TABLE OF CONTESTS Map Background Social structure Housing Food Family life Marriage Childhood Education Religion Clothing Art, Music Cunclision
MAP OF THE EGYPT CIVILIZATION Ancient Egypt has a long history which began in about 3150 BC and continued until 50 BC.
BACKGROUND Ancient Egypt was located in North Africa, along the lower part of the Nile River. They are famous for the mummies, huge pyramids, and gods. Egypt had one of the oldest cultures in the history. They didn’t have technology, but they could build very tall pyramids. The slaves had to build them for free. No one paid them any money for their efforts. Egyptians believed in gods and thought they would get angry with them if they did something wrong! Whoever didn’t believe in the gods would be killed!
SOCIAL STRUCTURE The Egyptian social structure was just like their pyramids! At the top were the most important, gods or pharaoh. Then were the priests, government officials, and nobles. They were not as important as pharaoh, or gods, but they were important. And at the bottom of the pyramid were the poor slaves and servants. No one cared about them; people could buy or sell them and be their boss! That was not a very fare social structure. However, people with more power and money had better lives than those who did not even have enough money to buy food for their families.
HOUSING In ancient Egypt, people made their houses out of mud bricks. They could easily get mud when the Nile or other rivers flooded. In those days, people could bake the mud in a wooden mold under the sun. Poor people’s houses were only one brick thick. They weren’t very secure, but rich people’s houses were two bricks thick. Most of their houses had four rooms and one big central room. The room was called central room because it was in the middle of all the rooms, and families usually spent their time in it. At the top of the central room, there was a window, so they had to make the central room higher than other rooms. The noblemens houses were obviously better than common peoples’ residences, because they were rich and could afford more luxury. Egyptians didn’t use a lot of wood for building their houses, because they didn’t have good quality wood to use. Therefore, they just used wood for supporting the ceilings, stair cases, and doorways.
FOOD Ancient Egyptians didn’t have any forks or spoons, so they had to eat with their hands. Everyone could enjoy drinking beer and wine. However, rich people had more variety of food than poor people. For example, the poor only ate bread. That was something usual for them. They could only afford to buy or make bread, onions, and sometimes fish. People would rarely eat beef, except at rich people’s feast. Wealthy people could easily enjoy eating various foods and breads. The bad thing was that they didn’t have sugar, so they just used honey to sweeten their food.
FAMILY LIFE In Egypt, family life was really important. Women did most of the jobs. They would go out and trade, while their husbands stayed home and wove! However, still women had to do household duties. In other words, women were the most important members of the family and in charge. People would treat women very well. Young boys had to learn their fathers’ or grandfathers’ jobs and continue with them. Children were expected to help their mothers or their elderly parents. Boys could get their fathers’ lands and girls could get their goods like jewels if their parents died.
MARRIAGE In Egypt, girls who lived in villages would usually marry at the age of 12. Boys were a little bit older than girls when they got wed. However, girls who were rich would marry a few years later. Most of the time, parents would arrange their children’s marriages, but sometimes their children didn’t want that! Ordinary men had one wife, while the king had several. Before both men and women could marry, they had to sign an agreement, saying that the wife would get an allowance from her husband. The contract also said that any objects that the wife brought into the marriage would be hers to keep if they divorced for any reason. They could both have their own land separately, but the wife usually would allow her husband to take care of it for her.
DIVORCE People could get a divorce, but it was not a common thing to do. If a husband was mean to his wife and treated her badly, she would go to her family to get help. The wifes family would try to convince her husband to change his actions. If his behavior did not get better, the divorce would take place. The divorce was simple, making a plain statement to end the marriage in front of witnesses. The wife was given care of the children and was free to get married again.
CHILDHOOD Children were often with pets, particularly birds. There were board games that children and adults played. Toys were made for children. When it was warm, children played outside. There were jumping games like leap-frog and wrestling and dancing. Poor children helped their mothers and fathers by looking after the younger children, and taking care of animals. Ancient Egyptians loved children and took good care of them. Mothers nursed their babies for three or four years. In a soft sling, little babies were carried by their mothers, so that they could feel their body heat. Infants were probably held most of the time. Even after they began to eat solid food, young children ate with their mothers, who always were with them and took care of them. The names given to children also tell us of the affection parents gave them. For example, Nakht, meant strong, was a common name.
EDUCATION In ancient Egypt, not every boy and girl had the chance to go to school. Most rich boys and girls went to scribal schools to learn. Hopefully, one day they would grow up to become a famous pharaoh or an important person or a rich scribe. If they did not want to be a scribe, they did not have to go to school. Instead, they would become an apprentice and help other professionals such as doctors or bakers and learn while working with them. In other words, they didn’t have to go to school to learn something.
RELIGION Religion was really important to ancient Egyptians. One of their most important traditions was Divine Kingship, which meant people believed that pharaohs were not just their kings, but were also their gods! One of their gods was named Horus, son of Re the sun god. They believed in Osiris, the god of death, too. Ancient Egyptians believed that if something bad had happened, it was because of pharaohs and priests. And if something bad wouldn’t happen, it was because pharaohs and priests had done their jobs perfectly. Egyptians’ tradition or religion was called, Polytheistic, meaning that they had more than one god. Egyptians had about 700 hundred different gods. They also believed in afterlife. They believed that dead people’s spirits would need a place to be. They also mummification their dead bodies to protect them from being destroyed. Therefore, they made pyramids, but pyramids where a place for pharaohs’ dead bodies, not for normal people. (1) (2)
CLOTHING People in Egypt wore light clothes that were made of something named Linen which is made of flax. Flax is a type of plant that grows near the Nile River. Women wore full length straight, pleated dresses with one or two shoulder straps. Rich women wore fine transparent linen and they wore jewelry and headdresses. The men wore a skirt with a belt. Sometimes, men wore a pleated garment. Just like women, rich men bought see through fine quality linen and wore jewelry and headdresses to decorate their clothes. The children did not wear clothes until they were about six when they began to wear the same outfits as men and women. These people mostly went barefoot, but wore sandals for special events or when their feet hurt. The sandals that the poor wore were made of woven palm. The ones worn by the rich were made of leather.
ART, MUSIC On the walls and ceilings of homes, temples, palaces and graves the artists drew pictures of birds flying in sunny days, fish swimming in the water, and beasts roaming through the forests. Sometimes, floors were painted to look like swimming pools and ceilings looked like stars similar to the sky. There were floral designs. There was also Egyptian sculpture and paintings which were the best in the Oriental civilization until the time of the kingdom of China developed their art works. When we look at Tutankhamens tomb, we can also see astonishing luxury of Egyptian furniture. Tables had silver in them, jewel boxes were everywhere, and perfume baskets were located on the tables. When their work was finished, the ancient Egyptians listened to music, played on lutes, harps, sistrums, flutes and lyres. Temples and palaces had orchestras and choirs. The Pharaohs staff, a "superintendent of singing," organized players and musicians for the entertainment of the king.
CONCLUSION In conclusion, ancient Egypt had a successful and completed civilization. They also had a the longest recorded history between all other civilizations. They had very strange and different traditions than we have now. They had multiple gods and goddesses which were really weird. Egyptian even had a very different type of life style than we do now! They didn’t have the technology to make cool things, but we now see that they have made a lot of things that we wouldn’t be able to do if they hadn’t done it. For example, we didn’t now how to mummification an animal. We didn’t even know what it was, until we read the walls of the tombs of Egyptians. Ancient Egypt is a well known place because of its mummies, huge pyramids, strange gods and goddesses. By now, I’m pretty sure that every one knows a little bit about ancient Egypt!
INFORMATION BIBLIOGRAPHY Ancient Egyptian Education - http://library.thinkquest.org/J002046F/education.htm education Ancient Egypt, Tourism - http://egypthistorytourism.blogspot.com/2010/10/ancient-egypt.html facts about Egypt Brewer, Douglas J., and Emily Teeter. “Egypt and the Egyptians” (couldn’t find it!) Cambridge University Press 1995. Egypt: Daily Life - http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.html family life and marriage Factual Information About Egypt - http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0210200/ancient_egypt/facts.htm Some basic and factual information Food in Ancient Egypt - http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-food.htm food Housing in Ancient Egypt http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-housing.htm housing Morley, Jacqueline. “How Would You Survive as an Ancient Egyptian?” New York. Franklin Watts, 1995.(book from classroom) Online Activities, Childhood - http://www.rom.on.ca/programs/activities/egypt/learn/childhood.php childhood Painting in Ancient Egypt - http://www.love-egypt.com/painting.html Art, music Religion of ancient Egypt - http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/religion.htm religion The Egyptians – clothing - http://www.historyonthenet.com/Egyptians/clothing.htm clothing
PICTURES BIBLIOGRAPHY http://scoilchaitrionajnrmsflaherty.blogspot.com/ Title page http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/EGYPT/nilemap.html map of Egypt http://jeremylent.wordpress.com/category/ascendancy-to-power-agriculture/ Table of contests http://www.places-to-visit.us/games/Alexandria,_Egypt.html background pyramids http://professortravel-egypt.com/ancientreligions2.html Background (2) god http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-housing.htm housing http://www.educationaladventures.co.uk/history/ancient-egyptian-introduction.html food http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/daily-life-in-ancient-egypt.html family life http://www.awakening-healing.com/Egyptian_Gods_&_Goddesses.htm marriage http://preterhuman.net/texts/other/crystalinks/divorce.html divorce http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/egypt/clothes.htm children http://ancientegyptmoberly.pbworks.com/w/page/12830354/bibliography education http://egypthistorytourism.blogspot.com/2010/10/ancient-egypt.html religion (1) http://www.egypttourinfo.com/ancient-egypt-religion.html religion (2) http://www.love-egypt.com/clothing.html clothing http://www.zazzle.com/ancient+egyptian+art+gifts music http://www.love-egypt.com/life-in-ancient-egypt.html art