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  1. 1. Portions ©2005 -2007 GAPPS. Used with permission. ©2004 -8009 Project Management Partners 2005- 2004- Presented by 114 Waltham Street, Suite 14 • Lexington, MA 02421 USA voice: +1-781-861-0124 • fax: +1-781-674-94745.2 •
  2. 2. What Hats Do I Wear?Project Management Partners — consultant and trainerGAPPS — standards writer for the Global Alliance for Project Performance Standardsasapm — in charge of certification for the American Society for the Advancement of Project Management 2
  3. 3. Presentation OverviewWhy assess your project managers?What is “competence”?What is a performance‐based competency standard (PBCS)?How can you use a PBCS to develop your project managers? 3
  4. 4. Why Assess YourProject Managers? Development Recognition 4
  5. 5. What is“competence”? 5
  6. 6. What Is Competence?The ability to perform the activities of  an occupation or function to the  standard expected in employment. Heywood, Gonczi, and Hager [1992] A Guide to the Development of Competency  Standards for the Professions 6
  7. 7. … continuedCompetence is an intangible construct that cannot be observed directly.Competence must be inferred: Attribute‐based inference — of attitudes,  skills, and knowledge (ASK) Performance‐based inference — of outcomes  or results in the workplace 7
  8. 8. Attributes Are Unreliable Predictors … “These results clearly indicate that there is no direct relationship between how well project managers perform  against standards for knowledge and use of  practices, and how well they are perceived to  perform by their supervisors.” [emphasis added]KnowledgeAssessment IJPM, Crawford et al., 2005 8
  9. 9. … So Performance-Based Inference Is PreferredWell understood by Human Resource professionals.Widely used for over 20 years outside of project management.Used in most governmentalcompetence assessment systems.Can be used for development or assessment. 9
  10. 10. What is a performance- based competencystandard (PBCS)? 10
  11. 11. GAPPS standard developed per ANSI/ISO guidelines: Exposure draft issued July 2005 Initial version issued September 2006 Technical update issued October 2007Available for free download at: 11
  12. 12. The GAPPS PBCS Defines …The role of the project manager —expected results and outcomes.The work of the project manager — in terms of units and elements of competence.Criteria — for inferring competence. 12
  13. 13. The Role of the Project Manager“Project managers are expected to produce essentially the same results — outputs and outcomes that are acceptable to relevant stakeholders. However, the context in which these results are produced may differ: some projects are inherently harder to manage than others. A project manager who is competent to manage an easier, less complex project may not be competent to manage a harder, more complex project.” GAPPS Framework, 2007 13
  14. 14. C.I.F.T.E.R. Crawford-Ishikura Factor Ratings Table for Evaluating Roles VL L M H VH 1. Stability of context 4 3 2 1 2. Number of methods 1 2 3 4 3. L/S/E implications 1 2 3 4Factors 4. Financial impact 1 2 3 4 5. Strategic importance 1 2 3 4 6. Stakeholder cohesion 4 3 2 1 7. Interfaces 1 2 3 4 14
  15. 15. Sum of Ratings Defines Three “Roles”Transitional project manager — low project management complexity (0‐11); project management role is less than full‐timeProject manager — moderate project management complexity (12‐18); project manager usually works full‐time on one projectSenior project manager — high management complexity (19+); project manager almost always works full‐time on one project and may have deputy 15
  16. 16. PM Complexity Factor #1Stability of the overall project context. The project context includes the project life‐cycle, the stakeholders, the degree to which the applicable methods and approaches are known, and the wider socioeconomic environment. When the project context is unstable — phase deliverables are poorly defined, scope changes are frequent and significant, team members are coming and going, applicable laws and regulations are being modified — the project management challenge increases.Note: some aspects of “technical complexity” such as dealing with unproven concepts would be considered here. Uncertainty in the economic or political environment would be considered here. 16
  17. 17. Project Management Complexity Factors1. Stability of the overall project context.2. Number of disciplines and methods.3. Legal, social, or environmental  implications.4. Overall expected financial impact.5. Strategic importance of the project.6. Stakeholder cohesion.7. Number and variety of interfaces. Full descriptions in standard 17
  18. 18. Design New Website Rating = 13, Project Manager VL L M H VH1. Stability of context 4 3 2 12. Number of methods 1 2 3 43. L/S/E implications 1 2 3 44. Financial impact on SH 1 2 3 45. Strategic importance 1 2 3 46. Stakeholder cohesion 4 3 2 17. No./variety of interfaces 1 2 3 4 18
  19. 19. The Work of theProject Manager 19
  20. 20. Five Core Units of Competence1. Manage Stakeholder Relationships2. Manage Development of the Plan for the  Project3. Manage Project Progress4. Manage Product Acceptance5. Manage Project Transitions 20
  21. 21. No Need to Change PM Practices!The GAPPS framework is independent of the management process: No specific tools, methods, approaches, or  techniques are identified or required. No specific or pre‐defined documents must  be produced as evidence.Approaches and techniques can be taken from existing standards and other sources. 21
  22. 22. 1. Manage Stakeholder Relationships Ensure that stakeholder interests are Elements of Competence identified and addressed. Promote effective individual and team  performance. Manage stakeholder communications. Facilitate external stakeholder participation. 22
  23. 23. 2. Manage Development of the Plan for the Project Define the work of the project.Elements of Competence Ensure the plan for the project  reflects relevant legal  requirements. Document risks and risk  responses for the project. Confirm project success criteria. Develop and integrate project  baselines. 23
  24. 24. 3. Manage Project Progress Monitor, evaluate, and control project Elements of Competence performance. Monitor risks to the project. Reflect on practice. 24
  25. 25. 4. Manage Product Acceptance Ensure that the product of the project is Elements of Competence defined. Ensure that changes to the product of the  project are monitored and controlled. Secure acceptance of the product of the project. 25
  26. 26. 5. Manage Project Transitions Manage project start‐up.Elements of Competence Manage transition between project phases. Manage project closure. 26
  27. 27. How can you usea PBCS to develop your project managers? 27
  28. 28. Check AgainstPerformance CriteriaPerformance criteria describe observable results and actions from which competent performance can be inferred: Some can be satisfied easily and with  relatively little effort. Some will require a substantial commitment  from the project manager over the full length  of the project. 28
  29. 29. One Element, Three Criteria Element Ensure that changes to the product of the  project are monitored and controlled. Variances from agreed product characteristics  are identified and addressed.Performance Requests for changes to the product of the  Criteria project are documented, evaluated, and  addressed in accordance with the change  control processes for the project. Approved product changes are implemented. 29
  30. 30. Do You HaveDocumentary Evidence?Meeting minutes?Correspondence?Change control register?Change request log?Change requests?  30
  31. 31. Can You Answer These Questions?How did you maintain agreement as the project progressed?What was the impact of the changes to the project when they were implemented?Were these changes reflected in the project plan?How did you communicate the changes to the stakeholders? 31
  32. 32. Assess YourselfPick a recently completed project and ask yourself: What documents would I  use for evidence? How would I answer each  of the questions? 32
  33. 33. Thanks for listening!Any questions? 33