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HEREDITY AND GENETICS
Part 1
By Vijaya Sawant PMP
Oratechsolve Inc
Heredity defines biological transmission of physical
and psychological traits from generation to
generation.
The field of biology that studies heredity is called
GENETICS.
Traits are transmitted by Chromosomes and Genes.
Life begins as a single cell
or
zygote that divides repeatedly.
© Fancy/Veer/Corbis
Genes are segments of strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
DNA forms a double spiral (HELIX) that looks like a twisting...
There are TWO types of cell division
Mitosis and Meiosis
The Double Helix of DNA
Mitosis
Identical and Fraternal Twins
Monozygotic Dizygotic
Using PDA technique you can select genes
like color of eyes, sex
© Fancy/Veer/Corbis
Chromosomal Abnormalities
• Abnormalities in 22nd or 23rd pairs of autosomes.
• Genetic abnormalities ...
©U.P.Images/iStockphoto.com/©TomaszMarkowski/iStockphoto.com
Down Syndrome
It is caused by an extra
chromosome of the 21st...
Sex-Linked Chromosomal Abnormalities
Turner Syndrome (X)
1 girl in 2,500 has
syndrome.
Female is shorter than
average and infertile.
Cognitive deficits
problem...
(XYY) Syndrome
Rare abnormality in
men.
Occurs in 1 in 1,000
males.
Active in sex and sport,
learning difficulties,
delaye...
Klinefelter Syndrome
(XXY)
1 male in 500 has
syndrome
Produces less
testosterone
Usually have enlarged
breasts
Mild retard...
Triple X Syndrome
(XXX)
1 girl in 1,000 has
syndrome.
Normal in appearance
Lower than average
language skills, poor
memory...
Genetic Abnormalities
• A number of disorders attributed to genes:
– Phenylketonuria (PKU)
– Huntington’s Disease
– Sickle...
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Enzyme disorder transmitted by a recessive gene affecting 1 child in 8,000.
Cannot metabolize an
amino acid called
phenylalanine;
Builds up in body and
impairs functioning of the
central nervous sys...
No cure, but PKU can be detected in new born children through blood or urine
analysis; if identified placed on diets low i...
Huntington’s Disease
Fatal, progressive
degenerative disorder
Uncontrollable muscle
movements, loss of
intellectual functi...
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Common among African
American
Red blood cells take a
shape of sickle
obstructing blood and
oxygen suppl...
Cystic Fibrosis
Caused by recessive
gene
Fatal hereditary
disease among
European Americans
30,000 Americans
have disorder,...
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy symptoms
Genetic Bleeding
Disorder
Abnormalities
Hemophilia
1 in every 4,400 live male
birth in the United States.
Caused by shorta...
“Test-tube” babies are grown in a
laboratory dish throughout their 9
month gestation period.
Misconception
Oratechsolve Inc.
Promoter of Maternal and Neonatal Health Literacy
Email: info@oratechsolve.com
www.oratechsolve.com
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
Heredity and genetics
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Heredity and genetics

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Heredity is the passing on of characteristics from one generation to the next. It is the reason why offspring look like their parents. It also explains why cats always give birth to kittens and never puppies. The process of heredity occurs among all living things including animals, plants, bacteria, protists and fungi. The study of heredity is called genetics and scientists that study heredity are called geneticists.

Through heredity, living things inherit traits from their parents. Traits are physical characteristics. You resemble your parents because you inherited your hair and skin color, nose shape, height, and other traits from them.

Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things. Tiny biochemical structures inside each cell called genes carry traits from one generation to the next. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes are strung together to form long chains of DNA in structures known as chromosomes. Genes are like blueprints for building a house, except that they carry the plans for building cells, tissues, organs, and bodies. They have the instructions for making the thousands of chemical building blocks in the body. These building blocks are called proteins. Proteins are made of smaller units called amino acids. Differences in genes cause the building of different amino acids and proteins. These differences cause individuals to have different traits such as hair color or blood types.

A gene gives only the potential for the development of a trait. How this potential is achieved depends partly on the interaction of the gene with other genes. But it also depends partly on the environment. For example, a person may have a genetic tendency toward being overweight. But the person's actual weight will depend on such environmental factors as how what kinds of food the person eats and how much exercise that person does.

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Heredity and genetics

  1. 1. HEREDITY AND GENETICS Part 1 By Vijaya Sawant PMP Oratechsolve Inc
  2. 2. Heredity defines biological transmission of physical and psychological traits from generation to generation.
  3. 3. The field of biology that studies heredity is called GENETICS. Traits are transmitted by Chromosomes and Genes.
  4. 4. Life begins as a single cell or zygote that divides repeatedly.
  5. 5. © Fancy/Veer/Corbis
  6. 6. Genes are segments of strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA forms a double spiral (HELIX) that looks like a twisting ladder. Each “rung” on the ladder consist of 4 basic chemicals that are placed in pairs of either: Adenine and Thymine or Cytosine and Guanine The sequence of the rungs are the individual genetic code that cause the developing organism to grow arms, wings, skin, or scales.
  7. 7. There are TWO types of cell division Mitosis and Meiosis
  8. 8. The Double Helix of DNA Mitosis
  9. 9. Identical and Fraternal Twins Monozygotic Dizygotic
  10. 10. Using PDA technique you can select genes like color of eyes, sex
  11. 11. © Fancy/Veer/Corbis Chromosomal Abnormalities • Abnormalities in 22nd or 23rd pairs of autosomes. • Genetic abnormalities are caused by combinations of genes called Multifactorial problems
  12. 12. ©U.P.Images/iStockphoto.com/©TomaszMarkowski/iStockphoto.com Down Syndrome It is caused by an extra chromosome of the 21st pair resulting in 47 chromosomes. Children show deficits in cognitive and motor development. Typically die from cardiovascular arrest in middle age.
  13. 13. Sex-Linked Chromosomal Abnormalities
  14. 14. Turner Syndrome (X) 1 girl in 2,500 has syndrome. Female is shorter than average and infertile. Cognitive deficits problems with visual- spatial skills, mathematics and nonverbal memory.
  15. 15. (XYY) Syndrome Rare abnormality in men. Occurs in 1 in 1,000 males. Active in sex and sport, learning difficulties, delayed speech and difficult time with communicating.
  16. 16. Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY) 1 male in 500 has syndrome Produces less testosterone Usually have enlarged breasts Mild retarded particularly language, Infertile
  17. 17. Triple X Syndrome (XXX) 1 girl in 1,000 has syndrome. Normal in appearance Lower than average language skills, poor memory for recent events Development of external sex organ normal
  18. 18. Genetic Abnormalities • A number of disorders attributed to genes: – Phenylketonuria (PKU) – Huntington’s Disease – Sickle-Cell Anemia – Tay-Sachs Disease – Cystic Fibrosis – Sex-Linked Genetic Abnormalities – Blood Linked Genetic Abnormalities
  19. 19. Phenylketonuria (PKU) Enzyme disorder transmitted by a recessive gene affecting 1 child in 8,000.
  20. 20. Cannot metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine; Builds up in body and impairs functioning of the central nervous system (CNS); Results are mental retardation, psychological disorders, physical problems
  21. 21. No cure, but PKU can be detected in new born children through blood or urine analysis; if identified placed on diets low in phenylalanine within three weeks of birth and develop normally
  22. 22. Huntington’s Disease Fatal, progressive degenerative disorder Uncontrollable muscle movements, loss of intellectual functioning and personality change No Cure; Half of offspring will have disorder
  23. 23. Sickle-Cell Anemia Common among African American Red blood cells take a shape of sickle obstructing blood and oxygen supply Impair cognitive and academic functions, organs failure
  24. 24. Cystic Fibrosis Caused by recessive gene Fatal hereditary disease among European Americans 30,000 Americans have disorder, 10 million more are carriers (1 in 31 people)
  25. 25. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  26. 26. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy symptoms
  27. 27. Genetic Bleeding Disorder Abnormalities Hemophilia 1 in every 4,400 live male birth in the United States. Caused by shortage of certain clotting factors in blood. Spontaneous bleeding Prolonged bleeding ©Photo12/TheImageWorks
  28. 28. “Test-tube” babies are grown in a laboratory dish throughout their 9 month gestation period. Misconception
  29. 29. Oratechsolve Inc. Promoter of Maternal and Neonatal Health Literacy Email: info@oratechsolve.com www.oratechsolve.com

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