1. Projectsformba.blogspot.com A SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT ON “TRAINING AND
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members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities,and attitude needed
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Reliance money report
Reliance money report
Reliance money report
Reliance money report
Reliance money report
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Reliance money report

  1. 1. 1. Projectsformba.blogspot.com A SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT ON “TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT”Project Report Submitted By:-Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of the degree of PGDM POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT, AICTE, Ministry of HRD, Government Of India, New Delhi SAI BALAJI EDUCATION SOCIETYINTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (W) (IIMHRD)Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2. Projectsformba.blogspot.com DECLARATIONI the undersign hereby declare that the project report entitled “Training andDevelopment” written and submitted by me to IIMHRD, Pune in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the award of PGDM under the guidance ofmy mentor……………, my guide …………….. and ………………. is myoriginal work and the conclusion drawn there in are based on the materialcollected by myself. I hereby declare also this study has not been permittedby me to publish anywhere.Place:Date:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CERTIFICATE BY THE INSTITUTEThis is to certify that Miss ………………………………., the student ofPGDM has worked on summer project titled “Training and Development”in Lucknow after semester II in partial fulfillment of the requirement for theProgram. This is her original work to the best of my knowledge.Date: Director’s Signature:Seal: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTProjectsformba.blogspot.com 4. Projectsformba.blogspot.comI take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all the concerned people who havedirectly or indirectly contributed towards completion of this project. I extend my sinceregratitude towards Reliance Money for providing the opportunity and resources to workon this project.I am extremely grateful to …………………….., my mentor in Reliance for her guidanceand invaluable advice during the projects. Also to my guide, …………………… whoseinsight encouraged me to go beyond the scope of the project and this broadened melearning on this project.I also want to show my gratitude to …………………….. whose insight helped me tocomplete this project.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PREFACEThe global economy of the day has endangered the survival of every organization and inparticular those who want to have a competitive edge over the others. The competitiveedge may be a distant dream in the absence of Superior Quality Products which otherwiseis the function of well-trained employees. Today resources are scarce and have to be usedcarefully and trainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account fortheir activities. Training activities, which are ill directed and inadequately focused, do notserve the purpose of the trainers. The trainees or the organization hence identification oftraining needs becomes the top priority of every progressive organization. Identificationof training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other trainingactivities can be considered and will lead to multi skilling, fitting people to take extraresponsibilities increasing all round competence and preparing people to take on higherlevel responsibility in future.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CONTENTSTOPICCHAPTER 1: (i)Introduction (ii)Scope and Objectives (iii)Executive SummaryCHAPTER 2: (i)Introduction to Reliance (ii)About the project (iii)Training and Development (iv)Importance of Training (v)Objectives of TrainingCHAPTER 3: (i)Learning and Training (ii)Training inputs (iii) Benefits of training (iv) Methods of training (v) Training Design (vi) Training method used in RelianceCHAPTER 4: (i)Methodology of the project (ii)Data interpretation and analysis (iii)Findings (iv)QuestionnaireCHAPTER 5: (i) Limitations (ii) Suggestions (iii) ConclusionCHAPTER 6: (i)BibliographyProjectsformba.blogspot.com 7. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTIONEmployee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge sothat employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higherposition with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends initself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth.Training refers to the teaching /learning activities done for the primary purpose ofhelping
  2. 2. members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities,and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speakingtraining is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing aparticular job.In today’s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is tolearn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organizationthey are the cornucopia of ideas. So it high time the organization realize that “train andretain is the mantra of new millennium.” SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formatsbeing followed and is limited to the company Reliance Money and its employees. Thedifferent training programmes incorporated/facilitated in Reliance Money through itsProjectsformba.blogspot.com 8. Projectsformba.blogspot.comfaculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of theknowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYThe broad objective of the study of training policies in Reliance Money is to study theimpact of training on the overall skill development of workers. The specific objectives ofthe study are: 1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce. 2. To examine the impact of training on the workers. 3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. 4. To measure the differential change in output due to training 5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYEvery organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform theactivities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet thisrequirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise theskill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several times during theirworking lives. The probability of any young person learning a job to day and havingthose skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremelyProjectsformba.blogspot.com 9. Projectsformba.blogspot.comunlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society employee training is notonly an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commitresources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as newconcepts, which are in trend now.Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and howcan it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested interms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the trainingneed of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Trainingbeing covered in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The bestand latest available trends in training method,the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and howeffective is the training all together.Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other tofollow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out ofit.Development is integral part of training if some body is trained properly and efficientlythe developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here wediscussed about development of employee, how to identify the needs, and afterdeveloping how to develop executive skill to sharpen there knowledge. Learning shouldbe the continuous process and one should not hesitate to learn any stage. Learning anddeveloping is fast and easy at Reliance Money. CHAPTER- 2Projectsformba.blogspot.com 10. Reliance Money provides investors with the facility of anytime-anywhere online trading in all major asset classes, namely: Equities, Equities and Commodity derivatives IPOs, Mutual Funds Life and General Insurance productsProjectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com Introduction to Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani GroupThe Reliance – Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group is among India’s top three private sectorbusiness houses on all major financial parameters, with a group market capitalization ofRs 200,000 crore (US$ 50 billion), and net worth to the tune of Rs 58,000 crore (US$ 13Billion)Across different companies, the group has a customer base of over 150 million, thelargest in India, and a shareholder base of over 12 million, among the largest in
  3. 3. theWorld.Through its products and services, the Reliance - ADA Group touches the life of 1 in 8Indians every single day. It has a business presence that extends to over 5000 towns andCities in India, and served by 12,000 distribution outlets, 500,000 business partners and30,000 strong motivated workforce.The interests of the Group range from communications (Reliance Communications) andFinancial services (Reliance Capital Ltd), to generation, transmission and distribution ofPower (Reliance Energy), infrastructure, media and entertainment. Introduction to Reliance Money 11. Moved into International arena- West Asia, South East Asia, Africa and Europe.Our MissionProjectsformba.blogspot.com Among the Top 3 private sector companies in financial services sector  Accounts for daily traded volumes of over Rs 2,000 crore ( US$ 454 million ), or 3- 4 % of the average daily volume of transactions logged on the stock exchanges  Acquired 2.5 million customers  The Corporate Office at Worli, Mumbai has approx 350 people belonging to these various functions  Currently 2200+ employees across 162 locations spread across the country.  Expanded its presence to 20,000 touch points. It has 10,000 outlets across 5,000 towns and cities across India.  Reliance Money provides entire commodity related services such as broking distribution and warehouse receipt financing  Network of kiosks have been set up across the country to facilitate the above trading activities Projectsformba.blogspot.com Foreign exchange derivatives Money transfer, Money changing, Precious metal retailing Credit Cards Loans Wealth Management products 12. Projectsformba.blogspot.com…. is to attract, nurture & are responsive to Employee Needs consistently deliver share-holder returns of 20%+ year-on-year retain a team of competitive, growth oriented talent who:- & are committed to making Reliance Capital among the top 3 “Best Employers to work for” in Indiathrough Transparentachieving an employee satisfaction index of 90%+ and… & Robust HR processes.Our Chairman’s Vision“We live in a world where the young are reaching higher, dreaming bigger anddemanding more; a world that is challenging the limits of hope and possibility.Nowhere is this more strikingly visible than in India – a country that wakes up everymorning a little younger in age, but infinitely more ambitious in spirit.”About The ProjectThe duration of my project was of two months during these two months I did many thingsregarding my project as I was also the part of operations I also understands how theoperations department works at Reliance money.How the shares of the client are kept inelectronic form in the client’s account and how it is dematerialized by operationsdepartment at Reliance money.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTIt is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning orbehavioral change takes place in structured format.TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING ANDDEVLOPMENTProjectsformba.blogspot.com 13. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTraditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe intraining. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made.There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth.Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems tobe changing.The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations haverealized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more ofretention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed tocreate a smarter workforce and yield the best results.TRAINING DEFINEDIt is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills,concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance ofemployees.Training is activity leading to skilled behavior• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it• Its not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve itTraining is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the currentProjectsformba.blogspot.com
  4. 4. 14. Projectsformba.blogspot.comsituation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) throughprofessional development. Importance of Training and Development• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps inoptimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achievethe organizational goals as well as their individual goals.• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide anopportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical andbehavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personalgrowth.• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasingthe job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizonsof human intellect and an overall personality of the employeesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 15. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProductivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of theemployees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team spirit, and inter- team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn withinthe employees• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve theorganizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culturewithin the organization.• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positiveperception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings fromleaders, subordinates, and peers.• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work andwork-life.• Healthy work- environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthyworking environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individualgoals aligns with organizational goal.• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safetyof the organization thus preventing obsolescence.• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and morepositive attitudes towards profit orientation.• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization getsmore effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding andProjectsformba.blogspot.com 16. Projectsformba.blogspot.comcarrying out organizational policies.• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty,better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVESThe principal objective of training and development division is to make sure theavailability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, thereare four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,enhances the individual contribution to an organization.Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringingindividual effectiveness.Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to theorganization’s needs.Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible tothe needs and challenges of the society. Importance of Training ObjectivesTraining objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While somepeople think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument hereis that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design oftraining. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less timebecause objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Trainingobjectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the trainingprogram. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholderProjectsformba.blogspot.com 17. Projectsformba.blogspot.comperspectives.1. Trainer2. Trainee3. Designer4. EvaluatorTrainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer tomeasure the progress of
  5. 5. trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comesin a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments oftraining.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 18. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTrainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducingthe anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a placewhich is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it isimportant to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping itsurprise.Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make thetraining successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’smind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, ifthe goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving thosegoals is much higher than the situation in which no goal isSet. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participantswill be successful in training.Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if thedesigner is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training packageaccording to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods,training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives.Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation.Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively withcustomers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design atraining program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbaland non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in aproduct or when a customer is angry.Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of theProjectsformba.blogspot.com 19. Projectsformba.blogspot.comtrainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Trainingobjective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.Training and Human Resource ManagementThe HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship betweenthe training function and other management activity is also changing. The training anddevelopment activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Goneare the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, andmoney. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as,marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Iftraining is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, thenit is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Trainingactually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in theorganizationTo increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement(concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Suchconcepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employeedevelopment and long term education.Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control theattrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional andpersonal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given ona variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 20. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRole of HRD Professionals in TrainingThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; therole of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:1. Active involvement in employee education2. Rewards for improvement in performance3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 6. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training. Models of TrainingTraining is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is atransforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the formof knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).THE TRAINING SYSTEMA System is a combination of
  6. 6. things or parts that must work together to perform aparticular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of theorganization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization.System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, andaim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process oftraining need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produceProjectsformba.blogspot.com 21. Projectsformba.blogspot.comproducts or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in orderto survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’srequirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. Thisapproach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach,training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort,one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below.Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and externalforces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of theseforces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts.The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learningenvironment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.The three model of training are:1. System Model2. Instructional System Development Model3. Transitional model System Model TrainingThe system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis tomake further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helpingemployee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in SystemModel of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job,Projectsformba.blogspot.com 22. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2. employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 6. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practicesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Instructional System Development Model(ISD)ModelInstructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned withthe training need on the job performance.Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description andon the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model alsohelps in determining and developing thefavorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types oftraining objectives to be achieved.The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 24. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration
  7. 7. props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 25. Projectsformba.blogspot.com The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes thevision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e.inner loop is executed.Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after thedefined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself fewyears down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internalProjectsformba.blogspot.com 26. Projectsformba.blogspot.comtransformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlinesMission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in thecommunity. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, andinformthe employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identitythat how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and allother stakeholders.Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects thedeeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industryenvironment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customerservice, etc.The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This modelconsiders the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these threethings in mind and then the training model is further implemented.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 27. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TRAIN AND RETAIN TO STOP THE DRAINIn today’s competitive world, where margins are constantly under pressure, trainingbudgets are the first to axed. So it becomes imperative that the training model that isevolved should be less capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins andprofitability.Although training needs are identified much before training programmed actuallycommence but still some crucial points are left some un-addressed.For example very little is done to know the opinion of the employee about training needidentified for him as to what he feels about the same .99% cases employee is nominatedby higher authorities instead of chance being given to volunteer program under theProjectsformba.blogspot.com 28. Projectsformba.blogspot.comnotion that boss is always right and he knows the best off. Taking this in context there aremany organization where some employee who are earmarked are regularly nominated toattend training program. “He is stressed out, why don’t pack him up for a trainingprogram” approach. CHAPTER-3 LEARNING AND TRAININGIrrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of theprinciples of learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what istaught.MotivationA trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If the is notinterested, or is de-motivated, the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and thecompany will have spent its money badly. On the other hand, being too intense aboutlearning and outcome may result in setting over ambitious goals for the individual.ReinforcementFollowing on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning to takeplace and be internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded or given someencouragement. This reinforcement, or the acknowledgement that what has been acquiredis desirable, can be either an extrinsic or intrinsic reward-external praise or some tangiblereward, or the individual’s feeling of a sense of progress. Current stress is on positivesupport and helpful behavior, even when mistakes are made.Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  8. 8. 29. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFeedbackDuring the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is progressing.Several researchers have confirmed that knowledge of results is an effective motivator.Constant and periodic feedback has positive effects on the trainee’s learning. Unless thetrainee knows how close his performance comes to the desired standard, he will not havean opportunity to improve. Feedback therefore provides a basis for correcting oneself.Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the trainee’s interest in the task, or in each learningthat is taking place, by bringing greater involvement with the learning process. Iffeedback is to be meaningful, it should follow a learning segment as quickly as possible.Transfer of LearningThe maximum use of training can be made if the trainee is able to transfer his learning tohis actual work role. This is possible if identical elements are incorporated in the trainingsituation from the job role, either existing or proposed. The more similar the learningsituation is to the job situation, the higher the degree of transfer the trainee can expect,and hence the grater the relevance of the training programme.RepetitionRepetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an examination, itis necessary to repeatedly to over ideas so that they can be recalled later.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 30. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRelevanceRelevance relates to the meaningful fuse of material, which aids learning, e.g., trainersusually explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning them aparticular task.TRAINING INPUTSThere are three basic types of inputs;(i)Skills(ii)Attitude(iii)Knowledge.The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best whenthe workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job isadequate, and he has developed the necessary skills.Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desiredmodifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform theirjobs most efficiently and effectively.BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE1. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANYThese have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of itsbusiness activities and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions andbenefits appropriate to the particular employee, and the career and advancementopportunities available.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 31. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANYThese are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same workarea, i.e. the same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a differentmanagement. Under this heading we are excluding promotions, which take people intoentirely new levels of responsibility.3. PROMOTIONSAlthough similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in newsurroundings, he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level ofsupervisory or management responsibility. The change is usually too important anddifficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up ashe goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilitiesand personal skills necessary for effective performance.4. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENTEven the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer andelectronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on theprocess plant on which he works. There is no less a training requirement for thesupervisors and process management, as well as for technical service production controland others.5. NEW PROCEDURESMainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but alsofor those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion onProjectsformba.blogspot.com 32. Projectsformba.blogspot.comwhich there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawalof materials from stores, the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims,there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances, anote bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient, butthere are cases, such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed,when more thorough training is needed.6. NEW STANDARDS, RULES AND PRACTICESChanges in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouthby the manager to his subordinates, and
  9. 9. this can be the most satisfaction way of dealingwith the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their newresponsibility. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort ofhandling. Even the simplest looking instruction may beregarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may notunderstand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which henow believes to be ‘messing about’, or he may understand the purpose and have a betteralternative to offer if it is not too late.7. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIESThese can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples,the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilitiesbetween the section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, althoughthere is no movement of staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although thechange in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person inthe new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he standsProjectsformba.blogspot.com 33. Projectsformba.blogspot.comin the new set up, which is responsible for what, and where to direct problems andenquiries as they arise in the future.8. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDSWe are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must beremembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuouslyresponsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it isgenerally agreed that some retraining from time to time, taking varied forms even for theon group of employees, does act as both a reminder and a stimulus, there is not muchagreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should take, of there is asyet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrialsituations.9. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITYAgain, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills inthose cases where people spend a long time without change, and without the need tolearn, there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case inindustrial employment. Add, of course, there is the inference arising from the laboratoryexperiments of psychologists.10. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDSSkills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are importantin all companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments incompany organisation, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training inProjectsformba.blogspot.com 34. Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities to increase their skills andProjectsformba.blogspot.com Enhancing workforce flexibility.Cross-cultural training is essential for t them for better adjustment in the new environment.  Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.  Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality Workforce. Projectsformba.blogspot.comthese skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into managementand supervision. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite thecommon knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature.11. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCYEmployees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement willbenefit from learning about health, social life, work opportunities money managementetc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, ina few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.BENEFITS OF TRAININGEmployees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution andlearning for mutual growth and development. Training is the answer to deal withstagnation stage by constantly updating it in every field. Other benefits of traininginclude: 35. It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employee to the vast opportunities for growth available in an organization.THE EVALUATION OF TRAININGThere are a number of expressions used to describe steps taken by management and bytraining offices at the conclusion of training and during the days or weeks afterwards.These expressions include validation, evaluation, follow-up and implementation, as wellas cost benefit, which have appeared in more recent years. We are
  10. 10. interested in all ofthese and have already tackled one of the, implementation, and we start by giving ourdefinitions in order to establish a clearer picture of what each is, and how they relate toeach other.Evaluation of training, or, indeed of anything, consists simply of putting a value to it. Toevaluate training means undertaking a search for the effect that it has had on the peopleand the situations, which it influences, and then trying to measure or estimate whetherthis is advantageous or disadvantageous.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting and career planning.  Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through improved service, increased productivity and greater sufficiency.  It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst for change. Projectsformba.blogspot.com knowledge. 36. Projectsformba.blogspot.comWe shall see that at the level of pure training there is an evaluation to be made, but thatthe principal evaluation is at a higher level in the chain. First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset 1. The forecourt attendants were to receive training to a defined level of competence. 2. They were then to apply their new capability correctly during the service that they gave to motorists. 3. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and would tend to use that particular station rather more, thus increasing the amount of gasoline sold. 4. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs, would improve the revenue and the profits.A TRAINING TOOL: INSPIRING OTHERSIn the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are to create learning environment.Trainer needs to innovate new ways design and deliver the training inputs. Wide range oftechnique like interactive methods like teaching, experiential learning cases inventoriesgames, including humour. Where as we have the ancient way of story telling as apowerful tool to create learning for adult managers of industry. Sharing ones ownperception, experience and ideas learning value can be increased exponentially.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 37. Projectsformba.blogspot.comMethods of TrainingThere are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive andbehavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, alsoits impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The variousmethods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written orverbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods areassociated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: LECTURES – A Method of TrainingIt is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding ofa topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed ororal form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance theknowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basicallyincomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling theaim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means thetrainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lectureformat. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that someforms of lectures are interactive while some are not.Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which thetrainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic.However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 38. Projectsformba.blogspot.comA lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The differencebetween the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation, control ofspeed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straightlecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees,whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and prioritiesand preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.Main Features of Lecture MethodSome of the main features of lecture method are: • Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings • Less expensive • Can be reached large number
  11. 11. of people at once • Knowledge building exercise • Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Demonstration Training MethodThis method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As anexample, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. Inorder to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied bythe discussion or lecture method.To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan byProjectsformba.blogspot.com 39. Projectsformba.blogspot.combreaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, thetrainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why thatpart is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer:Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing • Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task • Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them • Explains why it should be carried out in that wayThe difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level ofinvolvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved.The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows: • Cost of training facility for the program • Cost of materials that facilitate training • Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers • Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees • Cost related to creating content, material • Cost related to the organization of the trainingAfter completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and ornegative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing andwhy.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 40. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Discussion Training MethodThis method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported,elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees andbetween the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication betweenthese two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If theDiscussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion andquestioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving andprinciple learning.The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge in theform of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed back bytrainees to trainer.Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enablesthe trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely itwould help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer mayneed to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in adifferent manner.Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the traineesask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer whoasks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking andresponding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding andkeep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allowthe trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps inProjectsformba.blogspot.com 41. Projectsformba.blogspot.comimproving recall. Computer-Based Training (CBT)With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demandsfor knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, isputting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizationsare now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplishthose goalsSome of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 42. GAMES AND SIMULATIONS o BEHAVIOR-MODELING o BUSINESS GAMES o CASE STUDIESProjectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.comAccording to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training toemployees through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but hasbecome the technique of delivering training. The growth of electronic technology hascreated alternative training delivery systems. CBT does not require face- to-faceinteraction with a human trainer. This method is so varied in its applications that it isdifficult to
  12. 12. describe in concise terms.The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are : o INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) o PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) o VIRTUAL REALITYBehavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The variousmethods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. Thesemethods are best used for skill development.The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: 43. Projectsformba.blogspot.com o EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS o IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE o ROLE PLAYSBoth the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through differentmeans.Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD – COACHINGCoaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method forinadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International CoachFederation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. Thesecoaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s becauseA It is one-to-one interactionA It can be done at the convenience of CEOA It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chatA It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expertA It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Thismethod best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when aperson reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 44. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIt helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can beidentified through 60 degree performance review.PROCEDURE OF THE COACHINGThe procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. Theprocedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’sconvenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves. For the people at middle-level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up- and-coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement MentoringMentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and juniorProjectsformba.blogspot.com 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.comemployee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organizationgoes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employeeThe meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring isgenerally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot frommentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to growprofessionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with peoplewith diverse background, culture, and language and personality typesExecutives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, asenior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into hisrole. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be futureexecutives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improvementee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the areathat needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor canalso provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use ofproficiency.Some key points on Mentoring • Mentoring focus on attitude development • Conducted for management-level employees • Mentoring is done by someone inside the company • It is one-to-one interactionIt helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Job RotationFor the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usuallyProjectsformba.blogspot.com
  13. 13. 46. Projectsformba.blogspot.comnot simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, forexample, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, jobrotation might be to the supplier to seehow the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organizationis perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of theorganization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective.For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in thecompany is regular carried out.This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the differentissues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type oftraining. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads toleader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, businessunits, cities, and countries.An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level ofthe organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower levelto replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations thatare crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.Benefits of Job RotationSome of the major benefits of job rotation are: • It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, businessProjectsformba.blogspot.com 47. SIMULATION EXERCISES Case Study on Training MethodsSALES TRAINING AT ABC COMPANYFew years ago, ABC Company developed a training strategy for training its global sales force. An important feature of the strategy was to create a master training plan for each year. The organization’s strategic plans, objectives, and functional tactics would drive tthis plan. Once an initial procedure was designed it was then evaluated and critiqued thetop management, different units, and training council. The input from thesestakeholderswould be summarized and transferred into a master training Plan.The major question that was asked by the designers of training program was, “whatresults do we want from salespeople after the training program is over?” Answer to thisquestion becomes the objective of the training program.Projectsformba.blogspot.com STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES  TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS  SENSITIVITY TRAINING Projectsformba.blogspot.com units, functions, and countries • Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required • It determines the areas where improvement is required • Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position OFF THE JOB TRAINING –There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in offthe job. The few popular methods are: 48. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThen training content was designed, videos were made. The videos took 3 to 6 months toproduce. Video contains live production plants, clients’ offices, partner offices, suppliers,manufacturers’ locations, and other locations.Videos were used to train sales people in various areas, such as: • Market information i.e. about customer profile, market updates, and computer integrated manufacturing applications, etc • Sales Process i.e. how to deal in the situation of conflicts with customer, coaching on undesirable behavior, supplement skills developed during live courses • Product information, such as, product usage, applications, system description, product description, comparison with competitor’s products, etc • Policies and procedures, i.e. about sales contests, incentive plans on achieving targets, annual bonuses, winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivate the sales forceRepresentatives then watch video, follow the directions, and refer to the material if facesany problem. When salespeople feel they have mastered theAround thousands of sales persons were getting a specific video training. The salespeople were getting training material along with the video. Salesmaterial, they would take an exam and call a toll- free number to transmit responses toexam.Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance and meritreviews as well as promotional opportunities. Those who couldn’t pass the exam wereasked to go through the material and video again before retaking the exam. If thesalesperson failed an exam again, the reporting manager was notified.Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  14. 14. 49. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThis case gives rise to few important questions. These questions are: • In today’s technological world, is video still the best way to deliver training? • Is video the most effective way to achieve training objectives? • What role did cost of development, cost of delivery, and other constraints play in selection of video delivery system? Training Need Analysis (TNA) An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 50. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group. Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure thatProjectsformba.blogspot.com 51. Projectsformba.blogspot.com the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:Appraisal and performance reviewPeer appraisalCompetency assessmentsSubordinate appraisalClient feedbackCustomer feedbackSelf-assessment or self- appraisalOperational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the workthat is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information onwhether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this informationthrough technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking theclosed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keepchanging over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analystalso gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be requiredProjectsformba.blogspot.com 52. Projectsformba.blogspot.comin the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done. Training-DesignThe design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear trainingobjective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achievedby the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at theend of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainersThe trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and theirprofiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of theimportant factors that affect training design.Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings,positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorablenothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educationalbackground of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the designof the programTraining
  15. 15. strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainertranslates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority listof about what must be included, what could be included.Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to bedelivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics andmodules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 53. Projectsformba.blogspot.comSequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:• From simple to complex• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance• From known to unknown• From specific to general• Dependent relationshipTraining tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training programbecomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methodsor techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:• Trainees’ background• Time allocated• Style preference of trainer• Level of competence of trainer• Availability of facilities and resources, etcProjectsformba.blogspot.com 54. Projectsformba.blogspot.comSupport facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The variousrequirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 55. Projectsformba.blogspot.comConstraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:• Time• Accommodation, facilities and their availability• Furnishings and equipments• Budget• Design of the training, etc Training ImplementationTo put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is calledtraining implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the systembecause one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the besttraining program will fail due to one wrong action.Training implementation can be segregated into:• Practical administrative arrangements• Carrying out of the trainingImplementing TrainingOnce the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementationphase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the mostimportant factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept inmind while implementing training program:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content.Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set groundsbefore meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with coursecontent and is flexible in his approach.Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successfultraining program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms shouldnot be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people togetherboth physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated toevery participant.Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer canestablish good rapport with trainees by:• Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments• Encouraging informal conversation• Remembering their first name• Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another• Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions• Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed• Getting to class before the arrival of learners• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time• Using familiar examples• Varying his instructional techniques• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog downProjectsformba.blogspot.com 57. Projectsformba.blogspot.comReviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is veryimportant to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goalof the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and howthe program will run. The following information needs to be included:• Kinds of training activities• Schedule• Setting group norms• Housekeeping arrangements• Flow of the program• Handling problematic situations Training EvaluationThe process of examining a training program is called training evaluation.
  16. 16. Trainingevaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensuresthat whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respectiveworkplaces, or to the regular work routines.Purposes of Training EvaluationThe five main purposes of training evaluation are:Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives andlinking it to learning outcomes.Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transferof knowledge at the work place, and training.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 58. Projectsformba.blogspot.comControl: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is noteffective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses theevaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned withthe expected outcomes.Process of Training EvaluationBefore Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the trainingprogram. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste ofresources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives andlearning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions onProjectsformba.blogspot.com 59. Projectsformba.blogspot.comthe methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences andLearning style.During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usuallyconsist of short tests at regular intervalsAfter Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed againto measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whethertraining has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.Techniques of EvaluationThe various methods of training evaluation are:• Observation• Questionnaire• InterviewProjectsformba.blogspot.com 60. Projectsformba.blogspot.com• Self diaries• Self recording of specific incidentsQualityParticularly in those industries, which have to compete in international markets, themanagement made clear links between training policies and the quality of work.Change in Corporate cultureContinuous training was used to transmit new business strategies and new organisationculture.Organisational DevelopmentIn some organisation where financial responsibilities were being decentralized, thetraining function was also getting decentralized. In other training dept was abolishedaltogether and all manager’s were made responsible for instruction and training.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 61. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFlexible working practicesCompany made a major training program after making two third work forces redundant.This involved both vocational training and encouraging employee to take educationalcourses in their free time.Training and employment packageIn certain companies training formed part of the pay packet offered to employees. It alsohad a bearing on the Lab our turnover percentage of employee. In other way we can sayits like cost to company.Corporate structureIn some instances I became difficult for managers to meet business objectives becausethey had in sufficient control over recruitment and training decision. In some other casesrivalries between different divisions of same company, prevented the integration ofcoherent training and personal policies at central level.The role of professinal trainersThe findings suggest that the role of the professional trainer had undergone significantchanges. He is today not only a mere provider or organiser of training but also is beingseen as an agent or facilitator of change. This because today the management isintegrating training into the very culture of their organisation. In some organisation thetrainers now have access to key decision-makers and have established greater legitimacyfor training and development activities.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 62. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCorporate and individual training needsEvidence suggests that numbers of organisation are effectively integrating their trainingand business strategies and progress has been made in training for organisationaldevelopment.Although the need for continuing training of manager and professional is being assessedon a more systematic basis this has not been extended
  17. 17. more widely.TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ADOPTED BYRELIANCE MOBILEThe training methods which are generally used in an organization are classified into twoi.e.1) On the job: On-the- job training places the employees in an actual work situationand makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. For jobs,that either are difficult to simulate or can be learn quickly by watching and doing on-the-job training makes sense.One of the drawbacks to on- the-job training can be low productivity while the employeesdevelop their skills. Another drawback can be the errors made by the trainees while theylearn. However, when the damage the trainees can do is minimal, where training facilitiesand personnel are limited or costly, and where it is desirable for the workers to learn thejob under normal working conditions, the benefits of on-the-job training frequently offsetits drawbacks.(ii) Job Instruction Training: JIT consists of four basic steps:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 63. Projectsformba.blogspot.com (a) Preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and over coming theiruncertainties(b) Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner;(c) Having the trainees try out the job to demonstrate their understanding; and(d) Placing the workers into the job, on their own, with a designated resource person tocall upon should they need assistance.2) Off the job: Off-the-job training covers a number of techniques – classroomlectures, films, demonstrations, case studies and other simulation exercises, andprogrammed instruction. The facilities needed for each of these techniques vary from asmall make shift classroom to an elaborate development center with large lecture halls,supplemented by small conference rooms with sophisticated audiovisual equipment, two-way mirrors, and all the frills.(i) Classroom lectures/conferences: The lecture or conference approach is welladapted to conveying specific information – rules, procedures, or methods. The use ofaudiovisuals or demonstrations can often make a formal classroom presentation moreinteresting while increasing retention and offering a vehicle for more interesting whileincreasing retention and offering a vehicle for clarifying more difficult points. Thelecture’s liabilities include possible lack of feedback and the lack of active involvementby the trainees.(ii) Simulation exercises: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in anartificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered aProjectsformba.blogspot.com 64. Projectsformba.blogspot.comsimulation. Simulation Ours is a changing and dynamic organization which has to pay considerable emphasis on training and retraining its employees to enable them to be competent, committed and has the capacity to change according to the external and internal demands and pressures.Training of employees is not merely the responsibility of the management or the trainingcell alone, but the responsibility of department managers as well. The human resourceProjectsformba.blogspot.com Contribute towards the career progressions of the employees by importing knowledge of an additional or reinforcing nature, developing skills and bringing about desired attitudinal changes among them. This would not merely prove effective in assisting them to achieve organizational goals but also enable enhancement of their self esteem and self confidences to face external challenges. activities include case exercises, experimental exercises, complexcomputer modeling, and vestibule training.(iii)Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employees learn their jobs on theequipment they will be using, but the learning is conducted away from the actual workfloor. In the 1980s many large retail chains train cashiers on their new computer cashregisters – which are much more complex because they control inventory and performother functions in addition to ringing up orders – in specially created vestibule labs thatsimulated the actual checkout-counter environment.Training, as a process of long tem learning is essentially a developmental tool.. Byeffectively utilizing this tool, the organization expects to achieve career objectives. 65. Entry training involving new recruits and employees required to take aProjectsformba.blogspot.com Prioritize training actions in accordance to where the training need is more urgent.TYPES OF TRAINING ADRESSING VARIOUS TRAININGNEEDS;  Segregate identified problems into problems requiring staff development action such as training and into
  18. 18. problems requiring other management actions, so that these problems are accurately addressed.  Identify cause of problems faced by the organization to enable the management to train the employees in handling the problems as well as solving the problem in a satisfactory manner.  Compare performances of each department and each employee against objectives, targets and standards set for them and keeping in mind future work requirements in the organization.  Collection of information through interviewing and discussing with key personnel both inside and outside the organization or specific departments; observing the work place, working conditions, processes and outcomes; examining records, other written information and annual employee appraisal. Projectsformba.blogspot.comdepartment must enable the involvement of the department managers in the process ofemployee training and development.ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDSThere are five steps towards the assessment and analysis of training and development ofthe organization. 66. Development to equip employees to meet organizational changes in future.Training in Global Business WorldWith the expansion of the organization, Human Resource job in no longer limited to theirnative country but has extended worldwide. Localization is a key to successful expansionthat helps in improving upon workforce connections, doing the work effectively andefficiently, and reducing global turnover.As the organizations are expanding globally, training has become quite an essentialingredient to improve performance. However, unavailability of budget necessary toachieve goals results the training function to be at the bottom of priority list. Besides that,managers do not fully adapt according to the local environment for the transfer oftraining. Very often, managers use minimum of locally suitable resources or the mostcritical material like employee handbooks.Training success in various countries requires cross cultural literacy i.e. understanding ofhow cultural differences across nations can affect the way training is given. At the sametime, different cultures may or may not be supportive in the transfer of training, in thesense that cultural factor may lower or raise the cost of training.Case Study – A very brilliant marketing professional went to Arab for the sale of hisCompany’s soft drink. But he came back with no results. When asked about the failure ofProjectsformba.blogspot.com Training for change to prepare employees for job identified in near future.  Problem resolution training to meet a shortfall or deficiency in job performance. Projectsformba.blogspot.com new job. 67. Projectsformba.blogspot.comthe mission, he answered that he prepared three cartoons. Cartoon-1- Displaying a manlooking exhausted and tired, is walking in desert in scorching heat. Cartoon-2- Displayingthe same man opening bottle and drinking the soft drink. Cartoon-3- Displaying the manfeeling alive and refresh again. Though, his strategy was good, unfortunately failsbecause he was unaware that Arab people read from right to left. Moral here islocalization is a key to success.There are some major barriers in the transfer of training when it comes to giving trainingin other countries.Culture 1. Values and Norms 2. Attitude 3. Age, Gender, and Professional StatusLanguage 1. Spoken 2. UnspokenSocial Structure 1. Individual 2. Assumptions 3. Group Culture - Factor in Global Training ProgramCommunicating the information to different people from different cultures and differentnationalities can give rise to many problems. Many simple things that seem simple andstraightforward to communicate become difficult when it comes to communicating inProjectsformba.blogspot.com 68. Projectsformba.blogspot.comdifferent environment. Giving training in one’s own culture is quite different from givingtraining in different culture. Being a good trainer is not the only requirement butunderstanding socio-economic and cultural backgrounds has now become an importantpart.Values, norms, attitude are the building blocks of culture. Values means what a group ofpeople believes to be good, bad, right, or wrong. Norms means the social rules andguidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior. Attitude disposes a person to act in acertain way toward something in certain situation. A trainer giving training in differentculture has to keep these things in mind before delivering content.Instances: A good case that concerns attitude towards time in different cities: People arevery punctual in United States.People from US tend to come little early for any meeting,
  19. 19. or when invited for dinner,party to someone’s home because in their culture it is considered to be polite to arrive ontime. In Great Britain, people tend to come late for any appointment. If called at 5 P.M.,that means come at 5.30 or 6 P.M. Even for Argentineans, coming on exact time is far tooearly. For instance, In US, if the trainer gets late for a scheduled training session it istreated as a breach of etiquette. And it may result in loss of trainer’s respect and failure intransfer of training.Age, Gender, and Professional Status – Different cultures give different regard to age,gender, and professional qualification. For example, in Japan, people give high regard toolder people. Older people are regarded as having greater knowledge, skills, wisdom, andProjectsformba.blogspot.com 69. Projectsformba.blogspot.comabilities. Respect in the sense that people are more willing to listen to and seriouslyconsider the information. In such a culture, a young trainer might have to work harder togain attention and face problems in executing the program and transfer of training.Similarly, some countries are also biased about the gender. Like in Gulf countries,women’s role is limited to households only. In such a culture, it is not possible forwomen trainers to undergo training programs because people will not be as receptive asin other culture.Same is with high professional status- the higher the qualification of the trainer, the morewill be the importance attached to the information. Language Problem in International Training and Development ProgramsLanguage comprises of both spoken and unspoken means of communication. Bestest ofthe best training program will fail if trainer is not well versed in communicating trainees’language. Language is one of the most important ingredients of culture.Spoken Language– Trainees’ receiving training prefer to speak in their own languageand trainer being able to speak the local language can help establishing rapport amongtrainees, which may be very important for the transfer of training. Language is one of themajor barriers when it comes to giving training in cross-cultural environment. Chinese isthe mother tongue of the largest number of people (shown below), followed buy Englishand Hindi. Percentage of the people speaking their first languageProjectsformba.blogspot.com 70. Projectsformba.blogspot.comUnspoken Language– means non-verbal communication, a very important part ofcommunication. It is a communication that uses body movements and gestures such as,raising eyebrows, smiling, hand movements, facial expressions, etc. A failure tounderstand unspoken language can lead to a failure of communication because bodylanguage is not the same in every culture.For instance, raising eyebrows is a sign of recognition in most cultures, but in somecultures, it’s not. Similarly, making a circle with the thumb and forefinger is a friendlygesture in the US, but it is obscene invitation in Turkey and Greece. Also, thumbs-upgesture is used to indicate that “its fine” in the US and Europe, but it is vulgar gesture inGreece.Another case of unspoken language is the amount of distance between the persons talkingto each other. In Latin America, the distance adopted by parties in a business discussionis 3 to 5 feet while in the US, it is 5 to 8 feet. In the training context, if the trainer givestraining in Latin America and maintains a much larger distance than desired in theirProjectsformba.blogspot.com 71. Projectsformba.blogspot.comculture, then in turn, it may result in a regrettable lack of rapport between the trainer andthe trainee.Therefore, using the right body language is very important in cross-cultural training. Global Training Class – Social StructureSocial Structure refers to basic social organization. It consists of many aspects such as,the degree to which the social organization laid emphasis on the individual, as opposed tothe group.Individualism–Some countries emphasizes on individual achievement. Western countries emphasize onindividual performance, this in turn, leads to high level of creativity, high degree ofmanagerial mobility, entrepreneurial activity, etc. On the other hand, encouragingindividualism also make it difficult to work in teams. It may be difficult for them to co-operate which may serve as an obstruction in smooth flow of training.Group– In most of the countries, group is the primary unit of organizations. Like inJapan, the social status of an individual is determined as much as in by standing of thegroup. This may lead to better cooperation; on the other hand it suppressesentrepreneurial activity, individual creativity, etc. This in turn, may result, in loss ofrecognition of individual achievement at work after training.Therefore, trainer has to keep in mind
  20. 20. the factor of the individual and the group whilegiving training because encouraging a particular individual in Japan might be consideredas impolite or vice-versaProjectsformba.blogspot.com 72. Projectsformba.blogspot.comAssumptions – We all make assumptions every day. It may be positive or negative, goodor bad. Assumptions influence our attitudes, perceptions. Most people see what they wantto see and believe what they want to believe. It some times leads to coinciding and sometime clashes. This tendency to make assumptions and forming attitudes regarding certainthings can be a big problem in a cross-cultural training. Differences in assumptions cansome times be very problematic. As an example, trainer may believe that if the traineesdo not question, they understand the content. On the other hand, trainees may believe thatif they will ask question, the trainer might think they are dull.Presumptions can some times result in disrespect, distrust or resistance to changebehavior after training. For instance, trainees might misinterpret trainer because of hisdifferent accent, appearance, style, or anything. Lack of interest of trainees de motivatestrainer to transfer expertise and skills. This can lead to discomfort and misjudging theother’s motives and goalsIt is important to analyze the audience on the factors of customs, values, and language incase of cross-cultural training. Stakeholders in TrainingThere are three major stakeholders in training program 1. The Organization 2. The Trainee 3. The Trainer Stakeholders in the training take a training plan forward, perhaps over a period of one year, and sets parameters and priorities for the implementation stage. General Questions, which are asked in relationships to the training systems, are:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 73. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • What type of training is required? • Why the training is required? • What is the budget of the training? • What are the most sensitive and critical areas? • How the training will be carried out? • By whom the training program will be carried out? • Where and when will the training program be carried out? Role of Organization in Training and DevelopmentQuestionnaire on Study on Effectiveness of Training & DevelopmentAn organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it isProjectsformba.blogspot.com 74. Projectsformba.blogspot.comthe first contact for both.The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants:• To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits• To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount• To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date• To enhance the performance of employees• Organization’s name to be a part of training unit. Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field. Trainee – Role of Trainee in Transfer of TrainingBut the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In thissituation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of trainingProjectsformba.blogspot.com 75. Projectsformba.blogspot.comneed s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs.This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it’s a foremostduty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture,climate, responsibilities of organization, etc.The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. The whole training program isdeveloped for the trainees only. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer oftraining because one participant’s attitude regarding the training influence the otherparticipants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process torealize the training objectives. Participant’s willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to thebenefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms theirown perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during theprogram, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by theparticipant Some personal factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: • Family Situation • Personal Problems • Relation between the training program and personal objective • Level of self esteem • Benefits expected from training •
  21. 21. Comfort level with the trainer • Learning style of trainee • KSA of traineeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 76. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Previous training experiences • Desire for professional growth and development Some environmental factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: • Relationship with colleagues and subordinates • Training team • Trainer team • Training objective • Content of training • Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies • Environment in the program • Composition of training group • Infrastructure i.e. eating facilities, tea/coffee breaks No matter how good the training program is, in the end it is the participant onlywho decides whether to change his behavior or not. Trainees do not change theirbehavior merely because someone tells them to do. They change when they feelthere is a need of it. They do it with their own learning style. The trainer and theorganization can only try to remove the mental blocks of the trainee, rest dependson trainee itself. Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is thetrainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee, motivate the trainee tolearn, delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. Besidesall that, a lot depends on personality of trainer also.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 77. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe major competencies that are required to be present in a trainer are: • Presentation Skills • Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation, etc. • Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts, etc • Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills, flexible, accepting the share of accountability, etc Trainer’s Skills The skills that need to be present in a trainer are: • Training Design • Evaluating the training program • Training need analysis • Worksheet design • Exercises design Role of TrainerProjectsformba.blogspot.com 78. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Facilitation Of Training Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee and Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Focus on Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. For the training to be successful, three things are required,Projectsformba.blogspot.com 79. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. Motivation 2. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) 3. Expectations towards Training Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of motivation,required KSAs, and expectations towards training i.e. Motivation – If the trainee is not motivated to learn, no learning is likely tooccur no matter how good the training methods are, or how talented the traineesare. Therefore, it is important to intervene before training and provide them theinformation about the learning outcome that they can expect and how the learningoutcome will help in achieving the objectives. This increases the motivation tolearn and to be successful in training. Expectations – Positive expectations matter a lot in a training program. If thetrainee perceives the training as waste of time, and waste of resources, no learningis likely to occur. No learning is possible with negative perception. On the otherProjectsformba.blogspot.com 80. Projectsformba.blogspot.comhand, if the trainee believes and expects that the training would help him toimprove upon his professional skills and would further help him in achieving hispersonal goals, the probability of training to meet the objective increases. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) – It is important that theselectedtrainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if the methodsand contents of the training is good but the candidates do not have the right KSAs,the training program will fail. Also the training methods would not be effective ifthe candidates are lacking the desired skills. Therefore, proper selection techniqueis must that would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful intraining.Facilitation of Training Through Organization Intervention Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it isbecause of the organizational forces also. These forces also hold back the transfer oftraining, and learning. Therefore, it is important to keep in check those forces. For thesuccessful transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support,peer support, reward system, climate and