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  1. 1. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware Evolution and Types of the Computers PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  2. 2. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 1 Evolution and Types of the Computers Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia -1-
  3. 3. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • • • 3. state the generations of computers together with the respective processors used explain the generations of computers together with the respective processors used identify the types of computers: o Supercomputer o Mainframe o Mini Computer o Micro Computer o Work Station define different types of computer Knowledge and Skills: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. Computer Hardware: Evolution and Types of Computers Explain the evolution of the computer generation. Match the types of processors used. Introduce various types of computers. Labelling a flow chart of the types of computers. Gathering and presenting information on the types of computers Module Summary: At the end of the module, students should be able to explain about the evolution of the computer generation and types of processors used. This module contains 5 activities: Activity 1: Activity 2: Activity 3: Activity 4: Activity 5: Explaining the evolution of the computer generation. Matching the types of processors used. Introducing various types of computers. Labelling a flow chart of the types of computers. Gathering and presenting information on the types of computers -2-
  4. 4. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Introduction to Computer Activity 1: Evolution of the Computer Generation First Years 1939 to 1954 Circuitry Vacuum tubes Devices Calculators Second 1954 to 1959 Transistor Mainframes Third 1959 to 1971 Fourth 1971 to 1991 Integrated circuits (IC) Very-largescale integration (VLSI) and the Microprcessor Timesharing, minicomputer Microcomputer, Embedded computer, Personal computer, Fifth 1991 to present and Beyond Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), Video Electronic Standard Association (VESA) Super Computers Mainframe Computers Mini Computers Personal Computers Mobile Computers Personal computer, PowerPC, PowerMacs, PlayStation. Additional source: http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/computer1.html#gp05 -3- Processors ENIAC, EDSAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM IBM, System/360, BUNCH PDP, System/32, System/36 VAX, AS/400, Intel. Motorola, MOS, Zilog, WDC, Pentium, ARM architecture, MIPS, SPARC Commodore, UNIX System, Intel Pentium, Pentium MMX, Pentium II, AMD, Athlon, Pentium III, Pentium IV
  5. 5. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 2: Types of Computers Supercomputer Supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly the speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. The term "Super Computing" was first used by the New York World newspaper in 1929[1] to refer to large custom-built tabulators IBM made for Columbia University. It was used to solve problems involving by major universities, military agencies and scientific research laboratories. Additional Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer The Cray-2 was the world's fastest computer from 1985 to 1989. Mainframes Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume input and output (I/O) and emphasize throughout computing. It is used mainly, by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing, industry and consumer statistics, ERP, and financial transaction processing. The term probably originated from the early mainframes, as they were housed in enormous, roomsized metal boxes or frames. [1] Later the term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less powerful units which were often contained in smaller packages. Today in practice, the term usually refers to computers compatible with the IBM System/360 line, first introduced in 1965. (IBM System z9 is IBM's latest incarnation.) Otherwise, systems with similar functionality but not based on the IBM System/360 are referred to as "servers." However, "server" and "mainframe" are A Honeywell-Bull DPS 7 mainframe, different (see client-server). circa 1990. Additional source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer Mini Computer Minicomputer is a midsized computer. It is an old term for a class of multi-user computers, lies between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). In the past, it formed a different group with its own hardware and operating systems. Additional source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minicomputer -4- Multi-user mini computer at RAL
  6. 6. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Microcomputer Small desktop or portable computer, typically designed to be used by one person at a time, although individual computers can be linked in a network so that users can share data and programmes. Its central processing unit is a microprocessor, contained on a single integrated circuit. Microcomputers are the smallest of the four classes of computer (the others are supercomputer, mainframe, and minicomputer). Since the appearance in 1975 of the first commercially available microcomputer, the Altair 8800, micros have become ubiquitous in commerce, industry, and education. © From the Hutchinson Encyclopaedia. Helicon Publishing LTD 2007. All rights reserved. Additional source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcomputer : http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/dictionaries/computers/data/m0008890.html Work Station A type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, at least 64 MB (megabytes) of RAM, built-in network support and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called a diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. In terms of computing power, workstations lie between personal computers and minicomputers, although the line is fuzzy on both ends. High-end personal computers are equivalent to low-end workstations. And high-end workstations are equivalent to minicomputers. Like personal computers, most workstations are single-user computers. However, workstations are typically linked together to form a Local Area Network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems. In networking, workstation refers to any computer connected to a Local Area Network. It could be a workstation or a personal computer. -5-
  7. 7. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 3: Different Types of Computer There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or capability of the computer. While the term computer can apply to virtually any device that has a microprocessor in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a mouse or keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen. • PC - The personal computer (PC) defines a computer designed for general use by a single person.. PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses. • Desktop - A PC that is set up in a permanent location(not portable). Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren. • Laptop - Also called notebook. Laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book. • Palmtop - More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. Palmtops are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer. • Workstation - A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development. • Server - A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network. Servers usually have powerful processors, large memory and hard drives. • Mainframe - In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. The size of computers has diminished while its power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day. • Minicomputer - Another term rarely used nowadays. Minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now. -6-
  8. 8. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module • Supercomputer - This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems, most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. The best known supercomputers are built by Cray Supercomputers. • Wearable - The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, visors and even clothing. -7-
  9. 9. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 1 Compare the features of the generations of computers. Generations Years Circuitry Devices First Second Third Fourth Fifth -8- Processors
  10. 10. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 2 Differentiate between a single user system and a multi user system. Single user system Multi user system 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. -9-
  11. 11. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 3 Matching the description with the correct types of computers. It was used to solve problems in major universities, military agencies and scientific research laboratories. • Supercomputer It is designed to handle very high volume input and output (I/O) and emphasized throughout computing. • Micro Computer A midsized and multi-user computer • Mini Computer Small desktop or portable computer, typically designed to be used by one person at a time although individual computers can be linked in a network so that users can share data and programs • Work Station • Mainframe A type of computer used for engineering applications, desktop publishing, software development and other types of applications. - 10 -
  12. 12. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware Computer System PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  13. 13. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 2 Overview of the Computer System Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  14. 14. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : Computer Parts and Components – Overview of the Computer System 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • state the functions of the main components in the computer system • 3. Identify main components in the computer system explain briefly the data processing cycle of a computer system Knowledge and Skills: 1. What is a computer 2. The different types of computer 4. Module Summary: At the end of the module, students should be able to identify and state the functions of the main components in the computer system as well as explain briefly the data processing cycle of a computer system. This module contains 2 activities: Activity 1: Identifying the main components in the computer system and their functions Activity 2: Briefly explain the data processing cycle of the computer system 2
  15. 15. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 1 MAIN COMPUTER SYSTEM monitor system Unit speaker keyboard mouse Monitor A monitor is a computer display that is like a TV monitor. A computer monitor image is made up of pixels (dots). In general, the higher the resolution, the better the image. The smaller the dots pitch (typically from 0.25 mm to 0.31 mm), the better the image. The different types of display screens are: • Standard television set An ordinary home televisionthat can be used for computer output. • Standard computer monitors These monitors have better resolution than TV monitors. Some are flat screens. • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) These screens are made up of two glass plates with liquid in between. 3
  16. 16. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Keyboard Multimedia keyboard Wireless keyboard The keyboard is the main input device for text and commands. The computer keyboard uses the same key arrangement as typewriters. It also contain standard function keys, such as the escape, cursor movement and control keys. Keyboards come with three (3) different types of port such as: • Serial port • PS/2 port • USB port. 4
  17. 17. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Speakers Speakers give out information in the form of sound. Computer speakers range widely in quality and price. Computer speakers are typically packaged with computer systems in small plastic boxes with mediocre sound quality. The internal amplifiers requires an external power source, known as 'wall-wart'. Mouse PS/2 port mouse A mouse is an input device used to controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. It has right click, left click and double click to function USB port optical mouse Cordless optical mouse An optical mouse uses camera technology and digital processing to compare and track the position of the mouse, rather than a ball and rollers used on PS/2 port mouse. A small LED (light-emitting diode) provides light underneath the mouse, helping to highlight slight differences in the surface underneath the mouse. It does not require maintenance or regular cleaning. (source : http://images.search.yahoo.com) 5
  18. 18. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module System Unit A system unit is also known as a base unit. It is the main body of a desktop computer consisting of a metal or fibre enclosure containing the motherboard, power supply, cooling fans, internal disk drives, memory modules and expansion cards(such as video and network cards) that are plugged into the motherboard. (source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_unit) Printer A printer is a device that produces a hard copy (permanent human readable text or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form that prints texts or illustrations on paper. Many printers are used as computer peripherals and are attached by a printer cable to a computer that serves as a document source. There are many types of computer printers. Dot-Matrix printer The dot matrix printer is a low-cost printer that produces low quality output. It works like an automatic typewriter. It can also be used when carbon copies of a document are required. 6
  19. 19. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Ink-Jet printer The ink jet printer is a low-cost printer that produces a mid-quality output. This type of printer is the most economical for colour output. Laser printer The laser printer uses a laser beam to produce the best quality output. The speed of a laser printer is typically about 8 ppm (page per minute). 7
  20. 20. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 2 Data Processing Cycle The computer system processes data into information through four operations; input, process, storage and output. Input Process Output Storage The user enters the data by using an input device (such as keyboard, mouse) electronically and is processed by the processor. In the processing operation, data is manipulated to process or transform it into information The storage (such as hard disk, compact disc (CD), diskettes) holds data, information and programs. The output devices (such as monitor, printer) present the processed data as useful information products to the user 8
  21. 21. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 3 Task A Label the pictures below . Write your answers in the boxes given. 1. 2. 5. 3. 4. 9
  22. 22. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Task B Look at the pictures given in Column A. Then, name the components of the computer and state their functions. COLUMN A COLUMN B (Component name and function) 10
  23. 23. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Task C Complete the data processing cycle of a computer system below. Input 11
  24. 24. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Reference Cashman, S. (2006) Discovering Computers 2006. USA : Thomson Course Technology. Ibrahim Ahmad, Mohd Hafiz et al (2007) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based on SPM Syllabus. Selangor: Venton Publishing (M) Sdn Bhd. NCC Education (2002) Computer Studies, Computer Ace. Sri Lanka : Computer Pioneers. Basic Computing (2003) by TMEdu Tech (M) Sdn Bhd http://www.wikipedia.org http://images.search.yahoo.com http://www.google.com.my 12
  25. 25. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware System Unit PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  26. 26. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 3 SYSTEM UNIT Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  27. 27. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : System Unit 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • identify the components of a system unit • state the functions of the main components of a system unit • state the functions of cpu, ram, rom and expansions slots found on the motherboard 3. Knowledge and Skills: • main components in the computer system 4. Module Summary: • • • At the end of the module, a student is able to : identify main components of system unit and motherboard state the functions of main components of system unit state the functions of CPU, RAM, ROM and expansion slot This module contains 2 activities: Activity 1 : Identify the components of a system unit Activity 2 : Identify the components of a motherboard As you are doing this module, use the computer in the lab to identify the components in the system unit. 2
  28. 28. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Notes: What is system unit? Box-like case that contains computer’s electronic components Sometimes called the chassis Figure 1 Examples of System Unit 3
  29. 29. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 1 : Identify the components of a system unit Inside view of system unit Figure 2 Inside view of System Unit 4
  30. 30. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Front layer of a system unit DVD-ROM drive CD-ROM/CD-RW drive Zip drive Empty drive bay Floppy disk drive Power button Reset button Figure 3 Front View of a System Unit 5
  31. 31. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Input/Output port (I/O port) Power port mouse keyboard USB USB printer (parallel port) serial port speaker monitor microphone game port network telephone line out telephone line in FM reception svideo out cable TV Figure 4 Back View of a System Unit 6
  32. 32. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Functions of the main components of a system unit No. 1. Components Input/Output port (I/O port) Functions A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. An external device, such as a keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse and microphone is often attached by a cable to a port on the system unit. The back of the system unit contains so many ports. Some newer personal computers also have ports on the front of the system unit. Ports have different types of connectors. A connector joins a cable to a peripheral. One end of a cable attaches to the connector on the system unit and the other end of the cable attaches to a connector on the peripheral. 2. Power button To start on computer 3. Reset button Kick of soft boot, instructing the computer to go through the process of shutting down, which would clear memory and reset devices to their initialized state. It simply removes power immediately. 4. Motherboard Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic components attached to it and others built into it. 5. Power Supply Convert standard electrical power into the form that computer can use. If a power supply is not providing the necessary power, the computer will not function properly. 6. DVD-ROM drive A device that reads DVD-ROM, also can read audio CDs, CDROMSs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs. 7. CD-ROM drive A device that reads audio CDs, CD-ROMs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs. 8. DVD/CD-RW drive It is a combination drive that reads DVD and CD media, it also writes to CD-RW media. This drive also allows watching a DVD or burn a CD. 9. Zip drive A high-capacity disk drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk. 10. Floppy drive A device that reads from and writes on a floppy disk 11. Hard disk drive Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that store data, instructions and information. Also called a hard disk. 7
  33. 33. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 2 : Identify the components of a motherboard for RAM Expansion slots Figure 5: Layout of a motherboard 8
  34. 34. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module CPU Expansion Slots Expansion Card 9
  35. 35. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Functions of the components of the motherboard No. 1. Components Functions Central Processing Unit (CPU) A Central Processing Unit or CPU is a microprocessor (or processor for short). It is an integrated circuit chip that is capable of processing electronic signals. The CPU is the most important element in a computer system. A CPU interprets instructions given by the software and carries out those instructions by processing data and controlling the rest of the computer’s components. 2. Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is installed inside computers. RAM is also known as a working memory. The data in RAM can be read (retrieved) or written (stored). RAM is volatile which means the programs and data in RAM are lost when the computer is powered off. A computer uses RAM to hold temporary instructions and data needed to complete tasks. This enables the computer's CPU (Central Processing Unit) to access instructions and data stored in the memory very quickly. RAM stores data during and after processing. Read Only Memory (ROM) ROM is another type of memory permanently stored inside the computer. ROM is non-volatile. It holds the programs and data when the computer is powered off. Programs in ROM have been pre-recorded. It can only be stored by the manufacturer; once it is done, it cannot be changed. Many complex functions, such as start up operating instructions, translators for high-level languages and operating systems are placed in ROM memory. All the contents in ROM can be accessed and read but cannot be changed. Expansion Slots Expansion slots are the sockets where the circuit boards or the adapter cards can be inserted into the motherboard. It is a place to fit an expansion card containing the circuitry that provides some specialised capability, such as video acceleration, sound or disk drive control. 3. 4. 10
  36. 36. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Appendix 1 11
  37. 37. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 1 Label the system unit below with the words given. Expansion Cards RAM Power Supply Zip Drive Hard Disk Drive Floppy Drive Mother Board CD/DVD Drive Expansion Slots CPU Chip 12
  38. 38. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 2 Look at the diagram carefully and match them to the name of the ports in the table given using numbers. Label of the ports No 1 Power port USB port VGA port (Monitor display) Serial port (Modem) PS2 port (Mouse) Game port (Joystick) Audio ports (speaker, headphone and microphone) Parallel port (printer port) PS2 port (keyboard) 13
  39. 39. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 3 Names the component parts of the motherboard. 14
  40. 40. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 4 Mark T for True and F for False 1. The processor (CPU) interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer. 2. Computers can use only one processor at a time. 3. ROM is the main circuit board of the system unit. 4. Expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card. 5. RAM is non-volatile 6. The most important chip on the main circuit board is the microprocessor chip. 7. I/O port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. 8. Reset button is to start on computer. 9. A device that reads from and writes on a floppy disk is called hard disk drives. 10. Power supply convert standard electrical power into the form that computer can use. 15
  41. 41. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 5 Fill in the blank with the correct name of components and functions. No. Components 1. Input/Output port (I/O port) Functions 2. To start on computer 3. Reset button 4. Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic components attached to it and others built into it. 5. Convert standard electrical power into the form that computer can use. 6. DVD-ROM drive 7. CD-ROM drive 8. This drive also allows watching a DVD or burn a CD. 9. A high-capacity disk drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk. 10. Floppy drive 11. Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that store data, instructions and information. 16
  42. 42. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 6 Find the differences between primary storage RAM and ROM RAM ROM 17
  43. 43. ICTL For Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Reference Cashman, S. (2006) Discovering Computers 2006. USA : Thomson Course Technology. Ibrahim Ahmad, Mohd Hafiz et al (2007) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based on SPM Syllabus. Selangor: Venton Publishing (M) Sdn Bhd. NCC Education (2002) Computer Studies, Computer Ace. Sri Lanka : Computer Pioneers. IBasic Computing (2003) by TMEdu Tech (M) Sdn Bhd http://www.wikipedia.org http://images.search.yahoo.com http://www.google.com.my CD courseware ICT 18
  44. 44. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS PERIPHERALS PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  45. 45. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module MODULE 4 PERIPHERALS Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  46. 46. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : Computer Parts & Components - Peripherals 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • identify different types of peripherals • state examples different types of peripherals • 3. state the definition of peripheral explain the functions of each peripheral Knowledge and Skills: 1. Main computer components 4. Module Summary: At the end of the module, students should be able to know the functions of each peripheral This module contains 2 activities: Activity 1: Definition of Peripheral Activity 2: Different Types and Functions of Peripheral 2
  47. 47. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Activity 1: Definition & types of peripheral Peripheral Device External hardware devices attached to the computer are called peripheral devices There are three types of peripheral devices : • Input devices • Output devices • Storage devices Figure 1: Peripheral Device Input Devices Input devices are any electronic device that are connected to a computer and produces input signals. Figure 2: Input Device Output Devices Output is the result of data processing activity when it is presented externally to the system. The output from a computer can be printed or displayed form . An output device is hardware that is capable of delivering or showing information to one or more users. An output device shows, prints and presents the results of a computer’s work. Figure 3: Output Device 3
  48. 48. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Storage Devices Information and documents are stored in a computer storage so that it can be retrieved whenever they are needed later on. Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor. Hard Disk Activity 2: Diskette CD Rom Thumb Drive Different types and the functions of peripheral 1. Printers A printer is another example of an output device that can be used to print text and graphics on mediums such as paper, transparency film or even cloths. Figure 3: Printer A photo printer is a colour printer that produces photo quality pictures. An image setter produces high quality output compared to an ordinary laser printer. An image setter is a high resolution output device that can transfer electronic text and graphics directly to film, plates, or photo-sensitive paper. Figure 4: Printer 4
  49. 49. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module 2. Scanners In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, handwriting, or objects (such as an ornament) and converts it into a digital image. These are examples of scanners: a. The flatbed scanner is the most common in offices. b. Hand-held scanners are no longer used due to the difficulty in obtaining a highquality image. c. Digital camera scanners, that are based on the concept of reprographic cameras. d. Planetary scanners, which take photographs of books and documents e. 3D scanners, for producing three-dimensional models of objects, Planetary and 3D scanners are considerably more expensive than other types of scanners. ( source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_scanner) Pen or handheld Figure 5: Handheld Scanner Drum Flatbed Sheet-fed 5
  50. 50. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module 3. LCD Projector LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead projector. A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector uses its own light source to project what is displayed on the computer onto a wall or projection screen. A digital light processing (DLP) projector uses tiny mirrors to reflect light that can be seen clearly in a well-lit room. Figure 6: LCD Projector 4. Digital Cameras Digital Cameras are electronic devices used to capture and store photographs digitally, using the memory card without using photographic film like conventional cameras, or recording images in an analog format to magnetic tape like many video cameras. Modern compact digital cameras are typically multifunctional, with some devices capable of recording sound and/or video as well as photographs. Figure 7: Digital Camera 6
  51. 51. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module 5. External CD Drives The external DVD/CD-RW combo drive functions as a DVD player, a CD-RW drive and a CD-ROM drive. This allows you to install computer applications, files, music and movies on CD. It is easy to be carried around. Figure 8: CD/DVD Writer 6. External Storages External storage is an alternative storage. It is very useful to store programs and data for future use. The storage is required for two reasons: 1. The working memory of the CPU is limited in size and cannot always hold the amount of data required. 2. Data and programmes in storage do not disappear when the power is turned off. Figure 8: Storage Device 7
  52. 52. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Worksheet 1: Label The Figure a. b. c. d. e. f. g. CD or DVD External hard disk Tape drive Miniature hard disk Zip disk Flash memory card USB Flash drive 2. _________ 1. _________ 4. _________ 3. _________ 8
  53. 53. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module 5. _________ 6. _________ 7. _________ 9
  54. 54. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Worksheet 2: Fill in the blank with the correct word. Laser printer Tape flat panel monitor Output device Bar code Flash card Pen drive 1. Identification code that consists of vertical line and spaces of different widths is known as _________________________ 2. __________ storage requires sequential access. 3. A _____________ is commonly used as the ‘film’ for digital cameras. 4. __________________ is any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. 5. An LCD monitor also call a _______________ produces harp, flicker free images. 6. A ______________ is flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port. 7. _____________ is a high speed, high quality non impact printer 10
  55. 55. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Worksheet 3: Devices Types & Names 11 Functions
  56. 56. ICTL for Secondary School - Hardware Module Reference Cashman, S. (2006) Discovering Computers 2006. USA : Thomson Course Technology. Ibrahim Ahmad, Mohd Hafiz et al (2007) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based on SPM Syllabus. Selangor: Venton Publishing (M) Sdn Bhd. NCC Education (2002) Computer Studies, Computer Ace. Sri Lanka : Computer Pioneers. Basic Computing (2003) by TMEdu Tech (M) Sdn Bhd http://www.wikipedia.org http://images.search.yahoo.com http://www.google.com.my CD courseware ICT 12
  57. 57. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  58. 58. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 5 INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  59. 59. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : Computer Parts & Components –Input devices, Output devices and Storage devices. 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • state the respective functions of input devices • identify and list the output devices • state the respective functions of output devices • identify and list the storage devices • state the functions of storage devices • identify differences between primary and secondary storage devices • 3. identify and list the input devices state the units for data measurement Knowledge and Skills: 1. Main components of computer system 2. System unit 3. Peripherals 4. Module Summary: At the end of the module, students should be able to identify input, output and storage devices and their functions respectively. This module contains 3 activities: Activity 1: Input devices Activity 2: Output devices Activity 3: Storage devices 2
  60. 60. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 1: Input Devices Input devices are any electronic devices connected to a computer that produce input signals. A keyboard is an example of input device for text input. A scanner is an example of input device for graphical as well as text input. A microphone is an example of input device for audio input A webcam is an example of an input device for video input. A mouse is also an input device but it is called a pointing device used to input data into a computer. 3
  61. 61. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module a. Input Devices for Texts You can enter data such as text and commands into a computer by pressing the keys on the keyboard. You can press the keys of a virtual keyboard on the screen. An optical reader is a device that uses a light source to read characters, marks and codes and then converts them into digital data that a computer can process. b. Input Devices for Graphics A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages and similar sources for computer editing and display. A digital camera allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally. c. Input Devices for Audio Audio input is the speech, music and sound effects entered into the computer. This can be done by using input devices such as a microphone and digital musical instruments like the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) keyboard. 4
  62. 62. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module d. Input Devices for Video Video input are motion images captured into the computer by special input devices. A Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) video camera is a type of digital video camera that enables a home or small business user to capture video and still images. A webcam is a video camera that displays its output on a web page. A digital video camera allows you to record full motion and store the captured motion digitally. e. Pointing Devices A pointing device is another form of input device. Pointing devices such as a mouse, trackball, graphics tablet and touch screen are used to input spatial data into the computer. Spatial data refers to data that is continuous and multi-dimensional. 5
  63. 63. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 2: Output Devices An output device is hardware that is capable of delivering or showing information to one or more users. An output device displays, prints and presents the results of a computer’s work. Types of Output Devices A display device is an output device that visually conveys texts, graphics and video information. A monitor is an example of an output device that can be used to display text. It can also display graphics and video. It is similar to a television set that accepts video signals from a computer and displays information on its screen. A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector uses its own light source to project what is displayed on the computer on a wall or projection screen. A digital light processing (DLP) projector uses tiny mirrors to reflect light which can be seen clearly in a well-lit room. 6
  64. 64. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module A printer is an output device that prints text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film. A photo printer is a colour printer that produces photo quality pictures. An image setter produces high quality output compared to an ordinary laser printer. An image setter is a high resolution output device that can transfer electronic text and graphics directly to film, plates or photo-sensitive paper. An audio output device produces music, speech, or other sounds. A pair of speakers is an audio output device that generates sound. The headphone is a pair of small speakers placed over the ears and plugged into a port on the sound card. A woofer or subwoofer is used to boost the low bass sound and is connected to the port on the sound card. speaker headphone 7 woofer
  65. 65. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 3: Storage Devices What Is Computer Storage? Information and documents are stored in computer storage so that it can be retrieved whenever they are needed later on. Hard Disk Thumb Drive Diskette CD ROM Computer storage is the storing of data in an electromagnetic form to be accessed by a computer processor. Types of Computer Storage 1. Primary storage 2. Secondary storage Primary Storage Primary storage is the main memory in a computer. It stores data and programs that can be accessed directly by the processor. Types Of Primary Storage There are two types of primary storage which are RAM and ROM. 8
  66. 66. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module The Differences Between RAM And ROM Random-Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) .RAM is an acronym for RandomAccess Memory which means the data and program in RAM can be read and written. ROM is an acronym for ReadOnly Memory. The data or program in ROM can only be read but cannot be written at all RAM stores data during and after processing. RAM is also known as a working memory. ROM is another type of memory permanently stored inside the computer. The data in RAM can be read (retrieved) or written (stored). All the contents in ROM can be accessed and read but cannot be changed. RAM is volatile which means the programs and data in RAM are lost when the computer is powered off. ROM is non-volatile. It holds the programs and data when the computer is powered off. A computer uses RAM to hold temporary instructions and data needed to complete tasks. This enables the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to access instructions and data stored in the memory very quickly Programs in ROM have been prerecorded. It can only be stored by the manufacturer once and it cannot be changed. . 9
  67. 67. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Secondary Storage Secondary storage is another alternative storage to save your work and documents. It is very useful to store programs and data for future use. It is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in it. It will store the information until it is erased. Types Of Secondary Storage Magnetic Medium Magnetic Medium is a non-volatile storage medium. It can be any type of storage medium that utilizes magnetic patterns to represent information. The devices use disks that are coated with magnetically sensitive material. Examples of magnetic storage are: magnetic disk such as: o a floppy disk, used for off-line storage o hard disk, used for secondary storage o magnetic tape such as o video cassette, o audio storage reel-to-reel tape 10
  68. 68. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Optical Medium Optical Medium is a non-volatile storage media , holds content in digital form that are written and read by laser. These media include various types of CDs and DVDs. These following forms are often commonly used : Optical Media CD, CD-ROM, and DVD Description Read only storage, used for distribution of digital information such as music, video and computer programs. CD-R Write once storage, the data cannot be erased or written over once it is saved. Slow to write but fast reading storage; it allows data that have been saved to be erased and rewritten CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM Optical media has more advantages over magnetic media such as: • • Disk Capacity. One optical disk holds about the equivalent of 500 floppy disks worth of data. Durability. They are able to last for up to seven times as long as traditional storage media. Flash Memory Flash Memory is a solid-state, non-volatile, rewritable memory that functions like RAM and a hard disk drive. Flash memory store bits of electronic data in memory cells just like DRAM (Dynamic RAM) but it also works like a hard disk drive that when the power is turned off, the data remains in the memory. Flash memory cards and flash memory sticks are examples of flash memory. Flash memory cards are also used with digital cellular phones, MP3 players, digital video cameras and other portable digital devices. Flash memory is also called USB drive, thumb drive, pen drive or flash drive, are the up and coming players in the portable storage market. The advantages of flash memory are: • offers fast reading access times among the secondary storage devices, (though not as fast as RAM) • durable and requires low voltage. • light and small. The disadvantage is, it is more expensive than the magnetic disk of the same capacity. 11
  69. 69. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module The Differences Between Primary And Secondary Storage PRIMARY STORAGE Known as the main memory of a computer. Examples are: RAM / ROM. SECONDARY STORAGE Alternative storage in a computer. Examples are: Floppy disc, Hard disk, CDROM, USB storages Storage capacity is larger. An external storage that refers to various ways a computer can store program and data. INon-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in it. Storage capacity is limited. An internal memory (inside the CPU) that can be accessed directly by the processor. Has a volatile memory for RAM and nonvolatile memory for ROM. Units for data measurement • • • • • Bit Byte Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) Gigabyte (GB) Basic terminology • • • • 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Byte = 1 KB 1,048,576 Bytes = 1024 KB = 1 MB 1,073,741,824 Bytes = 1024 MB = 1 GB 12
  70. 70. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 1 Fill in the blank with the correct word. Laser printer Tape flat panel monitor Output device Bar code Flash card Pen drive 1. Identification code that consists of vertical line and spaces of different widths is known as _________________________ 2. __________ storage requires sequential access. 3. A _____________ is commonly used as the ‘film’ for digital cameras. 4. __________________ is any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people. 5. An LCD monitor also call a _______________ produces harp, flicker free images. 6. A ______________ is flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port. 7. _____________ is a high speed, high quality non impact printer 13
  71. 71. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 2 Identify the type of input the devices produce. Tick (/) in the appropriate column Devices 1. Bar Code Scanner 6. Pointing Scanner 5. Video Webcam 4. Graphics Keyboard 3. Audio Microphone 2. Text Mouse Worksheet 3 Mark on the types of output each device produces. Device Text Graphic Monitor Printer LCD Projector Speakers Headphone Facsimile Machine 14 Audio Video
  72. 72. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 4 Tick (/) the correct answer. No QUESTIONS 1 A display device is an output device that visually conveys text. 2 A microphone produces music. 3 A photo printer is a colour printer that produces photo quality pictures. 4 Output is the result of raw input data that has been processed by the central processing unit into meaningful information. 5 A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projector uses its own light source to project what is displayed on the computer on a wall or projection screen 6 A digital light processing (DLP) projector uses large mirrors to reflect light which can be seen clearly in a well-lit room. 7 A video camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs digitally 15 TRUE FALSE
  73. 73. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Worksheet 5 Convert the following storage to the particular measurement 1. 1 GB = ______ MB 2. 1024 KB = ______ Bytes 3. 2 GB = ______ KB 4. 1024 MB = ______ GB 5. 10 GB = ______ MB 6. 2000 KB = _______ MB 7. 2 MB = ______ KB 8. 4800 MB = _______ GB 9. 6 MB = ______ Bytes 10. 100 GB = _______ MB 16
  74. 74. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Reference Cashman, S. (2006) Discovering Computers 2006. USA : Thomson Course Technology. Ibrahim Ahmad, Mohd Hafiz et al (2007) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based on SPM Syllabus. Selangor: Venton Publishing (M) Sdn Bhd. NCC Education (2002) Computer Studies, Computer Ace. Sri Lanka : Computer Pioneers. Basic Computing (2003) by TMEdu Tech (M) Sdn Bhd http://www.wikipedia.org http://images.search.yahoo.com http://www.google.com.my CD courseware ICT 17
  75. 75. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware Basic Maintenance Handling Input and Output Devices PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  76. 76. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 6 HANDLING INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  77. 77. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : Basic Maintenance – Handling input and output devices 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • state the steps to connect the peripherals to system unit • 3. to set up the input and output devices correctly powering the system Knowledge and Skills 1. Connecting the peripherals 2. Powering the system 4. Module Summary: At the end of the module, students should be able to connect peripherals; monitor, keyboard, mouse and speaker to the system unit This module contains 5 activities: Activity 1: Naming the peripheral port on the system unit Activity 2: Connecting the Monitor to the system unit Activity 3: Connecting the Keyboard and mouse to the system unit Activity 4: Connecting the Speaker to the system unit Activity 5: Powering the System 2
  78. 78. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 1: Naming the Peripherals Port No: Label of the ports 1 Power port 2 PS2 port (Mouse) 3 PS2 port (keyboard) 4 USB port 5 Parallel port (printer port) 6 Serial port (Modem) 7 VGA port (Monitor display) 8 Game port (Joystick) 9,10,11 Audio ports (speaker, headphone and microphone) ( 9-Line Out, 10Line In, 11-Mic) Figure 1: Back view of the System Unit (ports) 3
  79. 79. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 2: Connecting the Monitor to the system unit Steps: 1. Plug the VGA cable of the monitor to the display device port as in Figure 2. The VGA cable is blue in colour must be connected to the display that has the same colour. Students must connect the tiny pin on VGA cable carefully. Figure 2: Connecting VGA cable to monitor port Activity 3: Connecting the Keyboard and mouse to the system unit 1. Plug the PS2 cable of the keyboard (purple nozzle) and mouse (green nozzle) to the device port as Figure 3.1. Students also need to be extremely careful to attach the keyboard and mouse to their respective PS/2 port. For keyboard and mouse that have USB toggle use Figure 3.2 Figure 3.1 : Connecting keyboard and mouse to the PS2 ports 4
  80. 80. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Figure 3.2 : Connecting keyboard and mouse to the USB ports Activity 4: Connecting Audio and Microphone Devices to the system unit 1. Plug the cable of the speaker (green nozzle) and microphone (blue nozzle) to the device port as figure 4. Figure 4 : Connecting peripherals Audio and Microphone to the Audio ports 5
  81. 81. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 5: Powering the System Steps: 1. Plug in the power cord and switch the power supply switch to the ‘On’ position. 2. Press the power button. If everything is connected as it should be, all system fans should start spinning. You should hear a single beep, and after 2-5 seconds, the computer will start to boot. Figure 5: Connecting the power cable 6
  82. 82. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware Computer Setting PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
  83. 83. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module MODULE 7 BASIC COMPUTER SETTING Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 1
  84. 84. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 1. Name of Module : 2. Learning Outcomes: The students should be able to: • • • • • 3. customize settings for display customize settings for mouse customize settings for sound customize settings for date and time regional and language options Knowledge and Skills: • • 4. Computer Setting Customize setting for display, mouse and sound. Customize setting for date and time, language and regional option. Module Summary: At the end of the module, student should be able to set the computer by customize the setting for display, mouse, sound, date and time, regional and language options. This module contains 5 activities: Activity 1: Activity 2: Activity 3: Activity 4: Activity 5: Customizing settings for display. Customizing settings for mouse. Customizing settings for sound. Customizing settings for date and time. Customizing settings for regional and language 2 options.
  85. 85. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 1: Customizing settings for display 1. Click Start button, then click Control Panel Control Panel 2. Control Panel window will appear as shown below. Then click Appearance and Setting. Appearance and Setting 3
  86. 86. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 3. Click Display Display 4. Display Properties window will appear as shown below. In the Themes option, you can change the themes of your computer by choosing from the drop down menu. Choose Window XP and click OK. Theme s Drop down menu 4
  87. 87. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 5. Click Desktop tab. You can change your desktop background. Choose Bliss in the Background menu and than click OK. Desktop Background Menu OK 6. Click Screen Saver tab. You can change your screen saver by choosing from the drop down menu. Choose 3D Flying Objects and click OK. Screen Saver Drop down menu 5
  88. 88. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 7. Click Appearance tab. You can change the appearance of windows and buttons, colour schemes and font size by choosing from drop down menu. In Windows and buttons, choose Window XP style. In colour scheme choose Default(blue). In Font size choose Normal. Then click OK. Appearance Windows and buttons Colour schemes Font Size Activity 2: Customizing settings for mouse 1. In the Control Panel, click Appearance and Themes. Appearance and Themes window will be displayed, then click Mouse Pointers. Appearance and Themes Mouse Pointers 6
  89. 89. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 2. The Mouse Properties window will appear as shown below. Choose Pointer tab option. You can customize the mouse pointer by choosing from the customize drop down menu. Choose Normal Select and click OK. Pointers Customize Drop down Menu 3. Click Pointer Option tab. You can select the pointer speed by moving the motion slide indicator. Click OK. Pointer Option Motion Slide Indicator 7
  90. 90. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 3: Customizing settings for sound 1. In the Control Panel, click Sounds, Speech and Audio Devices. Then click Adjust the system volume. Adjust the system volume Sounds, Speech and Audio Devices 2. Choose the volume level by moving the volume slide indicator. Volume Slide Indicator 8
  91. 91. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 3. For advance volume control setting, click Advanced. A window will appear Adjust the volume level by moving the volume slide indicator. Advanced… 9 Volume Slide Indicator
  92. 92. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 4. Customizing settings for Date and Time 1. In the Control Panel, click Date, Time, Language and Regional Options. Then click Date and Time. Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options Date and time 2. Click Date and Time tab. Choose day, month and year from the Date options. Change the time in the time option.Then click OK. Date and Time Year Month Time Option Day 10
  93. 93. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 3. Click Time Zone. Choose the time zone from the drop down menu according to the country you stay. Choose (GMT+08:00) Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and click OK. Time Zone Drop Down Menu 11
  94. 94. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Activity 5: Customizing settings for Regional and Language Options. 1. In the Control Panel, click Date, Time, Language and Regional Options. In the Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options window, click Regional and Language Options. Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options Regional and Language Options 2. Click Regional Options tab. IRegional option will set how some programs format numbers, currencies, dates and time. Then, click the drop down menu. English (United States) is commonly use. Choose English (United States) and click OK. Regional Options Drop down menu 12
  95. 95. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module 3. Control Panel window will appear as below. Close the Control Panel Window. Close 4. The interface will be shown as below. 13
  96. 96. ICTL for Secondary School - Computer Hardware Module Evaluation Form COMPUTER HARDWARE Module 2: Computer Settings Name : ___________________ Class :____________________ Date :____________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. Customize setting for Window Themes Customize setting for desktop background Customize setting for screen saver Customize setting for Window Appearance 5. Customize setting for mouse 6. Customize setting for sound 7. Customize setting for date 8. Customize setting for time 9. Customize setting for regional Please tick (√) one of the check box 14 EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE SKILLS A LITTLE DON’T KNOW At the end of the lesson students have learned the following skills.

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