.28 8.58 5.66 9.2 293.97 T7: 75% RDF + Azotobacter + Vermicompost 52.49 36.74 49.6 80.87 86.52 9.28 6.27 9.8 303.38 C.D. (0.05) 1.35 1.2 0.84 0.93 0.99 0.45 0.31 0.4 15.39 Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab Raturi et al., 2019 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 29
  • 33. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth CONSTRAINTS OF INM 1 Non-availability of good quality FYM 2 Less popularity of growing green manure crops 3 Improper practices followed for use of bio-fertilizers 4 Non-availability of soil testing facilities 5 High cost of chemical fertilizers 6 Non-availability of good quality water 7 Lack of knowledge and poor advisory services 8 High prices of improved seeds 30
  • 34. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth • The integrated use of fertilizers, organic manures and green manures under pre- dominant cropping system has a great potential to offset the heavy requirements of fertilizers to achieve maximum yields. • Working in a participatory mode is the need so as to enhance the production and economic viability of millions of small holder farms currently struggling with declining soil fertility and poor management of plant nutrients. • Interaction of agricultural inputs leads to increase in crop productivity while substantially reducing N losses and GHG emissions, judicious application of mineral and organic fertilization with higher resource-use efficiency, enhance the soil-plant- microbes-environmental sustainability which provides a “win–win” opportunity to mankind. CONCLUSION 31
  • 35. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar Agriculture is supreme wealth FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF INM Mass awareness On-farm demonstrations Combination of soil and plant analysis Recycling of organic nutrient flows New technological innovations Appropriate policy interventions 32
  • 36. CCS Haryana Agricultural University Agriculture is supreme wealth Everything else can wait, agriculture can’t. -Norman Borlaug Thank you CCSHAU is a member of the ICAR 36