1. Genetics and heredity


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Introduction to Genetics

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  • Brainstorm what we know about genetics on interactive whiteboard.
  • (*Introduction to: heredity, traits and genes)How many species?So what makes each guinea pig different? GenesHow do breeders make sure they get the right sort of guinea pig? Breeding…What other animals have breeding? Dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, cows, sheep, pigs, …. Zoos have to be careful with their breeding programs, why?
  • DNA/ genes. Create ‘poster’ cartoon, over 3 pages showing where our genes are.http://www.amnh.org/ology/genetics#features/youYou/youyou.php?TB_iframe=true&height=350&width=600
  • Use Activ Inspire to show how to draw diagrams of each of these subsets
  • Write see next page
  • See example poster(pink: diagrams. Annotate and label diagrams)
  • Our genes encode the instructions that define our traits. Each of us has thousands of genes, which are made of DNA and reside in our chromosomes.The differences in our DNA are the differences that show in our traits. LABEL: person, animal, plant, bacteria, algae, fungus
  • Draw epitheleal cells with nuclei. Use LABELS. (Skin cell, Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cell Contents)
  • Label: Nucleus, Nuclear envelope, Chromosomes
  • Label: Coiled Chromosome, Maternal chromosome (pink), paternal chromosome (green).
  • Label: Unraveled Chromosome, Gene
  • Label: Unraveled Chromosome, GeneIn some cases, mutations in the genetic code can result in genetic conditions that affect the growth, development and/or function of the body.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOvMNOMRRm8
  • Human- 30,000Fruit Fly- 13-14,000Yeast- 6000Chimp 98%Fly 52%Worm 35%Bacteria 9%
  • Frequency of general population [www.ncbi.nlm.nih/gov/onim)Tongue rolling (Can 70%, Can’t 30%)Handedness (Right 93% Left 7%)Hand clasping (Left 55%, Right 44%, No preference 1%)
  • 1. Genetics and heredity

    1. 1. Topic 1: GENETICS<br />
    2. 2. GENETICSWhat do we know?<br />
    3. 3. WHAT’S GOING ON?<br />
    4. 4. Topic 1: Genetics<br />Genetics is the study of genes, heredity and variation in living organisms. <br />Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism (living thing). <br />‘Gen’is Latin for ‘beginning’, because genesare the beginning of how living things are created. <br />So where are our genes anyway??<br />
    5. 5. Google: “AMNH Ology”<br />Click “Genetics” as your Ology on the LHS scroll bar<br />Scroll down to “Explore the Evidence: What makes you YOU? What makes me ME?” (Bottom RHS)<br />
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    15. 15. Topic 1: Genetics<br />Genetics is the study of genes, heredity and variation in living organisms. <br />Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism (living thing). <br />‘Gen’is Latin for ‘beginning’, because genesare the beginning of how living things are created. <br />See next page<br />
    16. 16. Divide a double page into 6 and draw a series of diagrams that shows where our genes are situated.<br />Title: Where are my genes? <br />
    17. 17. Box 1: “Me”/Organism<br />All organisms(living things) are made up of cells.<br /> Humans are made up of billions of microscopic cells. <br />Some organisms are only made of one cell.<br />
    18. 18. Box 2: Cells<br />Cells are the building blocks of life. There are many different types of cells.<br />E.g. Humans have: skin cells, muscle cells, red blood cells, sex cells and more.<br />Plants have: Photosynthetic cells, stem cells, root cells and more.<br />
    19. 19. Box 3: Nucleus <br />Inside each cell is a nucleus. The nucleus is the control center of each cell. <br />This is because it contains genetic material (DNA) which is a code for telling the cell what to do.<br />
    20. 20. Box 4: Chromosomes <br />Chromosomes are long thread-like strands of DNA found in the nuclei of cells. <br />Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 in total). One set of chromosomes comes from mum, and one set comes from dad. <br />
    21. 21. Box 5: Genes<br />Genes are segments of chromosomes (that is a sequence of DNA). <br />A gene controls a particular characteristic of an organism. E.g. Eye colour<br />
    22. 22. Box 6: DNA<br />DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid makes up the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all organisms. <br />DNA is made up of 4 bases: A, T, C and G. The order and number of these bases spell out the genetic code. Differences in the order of these bases between individual organisms of the same species result in differences in genes. <br />E.g. Brown. Blue, Green or grey eyes. <br />
    23. 23. Cell clip<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOvMNOMRRm8&feature=related<br />
    24. 24. How many genes do we have?<br />How similar are we to other living things?<br />
    25. 25. Traits<br />Brainstorm a list of traits you think you have received from your parents. <br />Traits are not just physical characteristics, they can also be connected to your behaviour (e.g. dog breeds), intelligence, health (e.g. allergies, good/bad health) interests and personality.<br />Remember, a lot of who you are is not only determined by your genes, but by the environment you are growing up in. E.g. hair colour, intelligence.<br />
    26. 26. 8F’s traits<br />Worksheet of 10 traits<br />
    27. 27. 8F’s traits<br />
    28. 28. Heredity: how our traits are determined<br />Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to their offspring. <br />Humans have two sets of 23 chromosomes (23 pairs, which = 46 in total)<br />When parents conceive a child, they each contribute one complete set to the child, this way, both parents pass genes on to the child.<br />
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    30. 30. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHWJqzlHl3w&feature=related<br />