Environment is the sum total of what is around something or someone.
Environment means the surroundings or conditions of life, may be social,
political, economic, cultural, natural etc. Natural resources are used with
other man made resources in order to produce goods in agriculture,
industry or other spheres of economic activity. With continuous use of
these natural resources some get depleted, some may get degraded (lose
their quality) or some may get polluted, as such on account of these, the
future generation will not get enough of such resources for their use and
that will adversely affect their output, income, and living standards.
Therefore, we should preserve environment by minimizing harm to it
Scope of environment consists of four segments as under:
The atmosphere implies the protective blanket of gases, surrounding
• It sustains life on the earth.
• It saves it from the hostile environment of outer space.
• It absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space and a major
portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
• It transmits only ultraviolet, visible, near infrared radiation (300 to
2500mm) and radio waves. (0.14 to 40m) while filtering out tissue-
damaging ultraviolet waves below 300 nm. The atmosphere is
composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Besides, argon, carbon dioxide, and
• Environment is the sum
total of what is around
something or someone.
• It includes living things
and natural forces.
• There is a constant
plants, animals, soil,
light and other living
and non-living things.
The Hydrosphere comprises of all types of water
resources oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, reservoir,
polar icecaps, glaciers, and ground water.
• Nature 97% of the earth’s water supply is in the
• About 2% of the water resources are locked in the
polar icecaps and glaciers.
• Only about 1% is available as fresh surface water-
rivers, lakes streams, and ground water fit to be used for
human consumption and other uses.
Lithosphere is the outer mantle of the solid earth. It
consists of minerals occurring in the earth’s crust
and the soil e.g. minerals, organic matter, air
Biosphere indicates the realm of living organisms
and their interactions with environment, viz
atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere..