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South Asia Presentation

  1. 1. Geography of South Asia
  2. 2. Subcontinent <ul><li>Piece of Gondwanaland drifted northward & collided with Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the Himalaya (impact) & South Asia (land) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated from the rest of Asia by mountains and water </li></ul><ul><li>Subcontinent: large land mass smaller than a continent </li></ul>
  3. 3. Northern Mountains <ul><li>Himalaya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include many of the world’s highest peaks (Mt. Everest, K2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise to the Tibetan Plateau, a high, rugged, arid plain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindu Kush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also very high and rugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Kush” means “death” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu refers to “people” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together they form a nearly impenetrable border around the north of South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Passess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khyber Pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolan Pass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountain Valleys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very important for farming and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich soil from erosion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Northern Plains <ul><li>Indo-Gangetic Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just south of the northern mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile land broken up by Thar desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to three important rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ganges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmaputra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thar Desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large arid region marked by sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks up Indo-Gangetic Plain </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Three Rivers <ul><li>Indus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs through the middle of Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main river of the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to the Harappan (Indus) civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ganges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holiest river in the world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins in the Himalaya (ice cave?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms ½ the delta in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brahmaputra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the other ½ of the delta in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings nutrients and irrigation to the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>floods </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Deccan Plateau <ul><li>Peninsula of South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>About ½ the subcontinent </li></ul><ul><li>High, fertile plain lined by mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vindya Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate the Deccan Plain from the Indo-Gangetic plain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool myth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>East and west </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-lying mountains line the coasts of the Deccan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Climate <ul><li>Monsoon Winds dominate the climate of South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>People depend on them for survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Dry Monsoon Wet Monsoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter (December – May) Summer (June – October) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. People <ul><li>India is home to 1/5 the world’s population (1.1 billion people) </li></ul><ul><li>Many different cultures, languages, beliefs, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ancient South Asia
  10. 10. Indus Valley Civilization <ul><li>2500 – 1500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Very little known about them due to recent discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro two major cities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Government <ul><li>City-States? </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Government across the region? </li></ul><ul><li>Kings? </li></ul><ul><li>Equality? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Economy <ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive irrigation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, barley, dates, vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern India </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Religion <ul><li>Indications of polytheism, fertility goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Pool instead of temple? </li></ul><ul><li>Remnants found in Hinduism? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Achievements <ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>City planning </li></ul><ul><li>Sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reason for Decline <ul><li>Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion? </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake? </li></ul><ul><li>River Migration? </li></ul><ul><li>Drought? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Two Theories <ul><li>There are two main theories to explain the similarities that exist between European and South Asian cultures and languages </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-India: Ancient Harappans migrated out of South Asia, taking their languages and beliefs with them and spreading them to those cultures in the Middle East and Europe with whom they traded </li></ul><ul><li>In-to-India: The ancient Indo-Aryans migrated from Central Asia into South Asia and Europe, bringing their language and beliefs with them </li></ul><ul><li>Either way, there are some striking similarities in ancient South Asian and European cultures </li></ul>
  17. 17. Aryan Invasions? <ul><li>1500 – 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Vedic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Europeans might have migrated south through Persia and Afghanistan and into South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>They would have Come through mountain passes in the Hindu-Kush and settled throughout the subcontinent </li></ul><ul><li>They would have integrated the Harappans & Dravidians or pushed them south </li></ul><ul><li>These early battles might be related in the Vedic Texts </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aryan Society <ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Valued Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal </li></ul><ul><li>Racist? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Aryan Social Structure Varna: 4 Social Classes Below the social ladder Pariahs Slaves Unclean Sudras Unskilled Laborers, Servants Vaisyas Merchants, Artisans, Farmers Kshatriyas Warriors, Rulers Brahmins Priests
  20. 20. Varna vs. Caste <ul><li>Caste much more complex than Varna </li></ul><ul><li>Caste originated with social structure, but now a part of religious belief </li></ul><ul><li>Different caste are literally different people </li></ul><ul><li>Based on religious purity </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hinduism <ul><li>The term Hindu was traditionally used by outsiders to describe the people of South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Now it has come to describe their “religion” </li></ul><ul><li>Actually many different and sometimes opposing views </li></ul><ul><li>A “Hindu” is someone who accepts the authority of the Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hinduism” is the largest religion in India today </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Vedas <ul><li>The Vedas are ancient books of Aryan poetry, songs, hymns, myths, stories, etc. that focus on gods, religion, and history. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Vedas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rig Veda (oldest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sama Veda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yajur Veda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atharva Veda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Veda has four layers of text </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Vedas <ul><li>Each Veda has four layers of text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samhitas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original verses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmanas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commentary by Brahmins on keeping cosmic balance (purity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aranyakas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upanishads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hinduism <ul><li>No founder </li></ul><ul><li>No church </li></ul><ul><li>No savior </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism began with the beliefs of the Aryan people and the Harappans and mixed as the two cultures collided. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism is one of the oldest of the world religions of today, originating well before the Vedas were written down. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism is incredibly tolerant of other religions, often incorporating their beliefs and practices to at least some degree. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Monotheistic? <ul><li>According to Hinduism, everything that exists is a part of a single supreme force. Nothing exists separate from this force. It is called: </li></ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul>
  26. 26. Polytheistic? <ul><li>Since Brahman is too hard for human minds to understand, Hindus focus on aspects of Brahman which are incorporated into: </li></ul><ul><li>many gods </li></ul>
  27. 27. Three Main Gods of Hinduism <ul><li>Brahma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation god </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vishnu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserver god </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shiva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyer god </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are only three of literally thousands of gods. Different sects worship different gods in different ways. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hindu Beliefs <ul><li>Atman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every person has this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ soul” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same thing as Brahman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single unifying force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moksha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reunification of Atman and Bahman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of Hinduism </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hindu Beliefs <ul><li>Karma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every deed affects a person’s fate in this and future lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dharma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s duties and obligations in life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A result of Karma and Dharma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Samsara </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The endless cycle of rebirths a person must endure before achieving Moksha </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Reincarnation <ul><li>Hindus believe that a person’s Atman is reborn over and over again until all the lessons of life are learned. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hindu Beliefs <ul><li>Hindus want to achieve good Karma by fulfilling their Dharma and observing Caste so that they can reunite their Atman with Brahman in order to break free of Samsara. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hindu Paths <ul><li>Hindus believe that there is more than one path to Moksha. </li></ul><ul><li>Some combine these, others focus solely on one path. </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing one’s efforts it is hoped that true awareness may be achieved. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Devotion <ul><li>Most common path </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer & devotion to a personal deity </li></ul>
  34. 34. Karma <ul><li>Doing good works to better society </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic </li></ul>
  35. 35. Knowledge <ul><li>Study & understanding of scriptures (Vedas) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a personal teacher (Guru) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Yoga <ul><li>Discipline of the mind and body </li></ul><ul><li>Not just the Yoga made popular today by Madonna, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Hindu Quote <ul><li>The essential self or the vital self essence in humans is the same as that in an ant, the same as that in a gnat, the same as that in an elephant…indeed, the same as that in the whole universe.” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hindu Quote <ul><li>“ There is but one truth, though the wise perceive it in many ways.” </li></ul>
  39. 39. Jainism <ul><li>In the early 500s BC a Kshatriya named Mahavira became a monk and taught a offered simpler form of belief with four main principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not steal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own no property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jains practice an extreme form of ahimsa (nonviolence) that requires them to injure no living thing </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Buddhism <ul><li>By 500 BC there was growing opposition to Brahmin rule </li></ul><ul><li>Several reformers grew prominent during this time </li></ul><ul><li>One was Siddhartha Gautama, who “founded” Buddhism </li></ul>
  41. 41. Buddha’s Life <ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>Tour of the City </li></ul><ul><li>Great Departure </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings </li></ul>
  42. 42. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>Everyone Suffers </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering is Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone Can End Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>That End is Found Using the Eightfold Path </li></ul>
  43. 43. Eightfold Path <ul><li>Right View </li></ul><ul><li>Right Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Right Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Right Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Right Livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Right Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Right Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Right Meditation </li></ul>
  44. 44. Buddhist Stories <ul><li>The emperor asked Master Gudo, “What happens to a man of enlightenment after death?” “How should I know?” replied Gudo. “Because you are a master,” answered the emperor. “Yes sir,” said Gudo, “but not a dead one.” </li></ul>
  45. 45. Buddhist Stories <ul><li>“ What is the highest truth of the holy Buddhist doctrine?” the emperor inquired. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vast emptiness...and not a trace of holiness,” the master replied. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If there is no holiness,” the emperor said, “then what are you?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do not know,” the master replied. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Empires of South Asia
  47. 47. Mauryan Empire <ul><li>In the 320s BC Chandragupta Maurya conquered northern India using mercenary soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Built an army of more than 600,000 soldiers plus spies, war elephants, and chariots </li></ul><ul><li>Known as a fierce ruler until he converted to Jainism and surrendered his crown to his son to become a monk </li></ul><ul><li>In 270 Asoka, </li></ul><ul><li>Chandragupta’s grandson, </li></ul><ul><li>became king </li></ul><ul><li>Asoka conquered nearly all of </li></ul><ul><li>the subcontinent waging </li></ul><ul><li>brutal wars </li></ul><ul><li>He converted to Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>and dedicated the rest of his </li></ul><ul><li>life spreading his religion and </li></ul><ul><li>improving people’s lives </li></ul><ul><li>throughout India </li></ul><ul><li>After Asoka’s death in 233 the </li></ul><ul><li>Empire slowly fell apart into small, </li></ul><ul><li>feudal kingdoms </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Around 320 AD, Chandra Gupta (he stole the name of a past hero, have you heard of him?) conquered the Indo-Gangetic Plain and started the Gupta dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus, the Gupta reinvigorated their religion’s hold on the people, although they were tolerant of its offshoots </li></ul><ul><li>The Guptas eventually fell to the invading Huns in the late 400s </li></ul>Gupta Empire
  49. 49. Mughal Empire <ul><li>Islamic groups began to invade South Asia as early as 600 AD </li></ul><ul><li>An Islamic Empire established in 1526 by Babur </li></ul><ul><li>Babur’s grandson, Akbar, known for his tolerance of diverse beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>In 1648 Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The British (along with other European powers) wanted to trade with and colonize India after rounding the southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted access to tea, spices, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Began colonizing the subcontinent in the 1600s and gained control of the area in the 1800s through the East India Company, a front for the British government </li></ul><ul><li>The British government took direct control after a bloody rebellion in 1857 </li></ul>British Empire
  51. 51. Independence and Division <ul><li>Beginning in the 1920s, Mohandas Gandhi (the Mahatma) led a series of nonviolent protests against British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Britain agreed to give India its independence, but partitioned to subcontinent into two countries, India and Pakistan, in order to avoid civil war between Hindus and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Open violence broke out anyway, and Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu radical </li></ul>
  52. 52. Independence <ul><li>Sri Lanka and Maldives gained independence later </li></ul><ul><li>East Pakistan became Bangladesh after a civil war in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>India and Pakistan continue to fight over their border today </li></ul>
  53. 53. South Asia Today
  54. 54. India <ul><li>India is the second most populous nation in the world, with more than I billion people (it has doubled since 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>India has some of the most heavily populated cities in the world, with 3 cities of over 10 million inhabitants and 8 cities with over 5 million </li></ul><ul><li>India is ruled by a stable, parliamentary democracy modeled after that of Great Britain (largest democracy in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>India’s economy is growing rapidly (it is one of the top 5 GDPs in the world) with a large technology sector </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Indians live in poverty (per capita GDP is only $3,100) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Pakistan <ul><li>Pakistan has suffered from a series of rebellions and assassinations </li></ul><ul><li>Currently under the control of a military dictator, though elections are beginning to take place </li></ul><ul><li>Officially an ally of the United States, Pakistan continues to fight with India over the region of Kashmir and has little to no control over its border with Afghanistan, where the Taliban has its base of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan has successfully tested nuclear weapons </li></ul>
  56. 56. Bangladesh <ul><li>About the same size as Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the land in Bangladesh is at or just above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>½ the population of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>One of the world’s most densely populated nations with an average of 2,734 people per mile 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding is rampant </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004 25 people were left homeless from floods </li></ul>
  57. 57. Sri Lanka <ul><li>Two major ethnic groups, the Tamil and Sinhalese, both descended from India </li></ul><ul><li>Constant warfare between these two groups </li></ul><ul><li>The Tamil (minority) are fighting for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lankans produce many consumables for outside industries, as well as tea and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka is still trying to recover from the Tsunami of 2004 </li></ul>
  58. 58. Maldives <ul><li>A small island nation southwest of India </li></ul><ul><li>Most of its money is derived from tourism or fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Garment industry is growing </li></ul>
  59. 59. Nepal <ul><li>Ruled by a king </li></ul><ul><li>One of the world’s least developed nations </li></ul><ul><li>The population has doubled in the past 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and farming have caused damage to the fragile, highland environment </li></ul>
  60. 60. Bhutan <ul><li>Ruled by a king </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly controlled tourism industry with virtually no immigration allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly inhabited by rural farmers </li></ul>
  61. 61. Afghanistan <ul><li>Afghanistan was invaded by the Soviet Union in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-1990s a radical Muslim group, the Taliban , took over </li></ul><ul><li>After September 11, 2001, attacks, U.S. and British forces attacked Taliban and al Qaeda targets and defeated the Taliban </li></ul><ul><li>The new government has a new constitution, new voting regulations, and includes women. </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan is still occupied by the US </li></ul><ul><li>The Taliban and al Qaeda are still fighting in Afghanistan </li></ul>
  62. 62. The “Stans” <ul><li>Central Asia is comprised of several relatively new nations that have broken away from the former Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>The “Stans” are home </li></ul><ul><li>to many ethnic </li></ul><ul><li>groups living in an </li></ul><ul><li>incredibly harsh </li></ul><ul><li>landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Several of these nations are home to huge reserves of oil </li></ul><ul><li>The suffix “stan” means “land” </li></ul>