Obesity is a widespread phenomenon. It has doubled since 1980. In 2008 more than 1.4 billion adults (>20y) were overweight Definition: abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
Obesity is based on the BMI or Body Mass Index Overweight is a Body Mass Index greater than or equal to 25, a Body Mass Index greater than or equal to 30 is obesity.
The 2009 results of the German Federal Statistics Office: Every second German is overweight Every sixth is actually obese.
Health implications are enormous ◦ Higher risk to develop a multitude of comorbidities Type2 diabetes mellitus Coronary heart disease Some cancer types
Most people consume more calories than they burn. Eating too much and exercising too little. Many other factors
Age: ◦ As you get older, your body’s ability to metabolize food slows down. Gender: ◦ Men have a higher resting metabolic rate. Genetics: ◦ Obesity related genes could affect how we metabolise food or store fat. ◦ Not destined to be obese, you have a higher risk.
Environmental factors: ◦ Closely related to nutrition an physical activity. Physical activity: ◦ Active individuals require more calories than less active ones to maintain their weight. Illness: ◦ Hormone problems may slow down metabolism
Medication Psychological factors: ◦ Many people eat in response to negative emotions.
InitiativesTo lower the obesity rate in Germany
The government: ◦ 2007: shocking study showed the severity of the obesity problem in Germany ◦ 2008: German Government developed 21 initiatives to improve living in Germany => Initiative 14 concerns obesity
14a Health and nutrition Living more healthily for longer Premature mortality (cases of death per 100,000 residents under 65) men Reduction to 190 cases per 100,000 by 2015 14b Premature mortality (cases of death per 100,000 residents under 65) women Reduction to 115 cases per 100,000 by 2015 14c Proportion of adolescents who smoke (12- to 17-year-olds) Decrease to under 12% by 2015 14d Proportion of adults who smoke (15 years and older) Decrease to under 22% by 2015 14e Proportion of obese people (adults, 18 and older) Reduction by 2020
2008 -> 2020 = 12 years to reduce the obesity rate in Germany 30 000 000 Euros
List of initiatives Education on healthy eating and physical activity; Tougher standards on school food programs; Better product labeling by the food industry; Reduced advertising by the makers of sweets and junk food that target children;
CANCER ◦ Hormone related cancers such as breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix and testicles ◦ Also : pancreas, colon, rectum, kidney
GALLSTONES ◦ 3 to 5 times more often than in non-obese people (especially women) ◦ Often painless ◦ Can cause gallstone attacks, acute inflammation of the gall and of the pancreas
HIATUS HERNIA AND INFLAMMATION OF THE OESOPHAGUS LUNG FUNCTION – RESPIRATORY DISEASE ◦ Asthma : obesity increases risk by 50 % ◦ Obstructive sleep apnea : 50 % – 75 % are obese MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS ◦ Arthritis : knee and hip ◦ Obese patients account for one-third of all joint replacement operations ◦ Lower back pain, lower limb pain
REPRODUCTION ◦ Women PCOS Increased risk of early and late miscarriage Gestational diabetes Preeclampsia Complications during labor and delivery Slightly increased chance of bearing a child with congenital anomalies Correlation between increasing BMI and problems with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction
◦ Men BMI > 35 -> low sperm count and poor sperm motility Erectile dysfunction increases with increasing BMI