5 Factors Affecting LLS Usage

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Assignment Task 7 (TESL) UKM

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5 Factors Affecting LLS Usage

  1. 1. Age does give different outcomes in the language learning strategy usage. For example, a child from the age of a newborn to the age of 12 (until primary school) are proven to use metacognitive strategy rather than other strategy. This study had been done by Purdie and Oliver (1991). A study by White (1993) meanwhile showed that people from the ages of 30 and above used metacognitive self-management strategies more than when they were still in their childhood. Based on these two research, we can conclude that age does matter in LLS usage. Even though the learners still use the same strategy since they were in their childhood until their adulthood, the usage and the proficiency will still make some major difference.
  2. 2. A study by Ehrman and Oxford (1998) shows that females used more strategies than males. Females used their strategies widely, which consist of 4 elements, general strategies, authentic language usage, meaning of communication and self-management activities. But if there were comparison and contrast to be made, we can’t really see a big different between males and females on the usage of their strategy as some studies showed that males can use more strategy than female. According to Tran’s (1990) study in the USA proved that males used more strategy than females in the effort of improving their level of proficiency in English. Nyikos (1990) meanwhile proved that males can be more creative than females in using their strategies.
  3. 3. Yang’s (1990) study shows a positive relationship between motivation and LLS usage. McIntyre and Noels (1996) reported that, those who were constantly motivated, tended to apply more learning strategies and used them more frequently compared to the less motivated learners. Based on the two evidence of researches done by the experts, it is clearly stated that motivation is one of the factor of the LLS usage among learners.
  4. 4. Different person has different learning style. Therefore, it is no doubt that learning style does affect the usage of LLS. This is supported by some studies by experts. (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990) for example showed us thaat learners who prefer to have their own study group are shown to use social and interactive strategies rather than the other strategies to master their language learning. Rossi-Le (1995) supported this statement by showing those learners ho study in groups interact socially and working with their peers to learn language better.
  5. 5. The length of someone or a learner take to learn certain language does affect the LLS usage. This include the experience they gained through their study, which indirectly guide them to which strategy might suit them best. Purdie and Oliver’s (1990) studies showed us in their study, the students who had been studying in Australia for a longer period applied more cognitive strategies and memory strategies. The application of strategies is more towards thinking and memorizing what they have learnt through the period of time. A hypothesis can be made, which is the longer the period of learning, the wider the strategies that the learners will be using. Plus, the more effective the result will be.

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