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  3. 3. motivation Motivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directedbehaviors. For students,they look at the teachers as the motivator to them. When receive teachers motivation, the students will be more inspire andbelieve that they can do it and not look hard at the language learning. Teachers encourage students to seek opportunities in their lives that willhelp in learning the language.
  4. 4.  There are many specific actions teacher can use to motivate the students.In general,these are the two categories..(Huitt, 2001) Intrinsic * Explain or show why learning a particular content or skill is important * Create and/or maintain curiosity * Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations * Provide games and simulations * Set goals for learning * Relate learning to student needs * Help student develop plan of action Extrinsic * Provide clear expectations * Give corrective feedback * Provide valuable rewards * Make rewards available
  5. 5.  Learners also need self-motivation and need passion in that language. Be honest with yourself and youll find your motivation Motivation is the thing that cause you to take action and apply commitmentand effort needed to do something. The work conducted by Gardner in the area of motivation was largelyinfluenced by Mowrer (1950, cited in Larson-Freeman and Long 1994),whose focus was on first language acquisition. Mowrer proposed that achilds success when learning a first language could be attributed to thedesire to gain identity within the family unit and then the wider languagecommunity.
  6. 6. AGE
  7. 7.  Some people said that younger children can adapt to 2nd language if theyare immersed in the culture that speaks it. But older learners are not thatbad. According to researches done on the topic, given the same amount of input,adults can proceed to learn a new language faster than children. However, is that children learning a second language usually end up havingmore time to invest in their learning. Unlike their dads or moms the impression that they learn at a more impressive pace than olderindividuals. The general consensus in language research is that:1. Adults learn a second language much better than children.2. Older children learn a second language better than younger children.3. The earlier one starts in second language learning, the more fluent theybecome. the third one can be the most telling. While people can acquire a newlanguage at any age, its usually the ones who start young that end up withproficiency comparable to native speakers. Those starting as adults dodemonstrate an edge in the beginning, but its those who start younger thatdevelop higher levels of mastery down the lineArticle Source:
  8. 8. GENDER
  9. 9.  A number of studies reported significantly more use of learning strategies thantheir male counterparts (e.g. Goh & Kwah, 1997; Green & Oxford, 1995; Gu2002). These studies postulated that female students used Compensation andAffective strategies more frequently than male ones. Some studies designate that males used learning strategies more than femaleswhen learning a language (Tran, 1988; Wharton, 2000). In terms of gender difference, the finding showed that males used a greaternumber of strategies significantly more often than females. Other studies pointed out that gender might not be one of key variablesaffecting the choices of language learning strategies. For example, Griffiths(2003) investigated the relationship between course level and frequency oflanguage learning strategies used by 114 male students and 234 females.Employing the 50-item SILL, a significant relationship between strategy use andcourse level was found and there was no statistically significant differencesaccording to either gender or age with strategy use. Congruent with Griffiths’ findings, Ma (1999) revealing that gender had nosignificant effect on the choices of such strategies. More studies are needed to verify the role of gender in determininglearning strategies since there was many differences in results fromthe past studies.
  11. 11.  An understanding of other cultures and a sensitivity to these issues mayenhance the learning process by fostering a positive attitude in the learner(Willing, 1988). Issues such as dress code, religious events, female or male teachers/trainers,responsibility for family and previous classroom experience, may all impact on alearner’s ability to attend class, to concentrate, to complete homework and toparticipate in activities. Craig (2001) suggests that language and culture as Intermeshed so wherelearners are from a language other than English background it is important forthe teacher/trainer to address the issue of culture in the practices of theclassroom. This may be as simple as acknowledging that different cultural or ethnic groupsmay value different text types and writing styles. Learning a second language can be affected by the patterns of the firstlanguage. This is referred to as linguistic interference. There can be someblending of phonemes. For instance, most Americans who learn French in high school or collegepronounce French words with a distinctive American accent. Grammar can alsobe affected. English speakers who learn both French and Spanish sometimescombine grammatical rules of both when speaking either of them. Linguisticinterference can also be a problem in learning and using another dialect of alanguage you already know.
  13. 13.  Everyone learns at different rates and in different ways and it is very difficult toseparate innate ability from environmental factors. McCormack and Pancini(1990) suggest that teachers “need to debunk the idea that intelligence is a fixedattribute of a person”. They argue that “intelligence is an attribute of actions, notof people. In relation in 2nd language learning Lightbown & Spada (1999) have found thatit seems that intelligence is important in learning language analysis and rules. Intelligence : - The ability to meet and adapt to novel situations quickly and effectively. - The ability to utilize abstract concepts effectively. - The ability to grasp relationship and to learn quickly. The great intelligence give more progress to the learning process.
  14. 14. -The End-