Chapter 3Ancient India and China 2600 B.C.- 550 A.D.
Section 1- Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan Geography Subcontinent- a large landmass that juts out from a continent India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal Bhutan Mountains- Hindu Kush and Himalayas Three zones- Gangetic Plain, Deccan plateau and the coastal plains Monsoons- seasonal winds • October- blow from northeast • June- blow from southwest
Indus Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Well planned cities 3 miles in circumference Well planned plumbing systems Farmers and traders Contact with Sumer Writing is not related to Cuneiform Polytheistic Veneration for buffalo and bull Sacred Cow
Decline 1900 B.C. Cities abandoned No more writing Crude pottery Flood? Earthquake? Attack?
Aryan Civilization 2000 B.C.-1500 B.C. the Aryans migrated into India from southern Russia Most of what we know about them comes from the Vedas The Vedas are a collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and other religious teachings 1500-500 B.C. called the Vedic Age
From Nomads to Farming The Aryans mixed with the people they conquered Learned how to farm from them Developed iron axes and weapons Rulers called Rajahs Depended on a council of elders Fought with other rajahs
Societal Structure People divided into groups depending on their occupation 1. Brahmins- priests 2. Kshatriyas- warriors 3. Vaisyas- herders, farmers, artisans and merchants 4. Sudras- people with little or no Aryan blood. Included farmers, servants and laborers. Lowest place in society.
Religious Beliefs Polytheistic Gods and goddesses embodied natural forces Chief god was Indra, god of war Brahmins offered sacrifices or food and drink to the gods for their good favor Brahman- a single spiritual power that exists in everything Mystics- people who seek direct communion with divine forces
Epic Literature Written in Sanskrit Mahabharata and the Ramayana Inside the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad- Gita Dharma- devotion to one’s duty
Characteristics of Hinduism Very complex Countless gods and goddesses “God is one, but wise people know it by many names.” All god and goddesses are a part of the brahman and make it more tangible Brahma- creator Vishnu- preserver Shiva- destroyer
Sacred Texts Vedas Upanishads- one section of the Vedas that deals with mystical questions Who is the Knower? What makes my mind think? Does life have a purpose, or is it governed by chance? What is the cause of the Cosmos? – Upanishads
Bhagavad-Gita “song of the divine one” Told by Krishna- and avatar of Vishnu Concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a guide to life
Achieving Moksha Atman- essential self Moksha- uniting with brahman Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul into another bodily form Karma- actions in this life that affect your fate in the next life All existence is ranked, humans are closest to brahman Live a good life, create good karma, reborn into a higher existence Live a bad life, create bad karma, suffer at a lower level of existence
Achieving Moksha continued… Dharma- religious and moral duty of an individual Ahimsa- non-violence
Jainism Mahavira develops Jainism around 500 B.C. Rejected the authority of Brahmin priests Emphasized meditation, self-denial, and extreme forms of ahimsa
Buddhism Spreads Beyond India Buddhist monasteries become centers of learning Spreads to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Korea, Japan
Dalai Lama Tibetan Buddhism Called Gelug Buddhism
Tripitaka “Three Baskets of Wisdom” Basket of Discipline- rules for monastic life Basket of Discourse- contains sermons and discussion of ethics and doctrine attributed to the Buddha or his disciples Basket of Special Doctrine- additional doctrine All contain legends and other narratives as well Total canon of Theravada Buddhism Preliminary body of teachings for Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism Easier for ordinary people to follow Picture the Buddha and other holy beings as compassionate gods Afterlife filled with many heavens and hells Spread to China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan
Theravada Buddhism Follows Buddha’s original teachings Life devoted to hard spiritual work Only monks and nuns could hope to achieve nirvana Spread to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia