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Stages of Prenatal
Development
Presented by-
smriti
 
Stages of Prenatal Development
Conception
Germinal
Embryonic
Fetal
Conception
Conception occurs when a sperm cell
penetrates and fertilizes an egg cell
Successful conception depends on
ovaries releasing one healthy egg cell
egg cell migrates most of the way down the
fallopian tube
One sperm must penetrate the ovum to form
a zygote
Infertility
About 15 percent of couples are unable to
conceive or carry a pregnancy to term
after one year of unprotected intercourse.
Causes of male infertility involve the
quantity or strength of sperm produced.
Infertility (2)
Causes of female infertility involve structural
abnormalities in the Fallopian tubes or uterus or
a failure to ovulate and release mature eggs.
New technologies are now available to help
overcome infertility
The Germinal Stage
(first two weeks)
1. The blastocyst is differentiated into three
layers: the ectoderm, the endoderm, and the
mesoderm.
2. The blastocyst moves down the fallopian
tube into the uterus for implantation.
3. The embryonic stage begins with
implantation, and the fully implanted
blastocyst is referred to as the embryo.
Blastocyst at day six
Another blastocyst, day six
Embryonic Stage (3rd
through 8th weeks)
1. Growth in the embryonic and fetal stages
follows a cephalocaudal (head-to-tail) pattern
and a proximodistal (near-to-far) pattern.
2. The head, blood vessels, heart, and most
vital organs begin to develop before the arms,
legs, hands, and feet.
Early Embryonic Stage
Embryonic stage (slide 2)
• 3. The placenta forms as an area
of the uterine wall through which oxygen
and nutrients reach the fetus.
• 4. The umbilical cord connects
the embryo to the placenta and provides
nutrients and carries away waste
products.
• 5. The amniotic sac surrounds
the embryo and protects it.
Later embryonic stage
Fetal Stage (9th to birth)
1. The fetal stage is marked by the
development of the first bone cells. The
embryo is now called the fetus.
2. By the third month, the fetus is able to
move its head, legs, and feet. By the
fourth month, the mother may feel
quickening, or fetal movement.
3. The beginning of the seventh month is
considered the age of viability.
4. At the end of nine months, the fetus
weighs on average 7.5 pounds and is
almost 20 inches long.
Fetus at 12 weeks
Fetus at 18 weeks
The experience of
pregnancy
1. Physical complaints such as nausea
are common.
2. Normal weight gain is about thirty
pounds and is dispersed in organs, baby,
and bodily fluid.
3. Changes in the woman's body bring
mixed feelings.
Prenatal influences on the
child
A. Key concepts
–1. Canalization is seen in
prenatal development.
–2. Drugs and other harmful
environmental influences can also
canalize development, usually in
negative ways.
–3. Risk factors can interfere with
canalized processes that lead to the
development of specific organs.
Maternal diet and nutrition
1. Poor nutrition leads to specific physical
deformities and increased risk for
prematurity and infant mortality; later
nutritional deprivation leads to a reduced
number of brain cells.
2. Pregnant women should eat between
two hundred and one thousand calories
more per day, adding mainly carbohydrates
and protein.
Prenatal health care (1 of
2)
1. Adequate early prenatal health care is
critical to infant and maternal health.
2. There are racial differences in
adequacy of care.
3. Special programs have been
implemented in communities to help high-
risk mothers.
Prenatal health care (2)
Stress
1. Prolonged anxiety just before or during
pregnancy increases the likelihood of medical
complications.
2. Emotional stress is related to spontaneous
abortion as well as to labor and birthing problems.
Low-birth weight infants
Normal is around 7.5
pounds
Low-birth weight is
5.5 pounds or less
6 or 7 percent of all
births in U.S.
At risk for
developmental,
neurological, and
health problems
Pre-term Babies
Formerly called
premature
More than three weeks
before due date
At risk for respiratory
distress syndrome
(RDS)
Extended oxygen
use=Retinopathy of
Prematurity
Negative Prenatal
Influences on the Child
Window of
opportunity concept--
critical time of
vulnerability
Teratogen is any
substance or
influence that can
interfere with or
damage a child’s
growth
Teratogenic Medicinal
drugs
Thalidomide is a sedative, also an anti-
nausea drug--but deforms children.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used to
prevent miscarriages but causes damage
to reproductive systems of offspring.
Other potentially harmful prescribed drugs
are accutane, streptomycin, and
tetra-cycline.
Teratogenic non-medicinal
drugs (1 of 3)
Marijuana
Active ingredient is
tetrahydra-
conabaninol or THC
Is stored in fatty
tissues of body
Placenta is no barrier
Babies are born with
psych. if not physical
addiction
Heroin
An opiate not totally unlike morphine, but
more addictive
Severe withdrawal symptoms
Newborn babies of heroin addicts vomit,
tremble, cry, and have fever, disturbed sleep,
and abnormal cries
Fetal alcohol syndrome
CNS damage, heart
defects, small head,
distortion of joints,
and abnormal facial
features
Are evident in their
inability to pay
attention or maintain
attention
Tobacco
Nicotine and carbon
monoxide interfere with
fetal oxygen supply
Smoking is associated
with low birth weight,
spontaneous abortion,
higher infant mortality,
and poor postnatal
adjustment
Maternal Diseases
Rubella, or German measles. Disastrous
in first trimester.
Syphilis and gonorrhea. Blindness,
jaundice, anemia, pneumonia, skin rash,
early death. Silver nitrate in the eyes.
Genital herpes. (1) Disease of skin and
mucous membranes, or (2) blindness,
permanent brain damage, seizures, and
developmental delay.
Maternal diseases
Cytomegalovirus (CMV). High risk for
infants; jaundice, microcephaly, deafness,
and eye problems.
Toxoplasmosis. Parasite from uncooked
meat and cat feces. Low birth weight,
enlarged liver and spleen, microcephaly,
anemia, and calcifications in the brain.
Pediatric AIDS.
Home Factors
Teenage Pregnancy
“Babies having
babies”--own growth
is not complete
Pelvic cradle not
ready
Threat to education
Responsibility not yet
learned
Maternal malnutrition
Domestic Violence
Seven to Eight
percent of pregnant
women are beaten by
partners; most more
than once
High rate of
miscarriage

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Stages of Prenatal Development and Factors that Influence Child Development

  • 2.   Stages of Prenatal Development Conception Germinal Embryonic Fetal
  • 3. Conception Conception occurs when a sperm cell penetrates and fertilizes an egg cell Successful conception depends on ovaries releasing one healthy egg cell egg cell migrates most of the way down the fallopian tube One sperm must penetrate the ovum to form a zygote
  • 4. Infertility About 15 percent of couples are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse. Causes of male infertility involve the quantity or strength of sperm produced.
  • 5. Infertility (2) Causes of female infertility involve structural abnormalities in the Fallopian tubes or uterus or a failure to ovulate and release mature eggs. New technologies are now available to help overcome infertility
  • 6. The Germinal Stage (first two weeks) 1. The blastocyst is differentiated into three layers: the ectoderm, the endoderm, and the mesoderm. 2. The blastocyst moves down the fallopian tube into the uterus for implantation. 3. The embryonic stage begins with implantation, and the fully implanted blastocyst is referred to as the embryo.
  • 9. Embryonic Stage (3rd through 8th weeks) 1. Growth in the embryonic and fetal stages follows a cephalocaudal (head-to-tail) pattern and a proximodistal (near-to-far) pattern. 2. The head, blood vessels, heart, and most vital organs begin to develop before the arms, legs, hands, and feet.
  • 11. Embryonic stage (slide 2) • 3. The placenta forms as an area of the uterine wall through which oxygen and nutrients reach the fetus. • 4. The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta and provides nutrients and carries away waste products. • 5. The amniotic sac surrounds the embryo and protects it.
  • 13. Fetal Stage (9th to birth) 1. The fetal stage is marked by the development of the first bone cells. The embryo is now called the fetus. 2. By the third month, the fetus is able to move its head, legs, and feet. By the fourth month, the mother may feel quickening, or fetal movement. 3. The beginning of the seventh month is considered the age of viability. 4. At the end of nine months, the fetus weighs on average 7.5 pounds and is almost 20 inches long.
  • 14. Fetus at 12 weeks
  • 15. Fetus at 18 weeks
  • 16. The experience of pregnancy 1. Physical complaints such as nausea are common. 2. Normal weight gain is about thirty pounds and is dispersed in organs, baby, and bodily fluid. 3. Changes in the woman's body bring mixed feelings.
  • 17. Prenatal influences on the child A. Key concepts –1. Canalization is seen in prenatal development. –2. Drugs and other harmful environmental influences can also canalize development, usually in negative ways. –3. Risk factors can interfere with canalized processes that lead to the development of specific organs.
  • 18. Maternal diet and nutrition 1. Poor nutrition leads to specific physical deformities and increased risk for prematurity and infant mortality; later nutritional deprivation leads to a reduced number of brain cells. 2. Pregnant women should eat between two hundred and one thousand calories more per day, adding mainly carbohydrates and protein.
  • 19. Prenatal health care (1 of 2) 1. Adequate early prenatal health care is critical to infant and maternal health. 2. There are racial differences in adequacy of care. 3. Special programs have been implemented in communities to help high- risk mothers.
  • 20. Prenatal health care (2) Stress 1. Prolonged anxiety just before or during pregnancy increases the likelihood of medical complications. 2. Emotional stress is related to spontaneous abortion as well as to labor and birthing problems.
  • 21. Low-birth weight infants Normal is around 7.5 pounds Low-birth weight is 5.5 pounds or less 6 or 7 percent of all births in U.S. At risk for developmental, neurological, and health problems
  • 22. Pre-term Babies Formerly called premature More than three weeks before due date At risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) Extended oxygen use=Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • 23. Negative Prenatal Influences on the Child Window of opportunity concept-- critical time of vulnerability Teratogen is any substance or influence that can interfere with or damage a child’s growth
  • 24. Teratogenic Medicinal drugs Thalidomide is a sedative, also an anti- nausea drug--but deforms children. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used to prevent miscarriages but causes damage to reproductive systems of offspring. Other potentially harmful prescribed drugs are accutane, streptomycin, and tetra-cycline.
  • 25. Teratogenic non-medicinal drugs (1 of 3) Marijuana Active ingredient is tetrahydra- conabaninol or THC Is stored in fatty tissues of body Placenta is no barrier Babies are born with psych. if not physical addiction
  • 26. Heroin An opiate not totally unlike morphine, but more addictive Severe withdrawal symptoms Newborn babies of heroin addicts vomit, tremble, cry, and have fever, disturbed sleep, and abnormal cries
  • 27. Fetal alcohol syndrome CNS damage, heart defects, small head, distortion of joints, and abnormal facial features Are evident in their inability to pay attention or maintain attention
  • 28. Tobacco Nicotine and carbon monoxide interfere with fetal oxygen supply Smoking is associated with low birth weight, spontaneous abortion, higher infant mortality, and poor postnatal adjustment
  • 29. Maternal Diseases Rubella, or German measles. Disastrous in first trimester. Syphilis and gonorrhea. Blindness, jaundice, anemia, pneumonia, skin rash, early death. Silver nitrate in the eyes. Genital herpes. (1) Disease of skin and mucous membranes, or (2) blindness, permanent brain damage, seizures, and developmental delay.
  • 30. Maternal diseases Cytomegalovirus (CMV). High risk for infants; jaundice, microcephaly, deafness, and eye problems. Toxoplasmosis. Parasite from uncooked meat and cat feces. Low birth weight, enlarged liver and spleen, microcephaly, anemia, and calcifications in the brain. Pediatric AIDS.
  • 31. Home Factors Teenage Pregnancy “Babies having babies”--own growth is not complete Pelvic cradle not ready Threat to education Responsibility not yet learned Maternal malnutrition Domestic Violence Seven to Eight percent of pregnant women are beaten by partners; most more than once High rate of miscarriage