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RANI LAKSHMI BAI CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, JHANSI,
UTTAR PRADESH
ASSIGNMENT TOPIC:
SUMMARISATION OF SOIL
NUTRIENTSINTOTABULARFORM
SUBMITTED TO:
Dr. SUSHEEL KUMAR SINGH
SUBMITTED BY:
SHALINI SHUKLA (Ag/063/17)
ROLE DEFICIENCY
SYMPTOMS
TOXICITY
SYMPTOMS
ABSORBE
D AS/IN
THE
FORM OF
CONCENTRATIO
N IN THE PLANT/
AVERAGE CONC.
IN PLANTS
DISCOVE
RER
YEAR
OF
DISCO
VERY
N  Component of
amino acids,
proteins,
nucleic acids,
porphyrins,
flavins, purines
and
pyrimidines,
enzymes etc.
 Improves
quality of leafy
vegetables and
fodders
 Improves
protein quality
of food grains
 Early flowering
 Lower protein
content
 Overall yellow
green leaves
instead of dark
green
 Yellowing and
dropping of
lower leaves
Delayed maturity
Increases
succulency
Lodging
Abortion of
flowers
NO3
-
NH4
+
1-5% (10000-
50000ppm)
1.5%
Theodore
de
Saussure
1804
P  Development
of sugars, ATP
and nucleic
acids.
 Energy transfer
 Nutrient
movement
within plants
 Transfer of
genetic
characteristics
from one
generation to
next
 Bluish green to
Purplish
discoloration
(due to
accumulation of
sugars which
favors synthesis
of anthocyanin)
 Delayed
maturity
 Leaf curling
 Root rot
diseases
 Burning of leaf
tips
Reduce Fe, Mn,
Zn uptake
H2PO4
-
HPO4
--
0.1-0.4% (1000-
4000ppm)
0.2%
C.
Sprengel
1839
K  Enzyme
activation,
photosynthesis
 Protein
formation
 Sugar transport
 Crop quality
 Disease
resistance
 Stomata
opening and
closing
 Hidden hunger
 Chlorosis
followed by
scorching and
browning of
tips
 Chlorosis from
margin towards
base and
necrosis
 Rolling of leaf
edge
 Leaf burn
(scorching) at
margins
 Excessive
tillering in small
crops
 Reduced Stalk
strength, disease
resistance and
winter hardiness
 sugar
accumulation in
tubers affected
 seeds and fruits-
shriveled
Reduce uptake of
Mg and Ca
K+
1-5%
1.0%
C.
Sprengel
1839
Ca  Cell wall
construction
 Growth of
meristems
 Functioning of
root tips
 Maintain the
chromosome
structure
 Less than
0.1%(1000ppm)
 Distorted young
leaves and turn
dark green
 Withering of
leaf tips
 Poor
germination
 Cupping,
crinkling of
leaves
Ca+2
0.2-1%
0.5%
C.
Sprengel
1839
Mg  Chlorophyll
 Enzyme
activation
 Uptake and
transport of P
 Movement of
sugars
 Cofactor for
ATP
production
 Interveinal
chlorosis
 (Leaf margins-
yellow or
reddish-purple
 Midrib green)
 Older leaf turn
yellow at edge
leaving a green
arrowhead
shape.
 Grass tetany in
animals (wheat
forage)
 Stiff and brittle
leaf in tuber
crops
Mg+2
0.1-0.4%
0.2%
C.
Sprengel
1839
S  Constituent of
amino acids
and proteins
 Metabolic
activities of
vitamins like,
biotin, thiamine
and coenzyme
A
 Oil quality (oil
seed crops)
 Resemble with
N and Mo
deficiency
 No
characteristic
spot or stripes.
 Plant-spindly
and small
 Stem- thin
 Puckering in
older leaves
with inward
raised areas
between veins
 Orange- reddish
tints on older
foliage
SO4
-2
0.1-0.4%
0.1%
Sachs and
Knop
1860
Cu  Chlorophyll
synthesis
 Respiration
 Protein
synthesis
 SILVERY
LEAF
 White tips,
reclamation
disease,
necrosis, leaf
distortion, die-
back
 Melanosis
(brown
discoloration)
 Male flower’s
sterility
 Prone to
diseases
especially ergot
 Similar to Zn-
reduced
reproductive
efficiency in
cattle.
20-100ppm
Displace Fe
Cu+2
5-30 ppm
6ppm
A.L.
Sommer,
C.P.
Lipman
and G.
McKinne
y
1931
Fe  Plant
respiration
 Chlorophyll
synthesis
 Nucleic acid
and metabolism
 Enzyme
activation
 Interveinal
chlorosis with
sharp distinction
between veins
and chlorotic
areas in young
leaves
Tiny brown spots
appear on lower
leaves of rice
(from tip to base)
Entire leaf turn
purplish brown
Fe+2
100-500ppm
100ppm
E Gris 1843
Zn  Growth
hormone
production
 Internode
elongation
 Translocation
and transport
of P
 Less than
15ppm
 Stripping
 Mottling
 Severe- gray-
white leaves
(prematurely
fall and die)
 Poor flowering
and seed set
 Patchy
appearance
 Reduce
reproductive
efficiency in
cattle.
 Terminal leaves
– rosetted.
Occurs on very
saline soils,
Fe deficiency,
Leaves- dark
green, chlorosis
Reduction in root
growth and leaf
expansion
Zn+2
27-150ppm
20ppm
A.L.
Sommer,
C.P.
Lipman
1926
Mn  Role in TCA
cycle
 Constituent of
superoxide-
dismutase
 Component of
water splitting
enzyme in PS-
II
 Less than 25
ppm
 Interveinal
chlorosis(dicots)
but no sharp
distinction
between veins
and chlorotic
areas
 FRIZZLE
TOP (palm
fronds are
deformed and
stunted)
 Dead spots and
patches
(monocots)
Blackish-brown
or red spots on
older leaves
Tillering is
limited
Stunting of
plants
Occurs in
lowland rice
Mn+2
20-300ppm
20ppm
J.S
McHargu
e
1922
Cl  Osmoregulation
 Co-factor in
Mn containing
water splitting
enzyme ofPS-
II
 Improve
nutritional
quality in
vegetables
 Wilting at leaf
margins
 Curling of
leaflets
 Highly
branched root
symptoms
 Similar to Mn
deficiency
Cl-
100-500ppm
100ppm
T.C.
Broyer,
A.B.
Carlton,
C.M.
Johnson,
P.R. Stout
1954
Mo  Enzyme
activity
 Biological
nitrogen
fixation (BNF)
 Protein
biosynthesis
 Pollen viability
 Anther
formation
 Chlorotic
mottling
between veins
 Scorched,
rolled, cupped
leaves
 Leaves- thick
and brittle and
wither(leaving
only midrib)
Toxic to
livestock
MoO4
-2
0.1-2ppm
0.1ppm
D.I.
Arnon,
P.R. Stout
1939
B  Cell wall
formation and
reproductive
tissue
 Imparts drought
tolerance
 Pollen
germination
 Ion uptake

Transport of K+
 Discoloration
and death of
terminal bud
 Dark brown,
irregular
lesions (leaf
necrosis)
 Whitish leaf
spot at leaf base
 Low sugar
accumulation
 Root rot
 Shortened
internode
(bushy/rosette)
Chlorosis
followed by
necrosis (from
leaf tip and
margin towards
midrib)
Large, dark
brown elliptical
spots
H3BO3
H2BO3
-
HBO3
-2
BO3
-3
10-200ppm
20ppm
K.
Waringto
n
1923
Ni  Seed
germination
 N metabolism
in legumes
 component in
urease
 Decrease in
amino acid
content,
 Accumulation
of nitrates.
Fe deficiency Ni+2
0.1-10ppm
0.1ppm
P.H.
Brown,
R.M.
Welch,
E.E. Cary
1987
BRIEF KEY TO NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS(FINCK,1992)
NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
SYMPTOMS APPEARING FIRST ON OLDER LEAVES
N  Chlorosis starting from leaf tips
P  Reddish color on green leaves or stem
K  Necrosis on leaf margins
Mg  Chlorosis between veins
Mn  Brownish, greyish, whitish spots (cereals)
SYMPTOMS APPEARING FIRST ON YOUNGER LEAVES
S  Mottled yellow-green leaves with yellowish veins
Fe  Mottled yellow-green leaves with green veins
Mn  Brownish black spots (legumes, potatoes)
Cu  Youngest leaf has white tip
B  Youngest leaf is brownish or dead (sugar beet)
APPROXIMATE CONCENTRATION OF NUTRIENTS IN MATURE LEAF TISSUES OF VARIOUS CROP PLANTS
NUTRIENT DEFICIENT SUFFICIENT/NORMAL TOXIC
N 1-5
P 0.1-0.4
K 1-5
Ca 0.2-1.0
Mg 0.1-0.4
S 0.1-0.4
Fe <50 100-500 >500
Mn 15-25 20-300 300-500
Zn 10-20 27-150 100-400
Cu 2-5 5-30 200-100
B 5-30 10-20 50-200
Mo 0.03-0.15 0.1-2 >100
Cl <100 100-500 500-1000
Ni <0.1
DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY
NUTRIENT DIFICIENCY DISEASES
Ca  Blossom End Rot in tomatoes
 Bitter pit in apples
Mg  Grass tetany
Fe  Green mottling of citrus
Mn  Grey speck of oats
 Speckled yellow of sugar beet
 Marsh spots of peas
 White spot of wheat
 Brown spot of barley
 Pahala blight of sugar cane
 Frenching of Tung trees
Mo  Whiptail of cauliflower
Zn  Khaira in rice
 White bud of maize
 Mottle leaf (little leaf) or Frenching of citrus
 Little leaf of cotton
K  Cotton rust
 Little leaf spot of alfalfa
B  Black tip of mango
 Heart rot of sugar beet
 Hard fruit of citrus
 Die back of apple
Cu  Dieback of citrus
 Wither tip of apple
KEY POINTS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
MOBILE NUTRIENTS
OLDER OR LOWER LEAVES AFFECTED NO
YES
EFFECTS MOSTLY GENERALISED; PLANTS DARK OR
LIGHT GREEN
NO
YES
EFFECTS MOSTLY LOCALISED; CHLOROSIS WITH OR
WITHOUT SPOTTING
PLANTSDARK GREEN, OFTEN DEVELOPING PURPLE
OR RED COLOR
YES
PHOSPHORUS
NO
PLANTS LIGHT GREEN WITH LEAVES LIGHT GREEN OR YELLOW;
NO NECROTIC SPOTTING
YES
CHLOROSIS WITH INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS; LEAVES
SOMETIMES RED OR WITH DEAD SPOTS
YES
MAGNESIUM
NO
NO INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS; CHLOROTIC
AREAS WITH BURNING OF LEAF MARGINS;
SPOTTING SOMETIMES ALONG LEAF MARGINS
YES
NO
POTASSIUM
NO INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS, DISTINCT NECROTIC AND
CHLOROTIC LESIONS WITH ABRUPT BOUNDRY BETWEEN
DEAD AND LIVE TISSUE
YES
CHLORIDE
YES
NITROGEN
NO
PLANTS LIGHT GREEN; NECROTIC SPOTTING ON LEAVES;
PALE LEAVESSOMETIMES SCORCHED, CUPPED OR ROLLED
YES
MOLYBDENUM
IMMOBILE NUTRIENTS
NEWER OR YOUNGER LEAVES AFFECTED;
SYMPTOMS LOCALIZED
YES
GROWING POINT DIES
NO
YES
YOUNG LEAVES OF TERMINAL BUD
BECOME LIGHT GREEN AT BASES;
LEAVES BECOME TWISTED AND BRITTLE
AND FIEBACK AT GROWING POINT;
CHLORSIS OF YOUNG LEAVES
NO
YES
BORON
YOUNG LEAVES OF TERMINAL BUDS
TYPICALLY HOOKED AT FIRST, FINALLY
TURNING BROWN AND DYING BACK
YES
CALCIUM
REMAINS ALIVE
YES
NO
YOUNG LEAVES WITH INTERVEINAL CHLOROSISCHLOROSIS
WITHOUT
INTERVEINAL
CHLOROSIS
YES
YOUNG LEAVES LIGHT GREEN;
TYPICALLY, NO CHLOROTIC
SPOTTING OR STRIPING
SULPHUR
YES
NO
CHLOROSIS OF YOUNG LEAVES, TIPS APPEAR
WITHERED AND WILL EVENTUALLY DIE.
YES
COPPER
YES
SHARP DISTINCTION BETWEEN
VEINS AND CHLOROTIC AREAS
YES
IRON
NO
NO SHARP DISTINCTION
BETWEEN VEINS AND CHLOROTIC
AREAS; SPOTTY APPEARANCE
MANGANESE
YES
MIDDLE LEAVES WITH
INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS;
STUNTED GROWTH
ZINC
YES
NO
REFERENCES
 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL SCIENCE- INDIAN SOCIETY OF SOIL SCIENCE
 PRINCIPLES OF AGRONOMY- REDDY AND REDDY
 Landresouces.montana.edu (nutrient management module no.9 Montana State University)
 https://missouribotanicalgarden.org
 https://extension.arizona.edu
 https://omexcanada.com

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Soil nutreints

  • 1. RANI LAKSHMI BAI CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, JHANSI, UTTAR PRADESH ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: SUMMARISATION OF SOIL NUTRIENTSINTOTABULARFORM SUBMITTED TO: Dr. SUSHEEL KUMAR SINGH SUBMITTED BY: SHALINI SHUKLA (Ag/063/17)
  • 2. ROLE DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS TOXICITY SYMPTOMS ABSORBE D AS/IN THE FORM OF CONCENTRATIO N IN THE PLANT/ AVERAGE CONC. IN PLANTS DISCOVE RER YEAR OF DISCO VERY N  Component of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, porphyrins, flavins, purines and pyrimidines, enzymes etc.  Improves quality of leafy vegetables and fodders  Improves protein quality of food grains  Early flowering  Lower protein content  Overall yellow green leaves instead of dark green  Yellowing and dropping of lower leaves Delayed maturity Increases succulency Lodging Abortion of flowers NO3 - NH4 + 1-5% (10000- 50000ppm) 1.5% Theodore de Saussure 1804 P  Development of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids.  Energy transfer  Nutrient movement within plants  Transfer of genetic characteristics from one generation to next  Bluish green to Purplish discoloration (due to accumulation of sugars which favors synthesis of anthocyanin)  Delayed maturity  Leaf curling  Root rot diseases  Burning of leaf tips Reduce Fe, Mn, Zn uptake H2PO4 - HPO4 -- 0.1-0.4% (1000- 4000ppm) 0.2% C. Sprengel 1839 K  Enzyme activation, photosynthesis  Protein formation  Sugar transport  Crop quality  Disease resistance  Stomata opening and closing  Hidden hunger  Chlorosis followed by scorching and browning of tips  Chlorosis from margin towards base and necrosis  Rolling of leaf edge  Leaf burn (scorching) at margins  Excessive tillering in small crops  Reduced Stalk strength, disease resistance and winter hardiness  sugar accumulation in tubers affected  seeds and fruits- shriveled Reduce uptake of Mg and Ca K+ 1-5% 1.0% C. Sprengel 1839
  • 3. Ca  Cell wall construction  Growth of meristems  Functioning of root tips  Maintain the chromosome structure  Less than 0.1%(1000ppm)  Distorted young leaves and turn dark green  Withering of leaf tips  Poor germination  Cupping, crinkling of leaves Ca+2 0.2-1% 0.5% C. Sprengel 1839 Mg  Chlorophyll  Enzyme activation  Uptake and transport of P  Movement of sugars  Cofactor for ATP production  Interveinal chlorosis  (Leaf margins- yellow or reddish-purple  Midrib green)  Older leaf turn yellow at edge leaving a green arrowhead shape.  Grass tetany in animals (wheat forage)  Stiff and brittle leaf in tuber crops Mg+2 0.1-0.4% 0.2% C. Sprengel 1839 S  Constituent of amino acids and proteins  Metabolic activities of vitamins like, biotin, thiamine and coenzyme A  Oil quality (oil seed crops)  Resemble with N and Mo deficiency  No characteristic spot or stripes.  Plant-spindly and small  Stem- thin  Puckering in older leaves with inward raised areas between veins  Orange- reddish tints on older foliage SO4 -2 0.1-0.4% 0.1% Sachs and Knop 1860 Cu  Chlorophyll synthesis  Respiration  Protein synthesis  SILVERY LEAF  White tips, reclamation disease, necrosis, leaf distortion, die- back  Melanosis (brown discoloration)  Male flower’s sterility  Prone to diseases especially ergot  Similar to Zn- reduced reproductive efficiency in cattle. 20-100ppm Displace Fe Cu+2 5-30 ppm 6ppm A.L. Sommer, C.P. Lipman and G. McKinne y 1931
  • 4. Fe  Plant respiration  Chlorophyll synthesis  Nucleic acid and metabolism  Enzyme activation  Interveinal chlorosis with sharp distinction between veins and chlorotic areas in young leaves Tiny brown spots appear on lower leaves of rice (from tip to base) Entire leaf turn purplish brown Fe+2 100-500ppm 100ppm E Gris 1843 Zn  Growth hormone production  Internode elongation  Translocation and transport of P  Less than 15ppm  Stripping  Mottling  Severe- gray- white leaves (prematurely fall and die)  Poor flowering and seed set  Patchy appearance  Reduce reproductive efficiency in cattle.  Terminal leaves – rosetted. Occurs on very saline soils, Fe deficiency, Leaves- dark green, chlorosis Reduction in root growth and leaf expansion Zn+2 27-150ppm 20ppm A.L. Sommer, C.P. Lipman 1926 Mn  Role in TCA cycle  Constituent of superoxide- dismutase  Component of water splitting enzyme in PS- II  Less than 25 ppm  Interveinal chlorosis(dicots) but no sharp distinction between veins and chlorotic areas  FRIZZLE TOP (palm fronds are deformed and stunted)  Dead spots and patches (monocots) Blackish-brown or red spots on older leaves Tillering is limited Stunting of plants Occurs in lowland rice Mn+2 20-300ppm 20ppm J.S McHargu e 1922 Cl  Osmoregulation  Co-factor in Mn containing water splitting enzyme ofPS- II  Improve nutritional quality in vegetables  Wilting at leaf margins  Curling of leaflets  Highly branched root symptoms  Similar to Mn deficiency Cl- 100-500ppm 100ppm T.C. Broyer, A.B. Carlton, C.M. Johnson, P.R. Stout 1954 Mo  Enzyme activity  Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)  Protein biosynthesis  Pollen viability  Anther formation  Chlorotic mottling between veins  Scorched, rolled, cupped leaves  Leaves- thick and brittle and wither(leaving only midrib) Toxic to livestock MoO4 -2 0.1-2ppm 0.1ppm D.I. Arnon, P.R. Stout 1939
  • 5. B  Cell wall formation and reproductive tissue  Imparts drought tolerance  Pollen germination  Ion uptake  Transport of K+  Discoloration and death of terminal bud  Dark brown, irregular lesions (leaf necrosis)  Whitish leaf spot at leaf base  Low sugar accumulation  Root rot  Shortened internode (bushy/rosette) Chlorosis followed by necrosis (from leaf tip and margin towards midrib) Large, dark brown elliptical spots H3BO3 H2BO3 - HBO3 -2 BO3 -3 10-200ppm 20ppm K. Waringto n 1923 Ni  Seed germination  N metabolism in legumes  component in urease  Decrease in amino acid content,  Accumulation of nitrates. Fe deficiency Ni+2 0.1-10ppm 0.1ppm P.H. Brown, R.M. Welch, E.E. Cary 1987 BRIEF KEY TO NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS(FINCK,1992) NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS SYMPTOMS APPEARING FIRST ON OLDER LEAVES N  Chlorosis starting from leaf tips P  Reddish color on green leaves or stem K  Necrosis on leaf margins Mg  Chlorosis between veins Mn  Brownish, greyish, whitish spots (cereals) SYMPTOMS APPEARING FIRST ON YOUNGER LEAVES S  Mottled yellow-green leaves with yellowish veins Fe  Mottled yellow-green leaves with green veins Mn  Brownish black spots (legumes, potatoes) Cu  Youngest leaf has white tip B  Youngest leaf is brownish or dead (sugar beet)
  • 6. APPROXIMATE CONCENTRATION OF NUTRIENTS IN MATURE LEAF TISSUES OF VARIOUS CROP PLANTS NUTRIENT DEFICIENT SUFFICIENT/NORMAL TOXIC N 1-5 P 0.1-0.4 K 1-5 Ca 0.2-1.0 Mg 0.1-0.4 S 0.1-0.4 Fe <50 100-500 >500 Mn 15-25 20-300 300-500 Zn 10-20 27-150 100-400 Cu 2-5 5-30 200-100 B 5-30 10-20 50-200 Mo 0.03-0.15 0.1-2 >100 Cl <100 100-500 500-1000 Ni <0.1 DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY NUTRIENT DIFICIENCY DISEASES Ca  Blossom End Rot in tomatoes  Bitter pit in apples Mg  Grass tetany Fe  Green mottling of citrus Mn  Grey speck of oats  Speckled yellow of sugar beet  Marsh spots of peas  White spot of wheat  Brown spot of barley  Pahala blight of sugar cane  Frenching of Tung trees Mo  Whiptail of cauliflower Zn  Khaira in rice  White bud of maize  Mottle leaf (little leaf) or Frenching of citrus  Little leaf of cotton K  Cotton rust  Little leaf spot of alfalfa B  Black tip of mango  Heart rot of sugar beet  Hard fruit of citrus  Die back of apple Cu  Dieback of citrus  Wither tip of apple
  • 7. KEY POINTS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS MOBILE NUTRIENTS OLDER OR LOWER LEAVES AFFECTED NO YES EFFECTS MOSTLY GENERALISED; PLANTS DARK OR LIGHT GREEN NO YES EFFECTS MOSTLY LOCALISED; CHLOROSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SPOTTING PLANTSDARK GREEN, OFTEN DEVELOPING PURPLE OR RED COLOR YES PHOSPHORUS NO PLANTS LIGHT GREEN WITH LEAVES LIGHT GREEN OR YELLOW; NO NECROTIC SPOTTING YES CHLOROSIS WITH INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS; LEAVES SOMETIMES RED OR WITH DEAD SPOTS YES MAGNESIUM NO NO INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS; CHLOROTIC AREAS WITH BURNING OF LEAF MARGINS; SPOTTING SOMETIMES ALONG LEAF MARGINS YES NO POTASSIUM NO INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS, DISTINCT NECROTIC AND CHLOROTIC LESIONS WITH ABRUPT BOUNDRY BETWEEN DEAD AND LIVE TISSUE YES CHLORIDE YES NITROGEN NO PLANTS LIGHT GREEN; NECROTIC SPOTTING ON LEAVES; PALE LEAVESSOMETIMES SCORCHED, CUPPED OR ROLLED YES MOLYBDENUM
  • 8. IMMOBILE NUTRIENTS NEWER OR YOUNGER LEAVES AFFECTED; SYMPTOMS LOCALIZED YES GROWING POINT DIES NO YES YOUNG LEAVES OF TERMINAL BUD BECOME LIGHT GREEN AT BASES; LEAVES BECOME TWISTED AND BRITTLE AND FIEBACK AT GROWING POINT; CHLORSIS OF YOUNG LEAVES NO YES BORON YOUNG LEAVES OF TERMINAL BUDS TYPICALLY HOOKED AT FIRST, FINALLY TURNING BROWN AND DYING BACK YES CALCIUM REMAINS ALIVE YES NO YOUNG LEAVES WITH INTERVEINAL CHLOROSISCHLOROSIS WITHOUT INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS YES YOUNG LEAVES LIGHT GREEN; TYPICALLY, NO CHLOROTIC SPOTTING OR STRIPING SULPHUR YES NO CHLOROSIS OF YOUNG LEAVES, TIPS APPEAR WITHERED AND WILL EVENTUALLY DIE. YES COPPER YES SHARP DISTINCTION BETWEEN VEINS AND CHLOROTIC AREAS YES IRON NO NO SHARP DISTINCTION BETWEEN VEINS AND CHLOROTIC AREAS; SPOTTY APPEARANCE MANGANESE YES MIDDLE LEAVES WITH INTERVEINAL CHLOROSIS; STUNTED GROWTH ZINC YES NO
  • 9. REFERENCES  FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL SCIENCE- INDIAN SOCIETY OF SOIL SCIENCE  PRINCIPLES OF AGRONOMY- REDDY AND REDDY  Landresouces.montana.edu (nutrient management module no.9 Montana State University)  https://missouribotanicalgarden.org  https://extension.arizona.edu  https://omexcanada.com