October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY                             CRASH COURSE                 ...
The presentation „Design and Construction of Offshore      Wind Farms” by Witold Skrzypiński was given during            C...
Design and Construction               of Offshore Wind Farms                              Witold Skrzypiński              ...
Outline•Design standards and requirements•Wind turbine classes (taking into consideration wind)•Wind turbine layout within...
What to consider when designingwind turbines?                       Standards! (a set of rules or principles that is used ...
StandardsInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)IEC 61400  Class of IEC international standards regarding wind tur...
EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsFatigue – progressive structural damage that occurs   ECD – extreme coherent gu...
EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsFatigue – progressive structural damage that occurs   EWM – extreme wind speed ...
EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsNTM – normal turbulence model     EWM – extreme wind speed model    •Around 400...
Design load examplesEIC 61400-3 DLC specify conditions for:  o Wind  o Waves           Ex. Severe wave height  o Wind and...
How are all these computationscarried out?                        by BEM CodesBlade Element Momentum methodGlauert method ...
Let’s see some results:                (a) Shaft-main-bearing tilt moment                          (b) Shaft-main-bearing ...
Let’s see some results:• Postprocessing of the results may include:  o Extrapolation of extreme events            • 50-yea...
What to consider when buyingwind turbines?                       Choosing                       right turbine ... Taking i...
Wind turbine classesWind turbine classes determine which turbine is suitable for normal wind conditions of a particular si...
Wind turbine layout within a farm• Relatively new subject of research• Until now, most important factors were:  o Aestetic...
Wind turbine layout within a farm  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Wind turbine layout within a farm                                                     P.-E. Rethore et al: TOPFARM:       ...
Wind turbine layout within a farm• Currently an effort is taken to  include more factors in the  optimization procedure:  ...
Foundations – factors to consider• Water depth  o Length of the free-standing column• Wave load  o More load and bending m...
Foundations – water depth                                                     NREL  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University ...
Foundations – different types• Monopile  o 4-8 m diameter steel tube  o Driven into the seabed using a    hydraulic hammer...
Foundations – different types• Gravity Base  o Heavy displacement structure  o Usually made of concrete  o Stands on the s...
Foundations – different types• Tripod  o Single steel tube above the water    surface  o Under water – three-legged    fou...
Foundations – different types• Jacket  o Lattice-type structure  o Low weight  o Large water depths  o Pile sleeves and an...
Foundations – illustrations                                                       Photo: Aarsleff Bilfinger Berger Joint V...
Foundations – illustrationsKurt Thomsen: “Offshore Wind: A Comprehensive Guide to Successful Offshore Wind Farm Installati...
Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE?  • High-altitude wind-energy  • Flying tethered objects that use mechanical systems    to ext...
Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE?   SkySails                                                      SkySails   DTU Wind Energy, T...
Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE?  Makanipower                                                      Makanipower   DTU Wind Ener...
Offshore of tomorrow– HAWE?                                                      Makanipower                              ...
Sources:• Kurt Thomsen: “Offshore Wind: A Comprehensive Guide to  Successful Offshore Wind Farm Installation”• John Twidel...
Thank you for your attention.  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – Design and Construction by Witold Skrzypiński

1,283 views

Published on

The presentation „Design and Construction of Offshore Wind Farms” by Witold Skrzypiński was given during 'Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy' which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk. The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Project part-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.

All presentations given during this event are:

Introduction to offshore wind energy in Poland, Andrzej Tonderski, POMCERT
Offshore wind power meteorology, Alfredo Peña, DTU Wind Energy
Technology status, outlook and economics, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Design and construction of OWF, Witold Skrzypiński, DTU Wind Energy
Environmental impact assessment, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Legal aspects and outlook for Poland. Grid connection, Mariusz Witoński, PTMEW

All of them are available on SlideShare.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – Design and Construction by Witold Skrzypiński

  1. 1. October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY
  2. 2. The presentation „Design and Construction of Offshore Wind Farms” by Witold Skrzypiński was given during Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk. The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Projectpart-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.
  3. 3. Design and Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Witold Skrzypiński DTU Wind Energy (Risø) wisk@dtu.dk Offshore wind crash course 26 October 2012 South Baltic Offshore Energy Regions ProjectDTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  4. 4. Outline•Design standards and requirements•Wind turbine classes (taking into consideration wind)•Wind turbine layout within a farm•Foundations o Factors to consider o Water depth levels o Types•High-altitude wind-energy o Skysails o Makani Wind Power4 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark 26 Oct 2012
  5. 5. What to consider when designingwind turbines? Standards! (a set of rules or principles that is used as a basis for judgement) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  6. 6. StandardsInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)IEC 61400 Class of IEC international standards regarding wind turbinesIEC 61400-1 General design requirements for wind turbinesIEC 61400-2 Design requirements for small wind turbinesIEC 61400-3 Design requirements for offshore wind turbinesIEC 61400-3-2 Design requirements for floating offshore wind turbines DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  7. 7. EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsFatigue – progressive structural damage that occurs ECD – extreme coherent gust with direction changewhen a material is subjected to cyclic loading EWS – extreme wind shearNTM – normal turbulence model EOG – extreme operating gustETM – extreme turbulence model
  8. 8. EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsFatigue – progressive structural damage that occurs EWM – extreme wind speed modelwhen a material is subjected to cyclic loading NWP – normal wind profile modelNTM – normal turbulence model EDC – extreme wind direction changeEOG – extreme operating gust
  9. 9. EIC 61400-1 Examples of design requirementsNTM – normal turbulence model EWM – extreme wind speed model •Around 400 computations to cover design situations 1.1-7.1
  10. 10. Design load examplesEIC 61400-3 DLC specify conditions for: o Wind o Waves  Ex. Severe wave height o Wind and wave directionality  Ex. Unidirectinal or multiderectinal o Sea currents o Water level o Ice  Ex. Horizontal load from moving ice floe
  11. 11. How are all these computationscarried out? by BEM CodesBlade Element Momentum methodGlauert method HAWC2 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  12. 12. Let’s see some results: (a) Shaft-main-bearing tilt moment (b) Shaft-main-bearing side moment 20 20 Max M [kNm]M [kNm] Mean 0 0 Min x y Std -20 -20 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 V [m/s] V [m/s] w ind w ind (c) Shaft-main-bearing torsional moment (d) Blade-root out-of-plane moment 10 20 M [kNm]M [kNm] 0 0 z x -10 -20 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 V [m/s] V [m/s] w ind w ind (e) Blade-root in-plane moment (f) Blade-root torsional moment 10 0.2 [kNm][kNm] DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark 0 0
  13. 13. Let’s see some results:• Postprocessing of the results may include: o Extrapolation of extreme events • 50-year recurrence period • Ex. resulting load in a range twice as large as the maximum in a 10-min simulation o Fatigue analysis • 20-year lifetime• Wind turbine parts most prone to damage: o Tower bottom o Shaft at main bearing o Blade root DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  14. 14. What to consider when buyingwind turbines? Choosing right turbine ... Taking into consideration wind characteristics of a given location DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  15. 15. Wind turbine classesWind turbine classes determine which turbine is suitable for normal wind conditions of a particular site DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  16. 16. Wind turbine layout within a farm• Relatively new subject of research• Until now, most important factors were: o Aestetics o Power production • Incl. losses due to wake of other turbines• Middelgrunden offshore Danish wind farm o Close to the coast of Copenhagen o 20 Bonus B80 2MW wind turbines o 76 m rotor diameter o 64 m hub height DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  17. 17. Wind turbine layout within a farm DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  18. 18. Wind turbine layout within a farm P.-E. Rethore et al: TOPFARM: Multi-fidelity Optimization of Wind Farms DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  19. 19. Wind turbine layout within a farm• Currently an effort is taken to include more factors in the optimization procedure: o Cost of electrical grid o Foundations costs o Fatigue loads• Optimization is a computationaly demanding process.• Effort is taken to perform it as efficiently as possible P.-E. Rethore et al: TOPFARM: Multi-fidelity Optimization of Wind Farms DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  20. 20. Foundations – factors to consider• Water depth o Length of the free-standing column• Wave load o More load and bending moment than from the turbine itself!• Ground conditions o Bearing capacity of the sea bed• Turbine-induced frequencies o Consider combined wave and turbine load DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  21. 21. Foundations – water depth NREL DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  22. 22. Foundations – different types• Monopile o 4-8 m diameter steel tube o Driven into the seabed using a hydraulic hammer o Stands upright because of the friction of the seabed on its sides o Hard to semihard seabed conditions o Water depth up to approximately 25 m http://offshorewind.net DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  23. 23. Foundations – different types• Gravity Base o Heavy displacement structure o Usually made of concrete o Stands on the seabed o 15-25 m diameter base o Semihard to uniform seabed o Shallower water depths o Filled with stones or other ballast o Weight from 1500 to 4500 tons o Seabed must be prepared by dredging and backfilling material http://offshorewind.net DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  24. 24. Foundations – different types• Tripod o Single steel tube above the water surface o Under water – three-legged foundation o Each leg ends in a pile sleeve o From each pile sleeve an anchor pile is driven into the seabed o Great stability o Reliable at depths up to 50 m o Expensive to produce, takes long to install http://offshorewind.net DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  25. 25. Foundations – different types• Jacket o Lattice-type structure o Low weight o Large water depths o Pile sleeves and anchor piles o As expensive as a tripod o Expensive ice protection Deepwater Wind DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  26. 26. Foundations – illustrations Photo: Aarsleff Bilfinger Berger Joint Venture A2SEA DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark BIS
  27. 27. Foundations – illustrationsKurt Thomsen: “Offshore Wind: A Comprehensive Guide to Successful Offshore Wind Farm Installation ” OWEC DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  28. 28. Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE? • High-altitude wind-energy • Flying tethered objects that use mechanical systems to extract energy from wind • Kites, gliders and other prototypes • 200 m to 20 km above the Earth • Deep water up to 700 m • 22 firms develop systems worldwide • GL Garrad Hassan says that the resource at high- altitude is “very promising” • No commercial HAWE wind farm yet DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  29. 29. Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE? SkySails SkySails DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  30. 30. Offshore of tomorrow – HAWE? Makanipower Makanipower DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  31. 31. Offshore of tomorrow– HAWE? Makanipower http://www.makanipower .com/category/flights/ DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  32. 32. Sources:• Kurt Thomsen: “Offshore Wind: A Comprehensive Guide to Successful Offshore Wind Farm Installation”• John Twidell, Gaetano Gaudiosi: “Offshore Wind Power”• Martin O. L. Hansen: “Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines”• http://offshorewind.net• http://www.bluehgroup.com• http://recharge.com• http://www.makanipower.com• http://wikipedia.org Deepwater Wind DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention. DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark

×