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  1. 1. Chapter 3Ancient India and China 2600 B.C.- 550 A.D.
  2. 2. Section 1- Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan Geography  Subcontinent- a large landmass that juts out from a continent  India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal Bhutan  Mountains- Hindu Kush and Himalayas  Three zones- Gangetic Plain, Deccan plateau and the coastal plains  Monsoons- seasonal winds • October- blow from northeast • June- blow from southwest
  3. 3. Indus Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro  Well planned cities  3 miles in circumference  Well planned plumbing systems  Farmers and traders  Contact with Sumer  Writing is not related to Cuneiform  Polytheistic  Veneration for buffalo and bull  Sacred Cow
  4. 4. Decline 1900 B.C. Cities abandoned No more writing Crude pottery Flood? Earthquake? Attack?
  5. 5. Aryan Civilization 2000 B.C.-1500 B.C. the Aryans migrated into India from southern Russia Most of what we know about them comes from the Vedas  The Vedas are a collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and other religious teachings  1500-500 B.C. called the Vedic Age
  6. 6. From Nomads to Farming The Aryans mixed with the people they conquered Learned how to farm from them Developed iron axes and weapons Rulers called Rajahs  Depended on a council of elders  Fought with other rajahs
  7. 7. Societal Structure People divided into groups depending on their occupation  1. Brahmins- priests  2. Kshatriyas- warriors  3. Vaisyas- herders, farmers, artisans and merchants  4. Sudras- people with little or no Aryan blood. Included farmers, servants and laborers. Lowest place in society.
  8. 8. Religious Beliefs Polytheistic Gods and goddesses embodied natural forces Chief god was Indra, god of war Brahmins offered sacrifices or food and drink to the gods for their good favor Brahman- a single spiritual power that exists in everything Mystics- people who seek direct communion with divine forces
  9. 9. Epic Literature Written in Sanskrit Mahabharata and the Ramayana Inside the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad- Gita Dharma- devotion to one’s duty
  10. 10. Hinduism(quiz material starts here)
  11. 11. Characteristics of Hinduism Very complex Countless gods and goddesses “God is one, but wise people know it by many names.” All god and goddesses are a part of the brahman and make it more tangible  Brahma- creator  Vishnu- preserver  Shiva- destroyer
  12. 12. Sacred Texts Vedas  Upanishads- one section of the Vedas that deals with mystical questions  Who is the Knower? What makes my mind think? Does life have a purpose, or is it governed by chance? What is the cause of the Cosmos?  – Upanishads
  13. 13. Bhagavad-Gita “song of the divine one” Told by Krishna- and avatar of Vishnu Concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a guide to life
  14. 14. Achieving Moksha Atman- essential self Moksha- uniting with brahman Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul into another bodily form Karma- actions in this life that affect your fate in the next life All existence is ranked, humans are closest to brahman  Live a good life, create good karma, reborn into a higher existence  Live a bad life, create bad karma, suffer at a lower level of existence
  15. 15. Achieving Moksha continued… Dharma- religious and moral duty of an individual Ahimsa- non-violence
  16. 16. Jainism Mahavira develops Jainism around 500 B.C. Rejected the authority of Brahmin priests Emphasized meditation, self-denial, and extreme forms of ahimsa
  17. 17. Buddhism
  18. 18. Buddhism Spreads Beyond India Buddhist monasteries become centers of learning Spreads to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Korea, Japan
  19. 19. Dalai Lama Tibetan Buddhism Called Gelug Buddhism
  20. 20. Tripitaka “Three Baskets of Wisdom”  Basket of Discipline- rules for monastic life  Basket of Discourse- contains sermons and discussion of ethics and doctrine attributed to the Buddha or his disciples  Basket of Special Doctrine- additional doctrine  All contain legends and other narratives as well Total canon of Theravada Buddhism Preliminary body of teachings for Mahayana Buddhism
  21. 21. Mahayana Buddhism Easier for ordinary people to follow Picture the Buddha and other holy beings as compassionate gods Afterlife filled with many heavens and hells Spread to China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan
  22. 22. Theravada Buddhism Follows Buddha’s original teachings Life devoted to hard spiritual work Only monks and nuns could hope to achieve nirvana Spread to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia