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Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016
65
Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion
temperature O/W nanoemulsions
1*
D. Kaviani; 2
M. Koonani; 2
M. Saghi;2
M. H. Bigtan
1
Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
ABSTRACT
Objective(s): Nanoemulsions are a kind of emulsions that can be transparent, translucent (size range 50-200 nm) or
“milky” (up to 500 nm). Nanoemulsions are adequatly effective for transfer of active component through skin which
facilitate the entrance of the active component . The transparent nature of the system and lack of the thickener and
fluidity are among advantages of nanoemulsion.
Materials and Methods: In this study, a nanoemulsion of lemon oil in water was prepared by the phase inversion
temperature (PIT) emulsification method in which the tween 40 was used as surfactant. The effect of concentration of
NaCl in aqueous phase, pH and weight percent of surfactant and aqueous on the PIT and droplet size were investigated.
Results: The results showed that with increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0.05 M to 1 M, PIT decrease from 72
to 50. The average droplet sizes, for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M of NaCl in 25 ºC are 497.3, 308.1 and 189.9 nm, respectively and
the polydispersity indexes are 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively.
Conclusion: Considering the characteristics of nanoemulsions such as being transparent, endurance of solution and
droplet size can provide suitable reaction environment for polymerization process used in making hygienic and medical
materials.
Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Phase inversion temperature, Surfactant
Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016
DOI: 10.7508/nmj.2016.01.008
*Corresponding Author Email: davood.kaviani@gmail.com
Tel: (+98) 9350640578
Note. This manuscript was submitted on August 27, 2015;
approved on November 5, 2015
Received; 27 August 2015 Accepted; 5 November 2015
INTRODUCTION
Nanoemulsions are those emulsions having nano-
scale droplets (often in the range of 50-500 nm) [1-3]
which fall into the 5-200 nm transparent or semi-
transparent range and they are milky opalescent up to
500 nm [4-5]. Unlike the micro-emulsions which are
transparent and thermodynamically stable,
nanoemulsions are synthetically stable. However,
longstanding physical stability of nanoemulsions
(without coagulation or accumulation of droplets) has
made them as seamless such that some researchers
considers them similar to thermodynamic stability
[6-8]. Nanoemulsions have various industrial
applications; for example they have been used to make
the reaction medium for polymerization and to make
cosmetic ingredients and health materials and
chemicals used in the agriculture [9]. Due to presence
on non-equilibrium systems, external energy requires
to form the nanoemulsions [10-11]. Two main methods
to prepare nanoemulsions are the dispersion or high-
energy methods and condensation or low-energy
methods. In dispersion or high-energy methods, the
input energy was supplied by high power agitators
along with ultrasonic homogenizers. However, in order
to prepare the small droplets size nanoemulsions, much
energy is needed. This preparation method is not
possible for industrial application. Condensation or
low-energy methods utilizes the resulted phase
transitions during emulsification process due to
changing the spontaneous curvature of the surfactant.
This change of curvature could be done through two
ways: The composition has been held constant while
the temperature changes (the Phase Inversion
Temperature method (PIT)) or the temperature has been
held constant and the composition has been changed
(Emulsion Inversion Point method (EIP)). Preparations
of the non-ionic surfactants-stabilized nanoemulsions
have been extensively reported through dispersion and
condensation methods. In low-energy methods for oil-
in-water nanoemulsions (O/W), the required change of
curvature for preparing the nanoemulsions is possible
ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER
Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016
66
D. Kaviani et al.
through three methods. Firstly through changing the
hydration grade of polyoxyethylene chains in non-ionic
polyoxyethylene surfactants, secondly through
changing the temperature (PIT method) and thirdly
through changing the water content (EIP) [12-14]. PIT
is determined through several methods. First method
is a visual method in which the emulsion is watery and
diluted above inversion temperature whereas the
emulsion is white, concentrated and turbid below that
temperature.
The second method is carried out by conductometry.
The third method is done by pH. The pH is unstable
above inversion temperature but it is completely fixed
below that temperature. In fact, we measure the oil pH
above inversion temperature and in order to measure
the pH, we must have ionic force and conductivity
while the oil does not have any of them [10]. In this
paper, lime oil-in-water nanoemulsions were prepared
by the PIT procedure. Tween 40 was utilized as
surfactant and the effective parameters such as NaCl
concentration in aqueous phase, pH and weight
percentage of the surfactant and aqueous phase were
studied on the particles size and PIT [15-18].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Tween 40 as surfactant and the required NaCl salt
were purchased from Merck company. Lime oil as oil
phase and double-distilled water were used for
preparation of NaCl aqueous solutions. In order to
study the effect of changing concentration on the PIT,
the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance temperature was
determined using electric conduction procedure by
conductometer. Emulsions with of 20% (W/V) oil, 7.5%
(W/V) surfactant and 72.5% (W/V) NaCl solution were
prepared in various concentrations and through hand
shaking at room temperature. Emulsions were gradually
heated and the conduction were measured as function
of temperature. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance
temperature (HLB) wasconsidered as average maximum
temperature and minimum conduction was determined
as PIT. In order to study the effect of changing weight
percentage of surfactant and electrolyte solution on
the PIT, NaCl (0.8 M) solution was prepared while
weight percentage of oil was held fixed at 20% (W/V
with varying weight percentage of surfactant and
electrolyte solution (Table 1). Having prepared all of
emulsions, the conduction was measured as function
of temperature.
Emulsification by the PIT method
In order to prepare the oil-in-water nanoemulsions,
initially the oil phase comprising the surfactant and
aqueous phase comprising the various concentrations
of NaCl were separately heated up to 15 ! above the
PIT. Then, the aqueous phase was poured into the oil
phase in that temperature and the mixture was removed
from heating source and cooled down to PIT
temperature through hand shaking. Then, the sample
was cooled through being placed in the ice bath below
20 o
C while hand shaking.
Finally, droplet size of the selected samples and their
dispersion index were measured by nano-ZS device.
The transmittance percentage of prepared
nanoemulsions were measured by the
spectrophotometer UV-Vis (Model UV-1600) until use.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Phase inversion temperature values for
nanoemulsions comprising 20% (W/V) oil, 7.5% (WV)
surfactant and 72.5% (W/V) NaCl solution with 0.5,
0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 M concentration were obtained
by conductometry measurements. HLB temperature or
PIT were considered as average maximum temperature
and minimum condition.
The results of conductometry for concentration
changes have been shown in Figure 1 and the results
of PIT have been listed in Table 2.
According to Table 2, gradual decrease in PIT from 72
to 50 was observed when the concentration of NaCl
solution increased from 0.05 to 1 M.
Increasing the concentration of electrolyte causes to
electrically prevent the water and increase the internal
pressure of the solution. So water and non-ionic
surfactant interaction was weaken and the nonionic
surfactant become more lipophilic due to rise of
electrolyte concentration. According to Table 3, it is
Table 1. Surfactant and electrolyte percentages in samples
(Weight percentage of oil was held fixed on 20%)
Sample Surfactant (%) NaCl (%)
1 5 75
2 7.5 72.5
3 10 70
4 12.5 67.5
5 15 65
6 17.5 62.5
Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016
67
evident that in the pH range from 5 to 7, PIT temperature
ismaximum.
As shown in Table 4, it could be suggested that
significant changes in PIT temperature was not
generated while changing the weight percentage.
PIT in emulsions exactly reflects on changing HLB of
emulsifiers due to additives which provide clear
information about the effect of quantity and types of
additives.
Table 2. PIT temperatures in the various concentration of NaCl
NaCl
concentrations in
aqueous phase
(M)
0.05 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.8 1
PIT (°C) 72 59 58 54 52 50
Table 3. PIT temperatures in the various pHs
pH 3 4 5 7 8 9
PIT (°C) 65 67 72 71 70 60
Table 4. PIT temperatures in the various weight percentages
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6
PIT (°C) 69 52 81 82 78 73
Various processes of emulsification based on the PIT
emulsification were studied to identify the most
effective way for studied systems.
One process which produced more transparent
nanoemulsions with highest transmittance was
emulsification at 15 o
C above the PIT which has been
shown in Table 2 for those systems with various
concentrations of NaCl in aqueous phase and
consequently cooling down the emulsion until PIT
temperature and immediate cooling down it below 20o
C
(Table 5).
The resulted emulsions have transparent and semi-
transparent appearance and the droplets size were in
the range of nanoemulsions (Figure 2).
Fig. 2. The prepared nanoemulsions (right : nanoemulsions
with NaCl 0.1) M and left: nanoemulsions with NaCl 0.5 M
Fig. 3. The chart of nano-ZS for a sample of nanoemulsion
(weight percentage: 20% oil, 7.5% surfactant and 72.5% NaCl
1 M
Fig. 1. The conduction chart by temperature related to
nanoemulsions having various concentrations of NaCl
Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016
68
Effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions
CONCLUSION
In this paper, lime oil nanoemulsions were prepared
in water using PIT method. Tween 40 was used as the
surfactant and the effect of major parameters in the
aqueous phase including pH and weight percentage
of surfactant and aqueous phase were studied on the
PIT and particle size. The results showed that average
particle size for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M NaCl equal to 497.3,
308.1 and 189.9 nm in 25o
C, respectively and dispersion
index of 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively. The
prepared nanoemulsions could be considered as
suitable reaction medium for polymerization of
cosmetics and pharmaceuticals according to
transparency, solution stability and droplet size.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Authors would like to thank Islamic Azad
University, Arak branch for all supports.
REFERENCES
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37 18.6% 1.2% 8.5% 3% 0.9%
50 14.7% 1% 6.4% 6.5% 0.8%
How to cite this article:
Kaviani D, Koonani M, Saghi M, Bigtan M.H. Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature (PIT) O/W
nanoemulsions. Nanomed. J., 2016; 3(1): 65-68.
DOI:10.7508/nmj.2016.01.008
URL: http://nmj.mums.ac.ir/article_6198_888.html
[7] Sole I, Maestro A, Pey CM, Gonzalez C, Solans C, Gutierrez
JM. Nano-emulsions preparation by low energy methods
in an ionic surfactant system. Colloids Surf., A:
Physicochem Eng Aspects. 2006; 288(1-3): 138-143.
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nanoemulsions. In proceeding of first Emulsion
conference, Paris, France. EDS: Paris. 1993; 1: Paper
No. 1-1-163.
[9] Ee SL, Duan X, Liew J, Nguyen QD. Droplet size and
stability of nano-emulsions produced by the temperature
phase inversion method. Chem Eng J. 2008; 140(1-3):
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[10] Anton N, Gayet P, Benoit JP, Saulnier P. Nano-emulsions
and nanocapsules by the PIT method: An investigation
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for Beverages. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;
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development–a food industry perspective. Trends Food
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[15] Tan CP, Nakajima M. β-Carotene nanodispersions:
preparation, characterization and stability evaluation
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Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions

  • 1. Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016 65 Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions 1* D. Kaviani; 2 M. Koonani; 2 M. Saghi;2 M. H. Bigtan 1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran 2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran ABSTRACT Objective(s): Nanoemulsions are a kind of emulsions that can be transparent, translucent (size range 50-200 nm) or “milky” (up to 500 nm). Nanoemulsions are adequatly effective for transfer of active component through skin which facilitate the entrance of the active component . The transparent nature of the system and lack of the thickener and fluidity are among advantages of nanoemulsion. Materials and Methods: In this study, a nanoemulsion of lemon oil in water was prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification method in which the tween 40 was used as surfactant. The effect of concentration of NaCl in aqueous phase, pH and weight percent of surfactant and aqueous on the PIT and droplet size were investigated. Results: The results showed that with increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0.05 M to 1 M, PIT decrease from 72 to 50. The average droplet sizes, for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M of NaCl in 25 ºC are 497.3, 308.1 and 189.9 nm, respectively and the polydispersity indexes are 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the characteristics of nanoemulsions such as being transparent, endurance of solution and droplet size can provide suitable reaction environment for polymerization process used in making hygienic and medical materials. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Phase inversion temperature, Surfactant Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016 DOI: 10.7508/nmj.2016.01.008 *Corresponding Author Email: davood.kaviani@gmail.com Tel: (+98) 9350640578 Note. This manuscript was submitted on August 27, 2015; approved on November 5, 2015 Received; 27 August 2015 Accepted; 5 November 2015 INTRODUCTION Nanoemulsions are those emulsions having nano- scale droplets (often in the range of 50-500 nm) [1-3] which fall into the 5-200 nm transparent or semi- transparent range and they are milky opalescent up to 500 nm [4-5]. Unlike the micro-emulsions which are transparent and thermodynamically stable, nanoemulsions are synthetically stable. However, longstanding physical stability of nanoemulsions (without coagulation or accumulation of droplets) has made them as seamless such that some researchers considers them similar to thermodynamic stability [6-8]. Nanoemulsions have various industrial applications; for example they have been used to make the reaction medium for polymerization and to make cosmetic ingredients and health materials and chemicals used in the agriculture [9]. Due to presence on non-equilibrium systems, external energy requires to form the nanoemulsions [10-11]. Two main methods to prepare nanoemulsions are the dispersion or high- energy methods and condensation or low-energy methods. In dispersion or high-energy methods, the input energy was supplied by high power agitators along with ultrasonic homogenizers. However, in order to prepare the small droplets size nanoemulsions, much energy is needed. This preparation method is not possible for industrial application. Condensation or low-energy methods utilizes the resulted phase transitions during emulsification process due to changing the spontaneous curvature of the surfactant. This change of curvature could be done through two ways: The composition has been held constant while the temperature changes (the Phase Inversion Temperature method (PIT)) or the temperature has been held constant and the composition has been changed (Emulsion Inversion Point method (EIP)). Preparations of the non-ionic surfactants-stabilized nanoemulsions have been extensively reported through dispersion and condensation methods. In low-energy methods for oil- in-water nanoemulsions (O/W), the required change of curvature for preparing the nanoemulsions is possible ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER
  • 2. Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016 66 D. Kaviani et al. through three methods. Firstly through changing the hydration grade of polyoxyethylene chains in non-ionic polyoxyethylene surfactants, secondly through changing the temperature (PIT method) and thirdly through changing the water content (EIP) [12-14]. PIT is determined through several methods. First method is a visual method in which the emulsion is watery and diluted above inversion temperature whereas the emulsion is white, concentrated and turbid below that temperature. The second method is carried out by conductometry. The third method is done by pH. The pH is unstable above inversion temperature but it is completely fixed below that temperature. In fact, we measure the oil pH above inversion temperature and in order to measure the pH, we must have ionic force and conductivity while the oil does not have any of them [10]. In this paper, lime oil-in-water nanoemulsions were prepared by the PIT procedure. Tween 40 was utilized as surfactant and the effective parameters such as NaCl concentration in aqueous phase, pH and weight percentage of the surfactant and aqueous phase were studied on the particles size and PIT [15-18]. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tween 40 as surfactant and the required NaCl salt were purchased from Merck company. Lime oil as oil phase and double-distilled water were used for preparation of NaCl aqueous solutions. In order to study the effect of changing concentration on the PIT, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance temperature was determined using electric conduction procedure by conductometer. Emulsions with of 20% (W/V) oil, 7.5% (W/V) surfactant and 72.5% (W/V) NaCl solution were prepared in various concentrations and through hand shaking at room temperature. Emulsions were gradually heated and the conduction were measured as function of temperature. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance temperature (HLB) wasconsidered as average maximum temperature and minimum conduction was determined as PIT. In order to study the effect of changing weight percentage of surfactant and electrolyte solution on the PIT, NaCl (0.8 M) solution was prepared while weight percentage of oil was held fixed at 20% (W/V with varying weight percentage of surfactant and electrolyte solution (Table 1). Having prepared all of emulsions, the conduction was measured as function of temperature. Emulsification by the PIT method In order to prepare the oil-in-water nanoemulsions, initially the oil phase comprising the surfactant and aqueous phase comprising the various concentrations of NaCl were separately heated up to 15 ! above the PIT. Then, the aqueous phase was poured into the oil phase in that temperature and the mixture was removed from heating source and cooled down to PIT temperature through hand shaking. Then, the sample was cooled through being placed in the ice bath below 20 o C while hand shaking. Finally, droplet size of the selected samples and their dispersion index were measured by nano-ZS device. The transmittance percentage of prepared nanoemulsions were measured by the spectrophotometer UV-Vis (Model UV-1600) until use. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Phase inversion temperature values for nanoemulsions comprising 20% (W/V) oil, 7.5% (WV) surfactant and 72.5% (W/V) NaCl solution with 0.5, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 M concentration were obtained by conductometry measurements. HLB temperature or PIT were considered as average maximum temperature and minimum condition. The results of conductometry for concentration changes have been shown in Figure 1 and the results of PIT have been listed in Table 2. According to Table 2, gradual decrease in PIT from 72 to 50 was observed when the concentration of NaCl solution increased from 0.05 to 1 M. Increasing the concentration of electrolyte causes to electrically prevent the water and increase the internal pressure of the solution. So water and non-ionic surfactant interaction was weaken and the nonionic surfactant become more lipophilic due to rise of electrolyte concentration. According to Table 3, it is Table 1. Surfactant and electrolyte percentages in samples (Weight percentage of oil was held fixed on 20%) Sample Surfactant (%) NaCl (%) 1 5 75 2 7.5 72.5 3 10 70 4 12.5 67.5 5 15 65 6 17.5 62.5
  • 3. Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016 67 evident that in the pH range from 5 to 7, PIT temperature ismaximum. As shown in Table 4, it could be suggested that significant changes in PIT temperature was not generated while changing the weight percentage. PIT in emulsions exactly reflects on changing HLB of emulsifiers due to additives which provide clear information about the effect of quantity and types of additives. Table 2. PIT temperatures in the various concentration of NaCl NaCl concentrations in aqueous phase (M) 0.05 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.8 1 PIT (°C) 72 59 58 54 52 50 Table 3. PIT temperatures in the various pHs pH 3 4 5 7 8 9 PIT (°C) 65 67 72 71 70 60 Table 4. PIT temperatures in the various weight percentages Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 PIT (°C) 69 52 81 82 78 73 Various processes of emulsification based on the PIT emulsification were studied to identify the most effective way for studied systems. One process which produced more transparent nanoemulsions with highest transmittance was emulsification at 15 o C above the PIT which has been shown in Table 2 for those systems with various concentrations of NaCl in aqueous phase and consequently cooling down the emulsion until PIT temperature and immediate cooling down it below 20o C (Table 5). The resulted emulsions have transparent and semi- transparent appearance and the droplets size were in the range of nanoemulsions (Figure 2). Fig. 2. The prepared nanoemulsions (right : nanoemulsions with NaCl 0.1) M and left: nanoemulsions with NaCl 0.5 M Fig. 3. The chart of nano-ZS for a sample of nanoemulsion (weight percentage: 20% oil, 7.5% surfactant and 72.5% NaCl 1 M Fig. 1. The conduction chart by temperature related to nanoemulsions having various concentrations of NaCl
  • 4. Nanomed. J., 3(1): 65-68, Winter 2016 68 Effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions CONCLUSION In this paper, lime oil nanoemulsions were prepared in water using PIT method. Tween 40 was used as the surfactant and the effect of major parameters in the aqueous phase including pH and weight percentage of surfactant and aqueous phase were studied on the PIT and particle size. The results showed that average particle size for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M NaCl equal to 497.3, 308.1 and 189.9 nm in 25o C, respectively and dispersion index of 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively. The prepared nanoemulsions could be considered as suitable reaction medium for polymerization of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals according to transparency, solution stability and droplet size. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors would like to thank Islamic Azad University, Arak branch for all supports. REFERENCES [1] Ugelstad J, El-Aasser MS, and Vanderhoff JW. Emulsion polymerization: Initiation of polymerization in monomer droplets. J. Polym. Sci., Part C: Polym Lett. 1973; 11(8): 503 -513. [2] El-Aasser MS, Lack CD, Choi YT, Min TI, Vanderhoff JW, Fowkes, FM. Interfacial aspects of miniemulsions and miniemulsion polymers Colloid Surface. 1984; 12: 79-97. [3] El-Aasser MS, Lack CD, Vanderhoff JW, Fowkes F. The miniemulsification process-different form of spontaneous emulsification Colloid Surface. 1988; 29: 103-118. [4] El-Aasser MS, Miller CM. Preparation of latexes using miniemulsions. In: Asua JM, ed., Polymeric Dispersions: Principles and Applications. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1997; 335: 109-126. [5] Lovell PA, El-Aasser MS, Eds. Emulsion Polymerization and Emulsion Polymers. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester UK. 1997. [6] Solans C, Kunieda H. Industrial Applications of Microemulsions. Marcel Dekker, Inc Surfactant science series. New York 1997; 66: 406 pages. Table 5. Transmittance percentages at different temperatures and concentrations T(0 C) Concentration (M) 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.8 1 14 19.5% 0.9% 7.3% 2.8% 0.6% 19 16.7% 0.8% 5.4% 2.1% 0.5% 34 20.1% 1.2% 9.5% 3.8% 0.9% 37 18.6% 1.2% 8.5% 3% 0.9% 50 14.7% 1% 6.4% 6.5% 0.8% How to cite this article: Kaviani D, Koonani M, Saghi M, Bigtan M.H. Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature (PIT) O/W nanoemulsions. Nanomed. J., 2016; 3(1): 65-68. DOI:10.7508/nmj.2016.01.008 URL: http://nmj.mums.ac.ir/article_6198_888.html [7] Sole I, Maestro A, Pey CM, Gonzalez C, Solans C, Gutierrez JM. Nano-emulsions preparation by low energy methods in an ionic surfactant system. Colloids Surf., A: Physicochem Eng Aspects. 2006; 288(1-3): 138-143. [8] Nakajima H, Tomomasa S, Okabe M. Preparation of nanoemulsions. In proceeding of first Emulsion conference, Paris, France. EDS: Paris. 1993; 1: Paper No. 1-1-163. [9] Ee SL, Duan X, Liew J, Nguyen QD. Droplet size and stability of nano-emulsions produced by the temperature phase inversion method. Chem Eng J. 2008; 140(1-3): 626-631. [10] Anton N, Gayet P, Benoit JP, Saulnier P. Nano-emulsions and nanocapsules by the PIT method: An investigation on the role of the temperature cycling on the emulsion phase inversion. Int. J. Pharm. 2007; 344(1-2): 44-52. [11] E Dickinson. Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocolloids. 2009; 23(6): 1473–1482. [12] Cheong JN, Tan CP, Che Man YB, Misran M. α- Tocopherol nanodispersions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation. J Food Eng. 2008; 89(2): 204–209. [13] Peter S, Given JR. Encapsulation of Flavors in Emulsions for Beverages. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2009; 14(1): 43–47. [14] Sanguansri P, Augustin MA. Nanoscale materials development–a food industry perspective. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2006; 17(10): 547–556. [15] Tan CP, Nakajima M. β-Carotene nanodispersions: preparation, characterization and stability evaluation Food Chem. 2005; 92(4): 661–671. [16] Ugwoke MI, Agu RU, Verbeke N, Kinget R. Nasal Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Background, Applications, Trends, and Future Perspectives. Adv Drug Delivery Rev. 2005; 57(11): 1640- 1665. [17] Pardridge WM. Non-Invasive Drug Delivery to Human Brain Using Endogenous Blood Brain Barrier Transport System. Pharm. Sci Technol Today. 1999; 2(2): 49-59. [18] Asprion N, Blagov S, Ryll O, Welke R, Winterfeld A, Dittel A, Bortz M, Kufer KH, Burger J, Scheithauer A, Hasse H. Decision support for process development in the chemical industry. Chem Eng Trans. 2011; 24: 301- 306.