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6. operationalization of variables

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6. operationalization of variables

  1. 1. Operationalization of Variables 1
  2. 2. Operational Definition of Variables Operational Definition of a variable is a statement of specific dimensions and elements through which a concept will become measurable 2
  3. 3. Operationalizing the concept of Achievement Motivation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Driven by Work No relaxation or deviation from work Prefer to work alone Prefer challenging jobs but not too much challenging jobs Prefer feedback from superiors and colleagues 3
  4. 4. Should be quantifiable N ow 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E 5
  6. 6. Elements of Dimension 1 Driven By Work Such a person will: Be at work all the time Be reluctant to take time off from work Carry on even in the face of some setbacks Ask questions about: No. of working hours No. of setbacks 6
  7. 7. Elements of Dimension 2 Unable to Relax Such a person will: Be unwilling to relax Ask questions: What are your hobbies? How often do you think about work when you are away from work? How do you spend your time when you are away from work-place? 7
  8. 8. Elements of Dimension 3 Impatient with ineffectiveness Such a person will: Be reluctant to work with others Ask questions about: Working with teams 8
  9. 9. Elements of Dimension 4 Seeks moderate challenges Such a person will: Be willing to do a challenging job Ask questions: What kind of jobs do you prefer? (Note: A number of different types of jobs and their descriptions can be presented) 9
  10. 10. Elements of Dimension 5 Seeks Feedback Such a person will: Be desiring feedback Ask questions: How often have you obtained feedback over the period of last three months? 10
  11. 11. What an operational definition is Not An operational definition does not describe the correlates of the concepts e-g, Success and performance cannot be a dimension of achievement motivation, even though a motivated person is likely to meet with it in large measure. Thus achievement motivation & performance and/or success maybe highly correlated, but we cannot measure an individual’s level of motivation through success & performance 11
  12. 12. RACE DISCRIMINATION? 12
  13. 13. Dimensions of Race Discrimination Performance Evaluations Nature of job the individual is assigned Extent of Authority given to the individual How the supervisor treats the individual The amount of job related information provided Allocation of resources Salary Promotional opportunities 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Race Discrimination? 15
  16. 16. I believe my race has (or has not) had an influence on:  The types of jobs assigned to me (e.g. harder, dirtier, etc…)  The amount of authority I am given (i.e. not enough)  My performance evaluation (e.g. being rated more critically than others)  Salary inequalities  The amount of training that has been provided to me (not as much as to some of the other specific races in the system)  The extent of grooming I have had for advancing in the job  Amount of resources allocated to me (compared to those of other races)  The way I am treated by my supervisor  The amount of job related information provided to me 16
  17. 17. LEARNING? 17
  18. 18. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E 18
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