Age does give different outcomes in the language learning strategy
For example, a child from the age of a newborn to the age of 12
(until primary school) are proven to use metacognitive strategy
rather than other strategy. This study had been done by Purdie and
A study by White (1993) meanwhile showed that people from the
ages of 30 and above used metacognitive self-management
strategies more than when they were still in their childhood.
Based on these two research, we can conclude that age does matter
in LLS usage. Even though the learners still use the same strategy
since they were in their childhood until their adulthood, the usage
and the proficiency will still make some major difference.
A study by Ehrman and Oxford (1998) shows that females used
more strategies than males.
Females used their strategies widely, which consist of 4 elements,
general strategies, authentic language usage, meaning of
communication and self-management activities.
But if there were comparison and contrast to be made, we can’t
really see a big different between males and females on the usage
of their strategy as some studies showed that males can use more
strategy than female.
According to Tran’s (1990) study in the USA proved that males used
more strategy than females in the effort of improving their level of
proficiency in English.
Nyikos (1990) meanwhile proved that males can be more creative
than females in using their strategies.
Yang’s (1990) study shows a positive relationship between
motivation and LLS usage.
McIntyre and Noels (1996) reported that, those who were
constantly motivated, tended to apply more learning
strategies and used them more frequently compared to the
less motivated learners.
Based on the two evidence of researches done by the
experts, it is clearly stated that motivation is one of the
factor of the LLS usage among learners.
Different person has different learning style.
Therefore, it is no doubt that learning style does affect
the usage of LLS. This is supported by some studies by
(Ehrman and Oxford, 1990) for example showed us
thaat learners who prefer to have their own study
group are shown to use social and interactive
strategies rather than the other strategies to master
their language learning.
Rossi-Le (1995) supported this statement by showing
those learners ho study in groups interact socially and
working with their peers to learn language better.
The length of someone or a learner take to learn
certain language does affect the LLS usage.
This include the experience they gained through
their study, which indirectly guide them to which
strategy might suit them best.
Purdie and Oliver’s (1990) studies showed us in
their study, the students who had been studying in
Australia for a longer period applied more
cognitive strategies and memory strategies.
The application of strategies is more towards
thinking and memorizing what they have learnt
through the period of time.
A hypothesis can be made, which is the longer the
period of learning, the wider the strategies that
the learners will be using. Plus, the more effective
the result will be.