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S A H E L I A I C H
BAC HELO R O F FASHIO N
TEC HNO LO G Y (2019- 2023)
En ro ll m e n t N o .
A 9 2 0 1 3 1 9 1 9 0 0 1
PRESENTATION FOR
HARDWARE AND
SOFTWARE
 INTRODUCTION TO
COMPUTERS
 WHAT IS COMPUTER ?
an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in
binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable
program.
a person who makes calculations, especially with a calculating
machine.
Computer is divided by two parts, such as :
1. HARDWARE and 2. SOFTWARE
 H A R D W A R E
 WHAT IS HARDWARE ?
Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of
a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing
unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound
card, speakers and motherboard. By contrast, software is instructions that
can be stored and run by hardware.
Hardware is so-termed because it is "hard" or rigid with respect to changes or
modifications; whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to update or
change.
Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", which is software
that is strongly coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and
thus the most difficult to change but also among the most stable with respect
to consistency of interface. The progression from levels of "hardness" to
"softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of
abstraction in computing.
Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command
or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a
 H A R D W A R E
 WHAT IS HARDWARE ?
Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This
is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of
the computer. Examples of hardware in a computer are the
keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing
unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be
seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the
computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the
computer's casing (tower). A computer's hardware is
comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most
important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is
made up of even more parts that power and control the
computer.
In contrast to software, hardware is a physical entity.
Hardware and software are interconnected, without software,
the hardware of a computer would have no function.
However, without the creation of hardware to perform tasks
directed by software via the central processing unit, software
would be useless.
BASIC INTERNAL
HARDWARE
 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS
(HARDWARE) :
1. PERSONAL COMPUTER : The personal
computer, also known as the PC, is one of the most
common types of computer due to its versatility
and relatively low price. Laptops are generally very
similar, although they may use lower-power or
reduced size components, thus lower performance.
2. COMPUTER CASE : The computer case
encloses and holds most of the components of the
system. It provides mechanical support and
protection for internal elements such as the
motherboard, disk drives, and power supplies, and
controls and directs the flow of cooling air over
internal components. The case is also part of the
system to control electromagnetic interference
radiated by the computer, and protects internal
parts from electrostatic discharge. Large tower
cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk
3. POWER SUPPLY : A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating
current (AC) electric power to low-voltage direct current (DC) power for the
internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from
a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours.
4. MOTHERBOARD : The motherboard is the main component of a
computer. It is a board with integrated circuitry that connects the other
parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives
(CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected
via the ports or the expansion slots.
Components directly attached to or to part of the motherboard
include:
 CPU - The CPU (central processing unit), which performs most of the
calculations which enable a computer to function, and is referred to as the brain
of the computer which get a hold of program instruction from RAM, interprets
and processes it and then send it backs to computer result so that the relevant
components can carry out the instructions . It is usually cooled by a heat sink
and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPU include an on-die graphics
processing unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPU governs how fast it executes
instructions, and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and
5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which
enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need
for improved cooling.
Inside a custom-built
computer: power supply at
the bottom has its own
cooling fan
 THE CHIPSET - which includes the north bridge, mediates
communication between the CPU and the other components of the
system, including main memory; as well as south bridge, which is
connected to the north bridge, and supports auxiliary interfaces and
buses; and, finally, a Super I/O chip, connected through the south
bridge, which supports the slowest and most legacy components
like serial ports, hardware monitoring and fan control.
 RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) - which stores the code
and data that are being actively accessed by the CPU. For example, when
a web browser is opened on the computer it takes up memory; this is
stored in the RAM until the web browser is closed. RAM usually comes
on DIMMs in the sizes 2GB, 4GB, and 8GB, but can be much larger.
 READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) - which stores the BIOS that runs
when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a
process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up".
The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes boot firmware and power
management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible
Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS.
RAM vs ROM
5. EXPANSION CARDS : An expansion card in computing is a printed
circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer
motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a computer system via
the expansion bus. Expansion cards can be used to obtain or expand on
features not offered by the motherboard.
6. STORAGE DEVICES : A storage device is any computing hardware
and digital media that is used for storing, porting and extracting data files
and objects. It can hold and store information both temporarily and
permanently, and can be internal or external to a computer, server or any
similar computing device. Data storage is a core function and fundamental
component of computers.
7. FIXED MEDIA : Data is stored by a computer using a variety of
media. Hard disk drives are found in virtually all older computers, due to
their high capacity and low cost, but solid-state drives are faster and more
power efficient, although currently more expensive than hard drives in
terms of dollar per gigabyte, so are often found in personal computers
built post-2007.[6] Some systems may use a disk array controller for
greater performance or reliability.
8. REMOVABLE MEDIA : To transfer data between computers, a USB
REMOVABLE DEVICES
S O F T W A R
E
A diagram showing
how the user interacts
with application
software on a
typical desktop
computer.The
application software
layer interfaces with
the operating system,
which in turn
communicates with
the hardware. The
arrows indicate
Computer software, or simply software, is a
collection of data or computer instructions that
tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast
to physical hardware, from which the system is
built and actually performs the work. In computer
science and software engineering, computer
software is all information processed by computer
systems, programs and data. Computer software
includes computer programs, libraries and related
non-executable data, such as online
documentation or digital media. Computer
hardware and software require each other and
neither can be realistically used on its own.
 COMPUTER SOFTWARE
:
Diagrammatic view of a
very simple decision
algorithm that could be
programmed
Software, commonly known as programs or apps, consists of all the
instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. These instructions
come from a software developer in the form that will be accepted by
the platform (operating system + CPU) that they are based on. For example, a
program that is designed for the Windows operating system will only work for
that specific operating system. Compatibility of software will vary as the design
of the software and the operating system differ. Software that is designed for
Windows XP may experience a compatibility issue when running under Windows
2000 or NT.
Software is capable of performing many tasks, as opposed to hardware which
can only perform mechanical tasks that they are designed for. Software
provides the means for accomplishing many different tasks with the same basic
hardware. Practical computer systems divide software systems into two major
classes:
• System software: Helps run the computer hardware and computer
system itself. System software includes operating systems, device
drivers, diagnostic tools and more. System software is almost always
pre-installed on your computer.
• Application software: Allows users to accomplish one or more tasks.
It includes word processing, web browsing and almost any other
 TYPES OF
SOFTWARE :
Based on the goal, computer software can be divided into:
 Application software
which is software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or
provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many
different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a
modern computer is so large—see list of software.
 System software
which is software for managing computer hardware behaviour, as to provide basic functionalities
that are required by users, or for other software to run properly, if at all. System software is also
designed for providing a platform for running application software,[11] and it includes the following:
Operating systems
which are essential collections of software that manage resources and provides common services
for other software that runs "on top" of them. Supervisory programs, boot
loaders, shells and window systems are core parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating
system comes bundled with additional software (including application software) so that a user can
potentially do some work with a computer that only has one operating system.
Device drivers
which operate or control a particular type of device that is attached to a computer. Each device
needs at least one corresponding device driver; because a computer typically has at minimum at
least one input device and at least one output device, a computer typically needs more than one
device driver.
Utilities
which are computer programs designed to assist users in the maintenance and care of their
T H A N K Y O
U

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Hardware software

  • 1. S A H E L I A I C H BAC HELO R O F FASHIO N TEC HNO LO G Y (2019- 2023) En ro ll m e n t N o . A 9 2 0 1 3 1 9 1 9 0 0 1
  • 3.  INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS  WHAT IS COMPUTER ? an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program. a person who makes calculations, especially with a calculating machine. Computer is divided by two parts, such as : 1. HARDWARE and 2. SOFTWARE
  • 4.  H A R D W A R E  WHAT IS HARDWARE ? Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is "hard" or rigid with respect to changes or modifications; whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to update or change. Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", which is software that is strongly coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but also among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface. The progression from levels of "hardness" to "softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing. Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a
  • 5.  H A R D W A R E  WHAT IS HARDWARE ? Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the computer's casing (tower). A computer's hardware is comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of even more parts that power and control the computer. In contrast to software, hardware is a physical entity. Hardware and software are interconnected, without software, the hardware of a computer would have no function. However, without the creation of hardware to perform tasks directed by software via the central processing unit, software would be useless. BASIC INTERNAL HARDWARE
  • 6.  TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS (HARDWARE) : 1. PERSONAL COMPUTER : The personal computer, also known as the PC, is one of the most common types of computer due to its versatility and relatively low price. Laptops are generally very similar, although they may use lower-power or reduced size components, thus lower performance. 2. COMPUTER CASE : The computer case encloses and holds most of the components of the system. It provides mechanical support and protection for internal elements such as the motherboard, disk drives, and power supplies, and controls and directs the flow of cooling air over internal components. The case is also part of the system to control electromagnetic interference radiated by the computer, and protects internal parts from electrostatic discharge. Large tower cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk
  • 7. 3. POWER SUPPLY : A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours. 4. MOTHERBOARD : The motherboard is the main component of a computer. It is a board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. Components directly attached to or to part of the motherboard include:  CPU - The CPU (central processing unit), which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is referred to as the brain of the computer which get a hold of program instruction from RAM, interprets and processes it and then send it backs to computer result so that the relevant components can carry out the instructions . It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPU include an on-die graphics processing unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPU governs how fast it executes instructions, and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and 5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling. Inside a custom-built computer: power supply at the bottom has its own cooling fan
  • 8.  THE CHIPSET - which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory; as well as south bridge, which is connected to the north bridge, and supports auxiliary interfaces and buses; and, finally, a Super I/O chip, connected through the south bridge, which supports the slowest and most legacy components like serial ports, hardware monitoring and fan control.  RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) - which stores the code and data that are being actively accessed by the CPU. For example, when a web browser is opened on the computer it takes up memory; this is stored in the RAM until the web browser is closed. RAM usually comes on DIMMs in the sizes 2GB, 4GB, and 8GB, but can be much larger.  READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) - which stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up". The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes boot firmware and power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS. RAM vs ROM
  • 9. 5. EXPANSION CARDS : An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. Expansion cards can be used to obtain or expand on features not offered by the motherboard. 6. STORAGE DEVICES : A storage device is any computing hardware and digital media that is used for storing, porting and extracting data files and objects. It can hold and store information both temporarily and permanently, and can be internal or external to a computer, server or any similar computing device. Data storage is a core function and fundamental component of computers. 7. FIXED MEDIA : Data is stored by a computer using a variety of media. Hard disk drives are found in virtually all older computers, due to their high capacity and low cost, but solid-state drives are faster and more power efficient, although currently more expensive than hard drives in terms of dollar per gigabyte, so are often found in personal computers built post-2007.[6] Some systems may use a disk array controller for greater performance or reliability. 8. REMOVABLE MEDIA : To transfer data between computers, a USB REMOVABLE DEVICES
  • 10. S O F T W A R E A diagram showing how the user interacts with application software on a typical desktop computer.The application software layer interfaces with the operating system, which in turn communicates with the hardware. The arrows indicate Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
  • 11.  COMPUTER SOFTWARE : Diagrammatic view of a very simple decision algorithm that could be programmed Software, commonly known as programs or apps, consists of all the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. These instructions come from a software developer in the form that will be accepted by the platform (operating system + CPU) that they are based on. For example, a program that is designed for the Windows operating system will only work for that specific operating system. Compatibility of software will vary as the design of the software and the operating system differ. Software that is designed for Windows XP may experience a compatibility issue when running under Windows 2000 or NT. Software is capable of performing many tasks, as opposed to hardware which can only perform mechanical tasks that they are designed for. Software provides the means for accomplishing many different tasks with the same basic hardware. Practical computer systems divide software systems into two major classes: • System software: Helps run the computer hardware and computer system itself. System software includes operating systems, device drivers, diagnostic tools and more. System software is almost always pre-installed on your computer. • Application software: Allows users to accomplish one or more tasks. It includes word processing, web browsing and almost any other
  • 12.  TYPES OF SOFTWARE : Based on the goal, computer software can be divided into:  Application software which is software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a modern computer is so large—see list of software.  System software which is software for managing computer hardware behaviour, as to provide basic functionalities that are required by users, or for other software to run properly, if at all. System software is also designed for providing a platform for running application software,[11] and it includes the following: Operating systems which are essential collections of software that manage resources and provides common services for other software that runs "on top" of them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders, shells and window systems are core parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating system comes bundled with additional software (including application software) so that a user can potentially do some work with a computer that only has one operating system. Device drivers which operate or control a particular type of device that is attached to a computer. Each device needs at least one corresponding device driver; because a computer typically has at minimum at least one input device and at least one output device, a computer typically needs more than one device driver. Utilities which are computer programs designed to assist users in the maintenance and care of their
  • 13. T H A N K Y O U