SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 51
Download to read offline
1
Chapter 7
Quantum Theory and
the Electronic Structure
of Atoms
Dr. Sa’ib Khouri
AUM- JORDAN
Chemistry
By Raymond Chang
2
Properties of Waves
Wavelength (l) is the distance between identical points on
successive waves.
Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a
wave to the peak or trough.
Frequency (n) is the number of waves that pass through a
particular point in 1 second. (Hz = 1 cycle/s).
The speed of the wave (u) = l x n
3
James Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of
electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic radiation is the
emission and transmission of energy
in the form of electromagnetic waves.
Speed of light (c) in vacuum =
3.00 x 108 m/s
All electromagnetic radiation
l x n = c
Electromagnetic Radiation
The wavelength of electromagnetic waves is usually given in
nanometers (nm). 1 nm = 1 ⨯ 10
-9
m
4
Visible light ranges from a wavelength of 400 nm
(violet) to 700 nm (red).
5
6
l x n = c
l = c/n
l = 3.00 x 108 m/s / 6.0 x 104 Hz
l = 5.0 x 103 m
What is the wavelength (in meter) of an electromagnetic wave
whose frequency is 6.0 x 104 Hz. In which region falls this
frequency?
l = 5.0 x 1012 nm
Example
7
When solids are heated, they emit electromagnetic radiation
over a wide range of wavelengths.
Radiant energy emitted by an object at a certain temperature
depends on its wavelength.
Planck’s Quantum Theory
Planck gave the name quantum to the smallest quantity of
energy that can be emitted (or absorbed) in the form of
electromagnetic radiation
The energy E of a single quantum of energy is given by
E = h x n
h = 6.63 x 10-34 J•s Planck’s constant
8
The Photoelectric Effect
a phenomenon in which electrons are
ejected from the surface of certain
metals exposed to light of at least a
certain minimum frequency, called the
threshold frequency.
Elbert Einstein (1905) suggested that
a beam of light is really a stream of
particles are now called photons.
each photon must possess energy E,
given by the equation
E = h x n
where n is the frequency of light.
9
E = h x n
E = 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 10 8 (m/s) / 0.154 x 10-9 (m)
E = 1.29 x 10
-15
J/photon
= 7.77 x 10
8
J/mol
E = h x c / l
When copper is bombarded with high-energy electrons, X rays
are emitted. Calculate the energy (in joules) associated with
the photons if the wavelength of the X rays is 0.154 nm.
Example
10
Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
Emission Spectra either continuous or line spectra
11
12
1. e- can only have specific
(quantized) energy values
2. light is emitted as e- moves from
one energy level to a lower energy
level
Bohr’s Model of the Atom (1913)
En = -RH ( )
1
n2
n (principal quantum number) = 1, 2, 3, …
RH (Rydberg constant) = 2.18 x 10-18J
13
Ephoton = DE = Ef - Ei
Ef = -RH ( )
1
n2
f
Ei = -RH ( )
1
n2
i
i f
DE = RH ( )
1
n2
1
n2
nf = 1
ni = 2
nf = 1
ni = 3
nf = 2
ni = 3
14
15
Ephoton = 2.18 x 10-18 J x (1/25 - 1/9)
Ephoton = DE = -1.55 x 10-19 J
l = 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 108 (m/s)/1.55 x 10-19J
l = 1280 nm
Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a photon emitted
by a hydrogen atom when its electron drops from n =
5 to n = 3 states.
Ephoton = h x c / l
l = h x c / Ephoton
i f
DE = RH ( )
1
n2
1
n2
Ephoton =
Example
16
Schrödinger Wave Equation
In 1926 Schrödinger used an equation that described
both the particle and wave nature of the e-
Wave function y (psi) describes:
1. Energy of e- with a given y
2. Probability of finding e- in a volume of space
Schrödinger's equation can only be solved exactly for
the hydrogen atom.
For multi-electron systems it must
approximate its solution.
Quantum Mechanics
17
1. The principal quantum number (n)
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ….
n=1
n=2
n=3
Quantum Numbers
Three numbers are derived from the mathematical solution of the
Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom: the principal quantum
number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), and the
magnetic quantum number (ml )
the value of n determines the energy of an orbital and also relates to
the average distance of the electron from the nucleus in a particular
orbital
18
2. The angular momentum quantum number (l)
for a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n-1
n = 1, l = 0
n = 2, l = 0 or 1
n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2
n = 4, l = 0, 1, 2 or 3
n = 5, l = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4
etc.
Shape of the “volume” of space that the e- occupies
(orbitals)
l = 0 s orbital
l = 1 p orbital
l = 2 d orbital
l = 3 f orbital
l = 4 g orbital
l = 5 h orbital
19
l = 0 (s orbitals)
l = 1 (p orbitals)
20
l = 2 (d orbitals)
21
3. The magnetic quantum number (ml)
for a given value of l, ml = -l, …., 0, …. +l
if l = 0 (s orbital), ml = 0
if l = 1 (p orbital), ml = -1, 0, or 1
if l = 2 (d orbital), ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2
if l = 3 (f orbital), ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 or 3
The magnetic quantum number (m/) describes
the orientation of the orbital in space.
22
ml = -1, 0, or 1 3 orientations in space
23
ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2 5 orientations in space
24
ms = +½ or -½
ms = -½ms = +½
Pauli exclusion principle - no two
electrons in an atom can have the
same four quantum numbers.
The electron spin quantum number (ms)
Experiments on the emission spectra of hydrogen and sodium
atoms indicated that lines in the emission spectra could be split
by the application of an external magnetic field.
25
For example:
when a hydrogen atom with a single electron passes through the field, it is
deflected in one direction or the other, depending on the direction of the spin
In a stream consisting of many atoms, there will be equal distributions of the
two kinds of spins, so that two spots of equal intensity are detected on the
screen.
26
Atomic Orbitals
The table below shows the relation between quantum numbers
and atomic orbitals
27
Shell: electrons with the same value of n
Subshell: electrons with the same values of n and l
Orbital: electrons with the same values of n, l, and ml
If n, l, and ml are fixed, then ms = ½ or - ½
y (n, l, ml, ½) or y (n, l, ml, -½)
An orbital can hold 2 electrons
28
How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom?
2p
n=2
l = 1
If l = 1, then ml = -1, 0, or +1 3 orbitals (total 6 e-
)
How many electrons can be placed in the 3d subshell?
3d
n=3
l = 2
If l = 2, then ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2
5 orbitals (total10 e-)
29
According to equation below, the energy of e- in H-atom is
determined only by its principal quantum number n.
En = -RH ( )
1
n2
n=1
n=2
n=3
The Energies of Orbitals
Orbitals
with the
same
principal
quantum
number
(n) all
have the
same
energy.
30
Orbital energy levels in a many-electron atom
Energy level depends on both n and l
n=1 l = 0
n=2 l = 0
n=2 l = 1
n=3 l = 0
n=3 l = 1
n=3 l = 2
31
“Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals
H 1 electron
H 1s1
He 2 electrons
He 1s2
Li 3 electrons
Li 1s22s1
Be 4 electrons
Be 1s22s2
B 5 electrons
B 1s22s22p1
C 6 electrons
? ?
Building-Up Principle (Aufbau principle)
32
C 6 electrons
Hund’s rule: The most stable arrangement of
electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest
number of parallel spins.
C 1s22s22p2
N 7 electrons
N 1s22s22p3
O 8 electrons
O 1s22s22p4
F 9 electrons
F 1s22s22p5
Ne 10 electrons
Ne 1s22s22p6
33
The order in which atomic subshells are filled in
a many-electron atom.
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s
34
how the electrons are distributed among the various
atomic orbitals in an atom.
1s1
principal quantum
number n
angular momentum
quantum number l
number of electrons
in the orbital or subshell
Orbital diagram
H
1s1
Electron configuration
35
What is the electron configuration of Mg atom?
Mg: 12 electrons
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s
1s22s22p63s2 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 12 electrons
Abbreviated as [Ne]3s2 [Ne] 1s22s22p6
What are the possible quantum numbers for the last (outermost)
electron in Cl?
Cl: 17 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s
1s22s22p63s23p5 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 5 = 17 electrons
Last electron added to 3p orbital
n = 3 l = 1 ml = -1, 0, or +1 ms = ½ or -½
36
We conclude that there are six possible ways to designate the
electron using the (n, /, m/, ms) notation:
In these six designations we see that the values of n and / are
constant, but the values of m/ and ms can vary.
37
Paramagnetic
unpaired electrons
2p
Diamagnetic
all electrons paired
2p
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
38
Outermost subshell being filled with electrons
39
40
Many examples to be given in the lecture
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Halogen
Neon Inert Gas
Noble Gas

More Related Content

What's hot

Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)
Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)
Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)Mithil Fal Desai
 
Empirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and molecular formulasEmpirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and molecular formulasrekharajaseran
 
Stoichiometry: Chapter 9
Stoichiometry:  Chapter 9Stoichiometry:  Chapter 9
Stoichiometry: Chapter 9vvchemistry
 
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)Chris Sonntag
 
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptx
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptxAlkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptx
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptxDianeChristelLunday1
 
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STP
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STPLecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STP
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STPMary Beth Smith
 
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingChapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingWong Hsiung
 
C03 relative masses of atoms and molecules
C03 relative masses of atoms and moleculesC03 relative masses of atoms and molecules
C03 relative masses of atoms and moleculesSatheesha Setty
 
Data-Handling part 1 .ppt
Data-Handling part 1 .pptData-Handling part 1 .ppt
Data-Handling part 1 .pptAhmadHashlamon
 
Intermolecular Forces of attraction
Intermolecular Forces of attractionIntermolecular Forces of attraction
Intermolecular Forces of attractionJerome Bigael
 
Lewis dot structures
Lewis dot structuresLewis dot structures
Lewis dot structuresmelimunt
 

What's hot (20)

Ionic and metallic bonding
Ionic and metallic bondingIonic and metallic bonding
Ionic and metallic bonding
 
Quantum Numbers
Quantum NumbersQuantum Numbers
Quantum Numbers
 
Electrons in Atoms
Electrons in AtomsElectrons in Atoms
Electrons in Atoms
 
Tang 07 vsepr
Tang 07   vseprTang 07   vsepr
Tang 07 vsepr
 
Atomic Orbitals
Atomic OrbitalsAtomic Orbitals
Atomic Orbitals
 
Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)
Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)
Molecular orbitals diagrams of hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexafluoroferrate(III)
 
Empirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and molecular formulasEmpirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and molecular formulas
 
Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical EquilibriumChemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
 
Stoichiometry: Chapter 9
Stoichiometry:  Chapter 9Stoichiometry:  Chapter 9
Stoichiometry: Chapter 9
 
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)
Bonding in coordination complexes (Part 1)
 
Quantum numbers
Quantum numbersQuantum numbers
Quantum numbers
 
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptx
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptxAlkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptx
Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne - WEEK 1.pptx
 
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STP
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STPLecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STP
Lecture 10.2b- Molar Volume & STP
 
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingChapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
 
C03 relative masses of atoms and molecules
C03 relative masses of atoms and moleculesC03 relative masses of atoms and molecules
C03 relative masses of atoms and molecules
 
The mole concept
The mole conceptThe mole concept
The mole concept
 
Data-Handling part 1 .ppt
Data-Handling part 1 .pptData-Handling part 1 .ppt
Data-Handling part 1 .ppt
 
Intermolecular Forces of attraction
Intermolecular Forces of attractionIntermolecular Forces of attraction
Intermolecular Forces of attraction
 
Lewis dot structures
Lewis dot structuresLewis dot structures
Lewis dot structures
 
Stoichiometry
StoichiometryStoichiometry
Stoichiometry
 

Similar to Ch7 quantum theory and the electronic structure of atoms

Chapter 7 notes
Chapter 7 notes Chapter 7 notes
Chapter 7 notes Wong Hsiung
 
1st LT Coverage
1st LT Coverage1st LT Coverage
1st LT CoverageRio Cañal
 
Atomic structure
Atomic structureAtomic structure
Atomic structuresuresh gdvm
 
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3Atomic structure lecture part 1/3
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3Chris Sonntag
 
structure of atom crash course .pptx
structure of atom crash course .pptxstructure of atom crash course .pptx
structure of atom crash course .pptxTincymolck
 
Electronic structure
Electronic structureElectronic structure
Electronic structureHoshi94
 
Atomic structure presentation
Atomic structure presentationAtomic structure presentation
Atomic structure presentationNeeraj Yadav
 
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02Cleophas Rwemera
 
Chapter 1: atomic structure
Chapter 1:  atomic structureChapter 1:  atomic structure
Chapter 1: atomic structurehanis hanis
 
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdf
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdfAtomic Structure-21092023.pdf
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdfjayesh320682
 

Similar to Ch7 quantum theory and the electronic structure of atoms (20)

Chapter 7 notes
Chapter 7 notes Chapter 7 notes
Chapter 7 notes
 
Chem 1st LT
Chem 1st LTChem 1st LT
Chem 1st LT
 
1st LT Coverage
1st LT Coverage1st LT Coverage
1st LT Coverage
 
Atomic structure
Atomic structureAtomic structure
Atomic structure
 
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3Atomic structure lecture part 1/3
Atomic structure lecture part 1/3
 
Sventae
SventaeSventae
Sventae
 
Chemistry 11
Chemistry 11Chemistry 11
Chemistry 11
 
Adv chem chapt 7
Adv chem chapt 7Adv chem chapt 7
Adv chem chapt 7
 
Ch34 ssm
Ch34 ssmCh34 ssm
Ch34 ssm
 
Elect
ElectElect
Elect
 
Atom1
Atom1Atom1
Atom1
 
Lecture 7
Lecture 7Lecture 7
Lecture 7
 
structure of atom crash course .pptx
structure of atom crash course .pptxstructure of atom crash course .pptx
structure of atom crash course .pptx
 
Electronic structure
Electronic structureElectronic structure
Electronic structure
 
Atomic structure presentation
Atomic structure presentationAtomic structure presentation
Atomic structure presentation
 
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02
Advchemchapt7 101015115641-phpapp02
 
Chapter 1: atomic structure
Chapter 1:  atomic structureChapter 1:  atomic structure
Chapter 1: atomic structure
 
Chapter 6
Chapter 6Chapter 6
Chapter 6
 
Atomic structure
Atomic structureAtomic structure
Atomic structure
 
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdf
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdfAtomic Structure-21092023.pdf
Atomic Structure-21092023.pdf
 

More from Sa'ib J. Khouri

Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurements
Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurementsAnalytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurements
Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurementsSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)Sa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)Sa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch.06 Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.06 Chemical EquilibriumCh.06 Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.06 Chemical EquilibriumSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)Sa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic concepts
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic conceptsCh9 chemical bonding i basic concepts
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic conceptsSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiCh10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch1 chemistry the study of change
Ch1 chemistry the study of changeCh1 chemistry the study of change
Ch1 chemistry the study of changeSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous SolutionCh4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous SolutionSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and IonsCh2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and IonsSa'ib J. Khouri
 

More from Sa'ib J. Khouri (14)

Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurements
Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurementsAnalytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurements
Analytical chemistry ch01 chemical measurements
 
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (updated)
 
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)
Ch6 Thermochemistry (old version)
 
Ch.06 Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.06 Chemical EquilibriumCh.06 Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.06 Chemical Equilibrium
 
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution (updated)
 
Ch5 Gases
Ch5 GasesCh5 Gases
Ch5 Gases
 
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic concepts
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic conceptsCh9 chemical bonding i basic concepts
Ch9 chemical bonding i basic concepts
 
Ch8 the periodic table
Ch8 the periodic tableCh8 the periodic table
Ch8 the periodic table
 
Ch10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiCh10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding ii
 
Ch1 chemistry the study of change
Ch1 chemistry the study of changeCh1 chemistry the study of change
Ch1 chemistry the study of change
 
Ch3 stoichiometry
Ch3 stoichiometryCh3 stoichiometry
Ch3 stoichiometry
 
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous SolutionCh4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Ch4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution
 
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and IonsCh2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Ch2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
 
Ch5 Gases
Ch5 GasesCh5 Gases
Ch5 Gases
 

Recently uploaded

Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinNathan Cone
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTAlexander F. Mayer
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Christina Parmionova
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfSubhamKumar3239
 
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxMedical College
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Sérgio Sacani
 
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptx
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptxQ4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptx
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptxtuking87
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...Chayanika Das
 
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online Lec
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online LecTelephone Traffic Engineering Online Lec
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online Lecfllcampolet
 
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024Jene van der Heide
 
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx201bo007
 
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerAdvances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerLuis Miguel Chong Chong
 
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenaProduction technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenajana861314
 
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docxUlahVanessaBasa
 
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxFBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxPayal Shrivastava
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxjana861314
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learningvschiavoni
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
 
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
Charateristics of the Angara-A5 spacecraft launched from the Vostochny Cosmod...
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
 
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
 
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of AlkaloidsIntroduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
 
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptx
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptxQ4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptx
Q4-Mod-1c-Quiz-Projectile-333344444.pptx
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
 
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online Lec
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online LecTelephone Traffic Engineering Online Lec
Telephone Traffic Engineering Online Lec
 
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
GenAI talk for Young at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) March 2024
 
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
 
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerAdvances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
 
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongenaProduction technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena
 
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
 
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptxFBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
FBI Profiling - Forensic Psychology.pptx
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
 

Ch7 quantum theory and the electronic structure of atoms

  • 1. 1 Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms Dr. Sa’ib Khouri AUM- JORDAN Chemistry By Raymond Chang
  • 2. 2 Properties of Waves Wavelength (l) is the distance between identical points on successive waves. Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough. Frequency (n) is the number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second. (Hz = 1 cycle/s). The speed of the wave (u) = l x n
  • 3. 3 James Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Speed of light (c) in vacuum = 3.00 x 108 m/s All electromagnetic radiation l x n = c Electromagnetic Radiation The wavelength of electromagnetic waves is usually given in nanometers (nm). 1 nm = 1 ⨯ 10 -9 m
  • 4. 4 Visible light ranges from a wavelength of 400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red).
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6 l x n = c l = c/n l = 3.00 x 108 m/s / 6.0 x 104 Hz l = 5.0 x 103 m What is the wavelength (in meter) of an electromagnetic wave whose frequency is 6.0 x 104 Hz. In which region falls this frequency? l = 5.0 x 1012 nm Example
  • 7. 7 When solids are heated, they emit electromagnetic radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Radiant energy emitted by an object at a certain temperature depends on its wavelength. Planck’s Quantum Theory Planck gave the name quantum to the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted (or absorbed) in the form of electromagnetic radiation The energy E of a single quantum of energy is given by E = h x n h = 6.63 x 10-34 J•s Planck’s constant
  • 8. 8 The Photoelectric Effect a phenomenon in which electrons are ejected from the surface of certain metals exposed to light of at least a certain minimum frequency, called the threshold frequency. Elbert Einstein (1905) suggested that a beam of light is really a stream of particles are now called photons. each photon must possess energy E, given by the equation E = h x n where n is the frequency of light.
  • 9. 9 E = h x n E = 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 10 8 (m/s) / 0.154 x 10-9 (m) E = 1.29 x 10 -15 J/photon = 7.77 x 10 8 J/mol E = h x c / l When copper is bombarded with high-energy electrons, X rays are emitted. Calculate the energy (in joules) associated with the photons if the wavelength of the X rays is 0.154 nm. Example
  • 10. 10 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Emission Spectra either continuous or line spectra
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12 1. e- can only have specific (quantized) energy values 2. light is emitted as e- moves from one energy level to a lower energy level Bohr’s Model of the Atom (1913) En = -RH ( ) 1 n2 n (principal quantum number) = 1, 2, 3, … RH (Rydberg constant) = 2.18 x 10-18J
  • 13. 13 Ephoton = DE = Ef - Ei Ef = -RH ( ) 1 n2 f Ei = -RH ( ) 1 n2 i i f DE = RH ( ) 1 n2 1 n2 nf = 1 ni = 2 nf = 1 ni = 3 nf = 2 ni = 3
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15 Ephoton = 2.18 x 10-18 J x (1/25 - 1/9) Ephoton = DE = -1.55 x 10-19 J l = 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 108 (m/s)/1.55 x 10-19J l = 1280 nm Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a photon emitted by a hydrogen atom when its electron drops from n = 5 to n = 3 states. Ephoton = h x c / l l = h x c / Ephoton i f DE = RH ( ) 1 n2 1 n2 Ephoton = Example
  • 16. 16 Schrödinger Wave Equation In 1926 Schrödinger used an equation that described both the particle and wave nature of the e- Wave function y (psi) describes: 1. Energy of e- with a given y 2. Probability of finding e- in a volume of space Schrödinger's equation can only be solved exactly for the hydrogen atom. For multi-electron systems it must approximate its solution. Quantum Mechanics
  • 17. 17 1. The principal quantum number (n) n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …. n=1 n=2 n=3 Quantum Numbers Three numbers are derived from the mathematical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom: the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), and the magnetic quantum number (ml ) the value of n determines the energy of an orbital and also relates to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus in a particular orbital
  • 18. 18 2. The angular momentum quantum number (l) for a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n-1 n = 1, l = 0 n = 2, l = 0 or 1 n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2 n = 4, l = 0, 1, 2 or 3 n = 5, l = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 etc. Shape of the “volume” of space that the e- occupies (orbitals) l = 0 s orbital l = 1 p orbital l = 2 d orbital l = 3 f orbital l = 4 g orbital l = 5 h orbital
  • 19. 19 l = 0 (s orbitals) l = 1 (p orbitals)
  • 20. 20 l = 2 (d orbitals)
  • 21. 21 3. The magnetic quantum number (ml) for a given value of l, ml = -l, …., 0, …. +l if l = 0 (s orbital), ml = 0 if l = 1 (p orbital), ml = -1, 0, or 1 if l = 2 (d orbital), ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2 if l = 3 (f orbital), ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 or 3 The magnetic quantum number (m/) describes the orientation of the orbital in space.
  • 22. 22 ml = -1, 0, or 1 3 orientations in space
  • 23. 23 ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2 5 orientations in space
  • 24. 24 ms = +½ or -½ ms = -½ms = +½ Pauli exclusion principle - no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. The electron spin quantum number (ms) Experiments on the emission spectra of hydrogen and sodium atoms indicated that lines in the emission spectra could be split by the application of an external magnetic field.
  • 25. 25 For example: when a hydrogen atom with a single electron passes through the field, it is deflected in one direction or the other, depending on the direction of the spin In a stream consisting of many atoms, there will be equal distributions of the two kinds of spins, so that two spots of equal intensity are detected on the screen.
  • 26. 26 Atomic Orbitals The table below shows the relation between quantum numbers and atomic orbitals
  • 27. 27 Shell: electrons with the same value of n Subshell: electrons with the same values of n and l Orbital: electrons with the same values of n, l, and ml If n, l, and ml are fixed, then ms = ½ or - ½ y (n, l, ml, ½) or y (n, l, ml, -½) An orbital can hold 2 electrons
  • 28. 28 How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom? 2p n=2 l = 1 If l = 1, then ml = -1, 0, or +1 3 orbitals (total 6 e- ) How many electrons can be placed in the 3d subshell? 3d n=3 l = 2 If l = 2, then ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2 5 orbitals (total10 e-)
  • 29. 29 According to equation below, the energy of e- in H-atom is determined only by its principal quantum number n. En = -RH ( ) 1 n2 n=1 n=2 n=3 The Energies of Orbitals Orbitals with the same principal quantum number (n) all have the same energy.
  • 30. 30 Orbital energy levels in a many-electron atom Energy level depends on both n and l n=1 l = 0 n=2 l = 0 n=2 l = 1 n=3 l = 0 n=3 l = 1 n=3 l = 2
  • 31. 31 “Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals H 1 electron H 1s1 He 2 electrons He 1s2 Li 3 electrons Li 1s22s1 Be 4 electrons Be 1s22s2 B 5 electrons B 1s22s22p1 C 6 electrons ? ? Building-Up Principle (Aufbau principle)
  • 32. 32 C 6 electrons Hund’s rule: The most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins. C 1s22s22p2 N 7 electrons N 1s22s22p3 O 8 electrons O 1s22s22p4 F 9 electrons F 1s22s22p5 Ne 10 electrons Ne 1s22s22p6
  • 33. 33 The order in which atomic subshells are filled in a many-electron atom. 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s
  • 34. 34 how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbitals in an atom. 1s1 principal quantum number n angular momentum quantum number l number of electrons in the orbital or subshell Orbital diagram H 1s1 Electron configuration
  • 35. 35 What is the electron configuration of Mg atom? Mg: 12 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s 1s22s22p63s2 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 12 electrons Abbreviated as [Ne]3s2 [Ne] 1s22s22p6 What are the possible quantum numbers for the last (outermost) electron in Cl? Cl: 17 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s 1s22s22p63s23p5 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 5 = 17 electrons Last electron added to 3p orbital n = 3 l = 1 ml = -1, 0, or +1 ms = ½ or -½
  • 36. 36 We conclude that there are six possible ways to designate the electron using the (n, /, m/, ms) notation: In these six designations we see that the values of n and / are constant, but the values of m/ and ms can vary.
  • 37. 37 Paramagnetic unpaired electrons 2p Diamagnetic all electrons paired 2p Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
  • 38. 38 Outermost subshell being filled with electrons
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. Many examples to be given in the lecture
  • 46. Boron