World’s 7th largest country located in
India and Bharat are both official names.
Derives from Indus river used by Greek.
India civilization grew up in the Indus
Valley 4000 to 2500 BC.
1. Himalayan Mountain system on the north
2. Northern plain drained by the Indus, Ganges
and Brahmaputra rivers in North Central India.
3. Peninsular India in the South.
The earliest Indians may have migrated from
Australia and Pacific Islands.
Language: more than 200 languages are spoken
1. Indo-Arab – branch of the Indo-European group
(the major linguistic family in Europe).
2. Dravidian language group
3. Hindi – the fourth most widely spoken language
in the world
4. Indo-Aryan language.
1. Hinduism – adherent to
the proscription against
violence toward living
things can escape from
the cycle of rebirth and
the doctrine also form a
basis for vegetarian.
2. Jainism – Non-violence is a core religious
duty and followed so strictly that the most
Orthodox devotes cover their faces with mask
to prevent accidentally harming insect.
3. Buddhism – non-violence is manifest in
the Buddha’s emphasis on compassion and is
also part of the faith’s moral codes.
4. Sikhism - a monotheistic religion, and the
basic Sikh belief is represented in the phrase
Ik Onkar meaning “One God”.
- was founded in the Punjab region
in India in the 15th century by Guru Nanak
1. Brahmins - priests, the highest caste
2. Kshatriyas – warriors and kings
3. Vaishyas – merchants
4. Shudras – manual labourers
Dalits or untouchables – they have traditionally
been tasked with work such as cleaning streets and
working with human and animal corpses and waste.
They are also known as Harijans.
Born in Pobandan India on October 2, 1869
His father was a chief minister.
Their family came from traditional caste of grocers and
They are under the Vaishyas system or group.
His mother was a devout adherent Jainism
He married by arrangement at 13
He went to London to study law when he was 18.
He fought to improve the status of the lowest classes of
society, the untouchables, whom he called Harijans.
– holy text
Ramayana –two great
Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Jayashankar
Prasad – introduced the black verse in sonnet into
Aranucala Kavi – developed a utilitarian prose
Madhusudan Dutt – wrote the 1st plays modeled
on Western Drama.
Sir Rabindranath Tagore - introduces the short
story to vernacular writing in India
Iqbal – major poets of the period
1. The Vedic period
2. Sanskrit period
o The Rig Veda – sacred hymns
o The Yajur Veda – knowledge and melodies
o The Sama Veda – sacrifice
o The Atharva Veda – magic spells and other folk
o The Mahabharata
o Bhagavad gita
o Nala and
o The Ramayana
The toy clay cart
Sakuntala or The Fatal Ring
Looks like an elephant
also known as
recognizable as the
He is the god of
wisdom and learning
the creator god in the
Trimurti of Hinduism.
He has four faces.
Brahma is also known as
Vāgīśa (Lord of Speech),
and the creator of the
four Vedas, one from
each of his mouths
Reincarnation – belief that the soul repeatedly
goes through a cycle of being born into a body,
dying, being reborn again in a new body.
Karma – a force that determines the quality of
each life, depending on how well one behaved in a
Hinduism says we create karma by our actions on
earth. If we live a good life, you create good
karma. If you live a bad life, you create bad
Each time a Hindu soul is born into a better
life, it has the opportunity to improve itself
further, and get closer to ultimate
The ones who reach this state no longer
struggle with the cycle of life and death.
The way to get Moksha is that do not create
Vedas – collections of Sanskrit hymns
Upanishads - inner or mystic teaching
that were passed down from guru
(teacher) to disciple (student).
Mahabharata, Sanskrit for Great story , is
one of the great epic poems of ancient India.
The story is about the battle of one family
over a kingdom in northern India.
The Bhagavad Gita (Song of God) –
contained in the Mahabharata. It is a
dialouge between Krishna and the hero
Arjuna on the meaning of life.
Ramayana was written in 3rd century, and
tells a story of Rama, and his wife, Sita.
Rama and Sita are generally seen as ideal
examples of great manly heroism and
Hinduism is about the sort of life one should lead
in order to be born into a better life next time and
ultimately achieve liberation.
4 Legitimate goals in life:
1. Dharma (appropriate living)
2. Artha (the pursuit of material gain by lawful
3. Kama ( delight of the senses)
4. Moksha ( release from rebirth)
4 Daily duties:
1. Revere deities
2. Respect ancestors
3. Respect all beings
4. Honor all humankind