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Difference between Intellectual Disability and
Mental Illness
Presented by : Neha Kardam
Smriti
Sohila
Mental Illness v/s Mental Retardation
 Mental illness and mental retardation refer to two
different concepts with marked differences between
them.
Therefore, mental illness and mental retardation
should not be used interchangeably.
 Mental illness can be understood as a mental health
condition that disrupts the behavior, thoughts, and
emotions of an individual.
 In abnormal psychology, attention is being paid to a
wide range of mental illness.
 Mental Retardation is quite different from mental
illness.
 It can be understood as a condition where the
individual has a lower IQ and have difficulty in
coping with the realities of day to day life.
 Usually diagnosed at a tender age, unlike in the case
of most mental illnesses.
Mental Health
 Mental Health involves effective functioning in daily
activities resulting in:
 Productive activities (work, school, caregiving)
 Healthy relationships
 Ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity
(APA, 2017).
 Mental health is the foundation for thinking,
communication, learning, resilience and self-esteem.
Mental health is also key to relationships, personal and
emotional well-being and contributing to community
or society.
What is Mental Illness?
 A mental illness can be defined as a psychological
condition that affects the thoughts, behavior, and
emotions of an individual.
 Mental illness means any mental disorder
other than mental retardation (PwD Act,1992)
 Mental Illness refers collectively to all diagnosable
mental disorders — health conditions involving:-
 Significant changes in thinking, emotion and/or
behavior
 Distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or
family activities (APA,2017).
 It usually creates a tension in the individual making
him unable to function as usual.
 Such a person can be under a lot of stress and have
difficulty in functioning as an ordinary person.
 This illness will bring about changes in both his
personal and professional life.
 Some of the common mental illnesses are depression,
anxiety, personality disorders such as multiple
personality disorder and other mental illnesses such as
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety
disorders, panic disorders, phobias, etc.
Causes
 Mental illnesses can be caused due to various factors.
 They are genetic factors in which case the individual
inherits different traits that trigger the illness,
 environmental factors,
 and chemical imbalances in the brain.
Mental Illness in India
Some Realities and Misconceptions
What is Mental Retardation?
 Mental retardation is a condition of arrested or
incomplete development of mind of a person which is
specially characterized by sub-normality of
intelligence (PwD Act, 1992). This is also known as an
intellectual disability in the health sector. In such a situation,
the brain of the child is not developed up to the normal range,
making it difficult for the child to function. When speaking of
mental retardation there are four levels. They are,
 Mild
 Moderate
 Severe
 Profound
 A person who is mentally retarded can have difficulties in
learning and speaking. He can also have disabilities in physical
and social activities as well. Mostly these can be diagnosed
during childhood itself.
Causes
Mental retardation can be caused due
 Malnutrition,
 Childhood sicknesses,
 Trauma before or during birth,
 Genetic abnormalities.
 Persons with ID can avail interventions like counselling
and special education, which allows the individual to
cope with day to day activities.
 This highlights that mental illness and retardation
should not be considered as the same.
What is the difference between Mental
Illness and Mental Retardation?
• Definitions of Mental Illness and Mental
Retardation:
 Mental illness can be defined as a psychological
condition that affects the thoughts, behavior, and
emotions of an individual.
 Mental retardation is a condition where the
individual has a lower IQ and has difficulty in coping
with the realities of day to day life.
• Age Group:
 Mental illness is mostly diagnosed in adults.
 Mental retardation is diagnosed in childhood itself.
• IQ:
 Mental illness does not involve a lower IQ.
 Mental retardation involves a lower IQ.
• Effects:
 Mental illness affects the behavior, thoughts, and
emotions.
 Mental retardation affects the cognition and intellect of the
person.
Learning Difficulty:
 Those with mental retardation have difficulty in
learning and show development difficulties and
delays as well, but these are be seen in the case of
mental illness.
Mental Retardation Mental Illness
Mental retardation* refers to sub average
intellectual functioning.
Mental illnesses are medical conditions
that disrupt a person’s thinking, feeling,
mood, ability to relate to others, and daily
functioning. Just as diabetes is a disorder
of the pancreas, mental illnesses are
medical conditions that often result in a
diminished capacity for coping with the
ordinary demands of life. Mental illness
has nothing to do with intelligence.
Serious mental illnesses include major
depression, schizophrenia, bipolar
disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder
(OCD), panic disorder, post traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline
personality disorder.
Mental retardation refers to impairment in
social adaptation.
A person with a mental illness may be
very competent socially, but may have a
character disorder or other aberration.
Cont…
Mental retardation is present at
birth or occurs during the period of
development.
Mental illnesses can affect persons
of any age, race, religion, or income.
Mental illnesses are not the result of
personal weakness, lack of
character, or poor upbringing.
Mental illnesses are treatable. Most
people diagnosed with a serious
mental illness can experience relief
from their symptoms and manage
symptoms by actively participating
in an individual treatment plan.
In mental retardation, some degree of
intellectual impairment can be expected to
be permanent.
Individuals with mental illness and their
families receive support and services from
private practice, their local mental health
authority
A person with mental retardation can be
expected to behave rationally at his/her
functional level.
A person with mental illness may vacillate
between normal and irrational behavior
References
 http://lucasdd.info/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Mental-Retardation-
and-Mental-Illness_201405161349276399.pdf
 https://psychcentral.com/lib/mental-retardation-and-mental-illness/
 http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-mental-illness-and-
vs-mental-retardation/
 http://jaapl.org/content/37/2/257
 http://www.wpanet.org/uploads/Publications/WPA_Books/Additional_Pub
lications/Mental_Health_in_Mental_Retardation/Mental_Health_in_Ment
al_Retardation_Eng.pdf

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Mental illness and mental retardation ppt

  • 1. Difference between Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness Presented by : Neha Kardam Smriti Sohila
  • 2. Mental Illness v/s Mental Retardation  Mental illness and mental retardation refer to two different concepts with marked differences between them. Therefore, mental illness and mental retardation should not be used interchangeably.  Mental illness can be understood as a mental health condition that disrupts the behavior, thoughts, and emotions of an individual.
  • 3.  In abnormal psychology, attention is being paid to a wide range of mental illness.  Mental Retardation is quite different from mental illness.  It can be understood as a condition where the individual has a lower IQ and have difficulty in coping with the realities of day to day life.  Usually diagnosed at a tender age, unlike in the case of most mental illnesses.
  • 4. Mental Health  Mental Health involves effective functioning in daily activities resulting in:  Productive activities (work, school, caregiving)  Healthy relationships  Ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity (APA, 2017).  Mental health is the foundation for thinking, communication, learning, resilience and self-esteem. Mental health is also key to relationships, personal and emotional well-being and contributing to community or society.
  • 5. What is Mental Illness?  A mental illness can be defined as a psychological condition that affects the thoughts, behavior, and emotions of an individual.  Mental illness means any mental disorder other than mental retardation (PwD Act,1992)  Mental Illness refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders — health conditions involving:-  Significant changes in thinking, emotion and/or behavior  Distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities (APA,2017).
  • 6.  It usually creates a tension in the individual making him unable to function as usual.  Such a person can be under a lot of stress and have difficulty in functioning as an ordinary person.  This illness will bring about changes in both his personal and professional life.  Some of the common mental illnesses are depression, anxiety, personality disorders such as multiple personality disorder and other mental illnesses such as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, panic disorders, phobias, etc.
  • 7. Causes  Mental illnesses can be caused due to various factors.  They are genetic factors in which case the individual inherits different traits that trigger the illness,  environmental factors,  and chemical imbalances in the brain.
  • 9. Some Realities and Misconceptions
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  • 13. What is Mental Retardation?  Mental retardation is a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind of a person which is specially characterized by sub-normality of intelligence (PwD Act, 1992). This is also known as an intellectual disability in the health sector. In such a situation, the brain of the child is not developed up to the normal range, making it difficult for the child to function. When speaking of mental retardation there are four levels. They are,  Mild  Moderate  Severe  Profound  A person who is mentally retarded can have difficulties in learning and speaking. He can also have disabilities in physical and social activities as well. Mostly these can be diagnosed during childhood itself.
  • 14. Causes Mental retardation can be caused due  Malnutrition,  Childhood sicknesses,  Trauma before or during birth,  Genetic abnormalities.  Persons with ID can avail interventions like counselling and special education, which allows the individual to cope with day to day activities.  This highlights that mental illness and retardation should not be considered as the same.
  • 15. What is the difference between Mental Illness and Mental Retardation? • Definitions of Mental Illness and Mental Retardation:  Mental illness can be defined as a psychological condition that affects the thoughts, behavior, and emotions of an individual.  Mental retardation is a condition where the individual has a lower IQ and has difficulty in coping with the realities of day to day life.
  • 16. • Age Group:  Mental illness is mostly diagnosed in adults.  Mental retardation is diagnosed in childhood itself. • IQ:  Mental illness does not involve a lower IQ.  Mental retardation involves a lower IQ. • Effects:  Mental illness affects the behavior, thoughts, and emotions.  Mental retardation affects the cognition and intellect of the person.
  • 17. Learning Difficulty:  Those with mental retardation have difficulty in learning and show development difficulties and delays as well, but these are be seen in the case of mental illness.
  • 18. Mental Retardation Mental Illness Mental retardation* refers to sub average intellectual functioning. Mental illnesses are medical conditions that disrupt a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others, and daily functioning. Just as diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas, mental illnesses are medical conditions that often result in a diminished capacity for coping with the ordinary demands of life. Mental illness has nothing to do with intelligence. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder. Mental retardation refers to impairment in social adaptation. A person with a mental illness may be very competent socially, but may have a character disorder or other aberration.
  • 19. Cont… Mental retardation is present at birth or occurs during the period of development. Mental illnesses can affect persons of any age, race, religion, or income. Mental illnesses are not the result of personal weakness, lack of character, or poor upbringing. Mental illnesses are treatable. Most people diagnosed with a serious mental illness can experience relief from their symptoms and manage symptoms by actively participating in an individual treatment plan. In mental retardation, some degree of intellectual impairment can be expected to be permanent. Individuals with mental illness and their families receive support and services from private practice, their local mental health authority A person with mental retardation can be expected to behave rationally at his/her functional level. A person with mental illness may vacillate between normal and irrational behavior
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  • 21. References  http://lucasdd.info/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Mental-Retardation- and-Mental-Illness_201405161349276399.pdf  https://psychcentral.com/lib/mental-retardation-and-mental-illness/  http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-mental-illness-and- vs-mental-retardation/  http://jaapl.org/content/37/2/257  http://www.wpanet.org/uploads/Publications/WPA_Books/Additional_Pub lications/Mental_Health_in_Mental_Retardation/Mental_Health_in_Ment al_Retardation_Eng.pdf